Skip to main content

Full text of "The Naval chronicle"

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on Hbrary shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/| 



•f 



• t 






I 

i 



\ 



I AT'. 



. / 



THE W^Mj CH1R©MC]L1E. 



FROM JULY to JA^TUARY, 
M D C C C 1. 



_ mirU^a aguoiv ^laeat. 



CcUeettugut ^gat nabef, tolrmgut rtducit/ 
Ol<^do^! 



TO 
THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 

GEORGE JOHN EARL SPENCER, 

VISCOUNT ALTHORPE, 

MEMBER OF HIS MAJESTY'S MOST HONOURABLE 

PRIVY COUNCIL 

KNIGHT OF THE MOST NOBLE ORDER OF THE GARTER 
AN ELDER BROTHER OF THE TRINITY HOUSE 

AND FIRST COMMISSIONER FOR EXECUTING THE 
OFFICE OF LORD HIGH ADMIRAL OP 
GREAT BRITAIN, 

See* Sec. Sec. 

m 

COMMENCED UNDER HIS AUSPICES, 
CONTINUES, BY HIS PERMISSION, 
TO BE INSCRIBED, 
WITH THE MOST GRATEFUL RESPECT. 



PREFACE 

TO THE FOURTH VOLUME. 



It is s^d to have been remarked by a late cele- 
brated critic and writer^ Dr. Samuel Johnson, that if 
' an Author took care to introduce his book by an 
elegant and entertaining Preface, it was not, nine- 
teen times in twenty, of much consequence to him 
how the body of the work was executed. — ^Although 
there may be some truth in this observation with re- 
spect to literary works in general, yet the Editor of a 
periodical publication Is totally precluded from this 
advantage. On tbe other hand, be claims one which 
is more useful to him perhaps, for he considers him- 
self in general answerable only for a careful arrange- 
ment, and the sele^ion of such materials a$ he 
thinks may prove most interesting, for tbe merit of 
which be is principally indebted to the labours of hi« 
frieods, and not bis owp. 



iV PRBPAC&. 

Ading on the necessary principle just mentioned, 
it has ever been the leading feature of the Naval 
Chronicle to record with fidelity every passing 
Naval Event, 'and to intersperse these with such re- 
marks and collections or fugitive pieces on Naval 

_ • _ 

Subje(5ls as are thought most worthy to be preserved 
from oblivion. 

Of the Biographical Memoirs, which occupy so 
considerable a part of the ensuing Work, as it were on 

4 

one han4 the height of arrogance to expeft praise on 
account of their compilation, so on the other, the 
fidelity and impartiality with which, it is trusted, 
they are domposed, may, it is hoped, entitle the ar- 
ranger to the satisfaAion of learning, that the feveral 
circumstances have been colledlcd with no inconsi- 
derable care and attention. 

To avoid flattery, and to represent facfts literally. as 
they occur, should be the first objedls of a biogra- 
pher's care ; and if he is conscious to himself he merits 
no reproach from a neglecSl »f those points, he may rest 
in tolerable ease as to any other species of censure. 

The influx of temporary matter has caused the ne* 
cessary postponement of some articles in the follow- 
ing colleftion, which It is hoped may be considered 
useful, instrudive, and entertaining. ' I'he lUustra- 



PREPACfi. V 

tions of Naval Tallies, drawn from the consideration 
of a6hial events, together with those of Naval History, 
have only been interrupted, and not relinquibhcd. 
The subjeds will be resumed, the instant a cessation 
of more immediately interesting matter shall render the 
measure advisable and proper. 

The Editor and Proprietors would consider them- 
selves as guilty of the blackest ingratitude, were they 
not to acknowledge, with the warmest sensations, the 
various and very interesting communications that they 
hare received from their numerous friends. Conscious 
of having paid every attention in their power to the 
assistance they have received, they rest satisfied, with- 
out vanity or arrogance, in the expe6lation of a conti- 
nuance of that favour and support which they have 
already experienced ; for they trust, they shall never 
forfeit that esteem and rank which they have the 
vanity to suppose they now hold in Ibc opinion of 
their friends, by any alteration in the condudl which 
has hitherto been so liberally received and so hand- • 
somely rewarded. 



. « 



PLAT£6 IN THIS VOLUME. 

A Vignette Titl£« from a Design bjr Mr. Wbstall> repre- 
senting Britannia, supported by the TrUeutt standing firm, 
amid surrounding Storms, engravra by Heath. 

Plate XXXVI> Portrait of the Kight Hon. EarPof St. Vin- 
cent. Engraved by Ri D l e Y, from a Painting bj 
J. F. Abbot, Esq. . • s 

XXXVII. Representation of the Adion off Cape St. ' 
Vincent, the 14th of February 1797, between the 
British and Spanish Fleets 47 

XXXVIII. Portrait of the Right Hon. Lord Viscount 
Duncan. Engraved by Rioley> from a Painting 

by J. S. Copley, R. A • • . Ii 

XXXIX. Representation of the A6lion off Camper- 
down, between the English and Dutch Fleets, on 
the nth of Ofkober 1797, Engraved by Dood, itS 

XL. Portrait of the Hon. Samuel Barrington, Admi- 
ral of the White Squadron, and General of Marines. 
Engraved by Ridley, from a Painting by J. S, 
C0PLEY» R. A 16^ 

XLI. Representation of the Situation of the William 
Tell French Man of War, on the Morning of her 
Capture, in her Endeavour to escape from Malta. 
Bngraved by Dodd - . a3S 

XLII. Portrait of Sir Erasmus Gower, Knt. Rear* 
Admiral of the White. Engraved by Ridley^ 
from a Painting by Lxversay *S7 

XLIIT. View of the French Fleet, under Count 
D^Estaine, bearing down on the English Fleets 
commanded by Rear- Admiral BaiTington, at 
Anchor across the Mouth of the Bay of the Grand 
Cul de Sacy St . L u ci a, December 1 7S S . Engraved 
by DoDD S97 

XLIV. Portrait of Sir Thomas Pasley* Bart. Vice- 
Admiral of the Red Squadron. Engraved by 
Roberts, from a. Painting by J. F. Abbot, Esq. 350 

XLV. View of Gibraltar. The Portnit of a Bomb- 
Ketch on the old ConstruAion, with the Fleet of 
Admiral Sir George Rooke standing into the Bay. 
Engraved by Ellis, from a Drawing by Mr. Po- 

COCK 380 

XLVl. Portrait of Sir Sidney Smith, Grand Cross of 
the Royal Military Swediih Order of the Sword, 
and Commander \ from an original Painting ; en- 
graved by Ridley 44I 

XLVII. View of the interior Harbour and Port of 
Brest, by a French Naval Officer, and en- 
graved by Medland .483 

XLVm. A Chart of the Road and Port of Brest, firom 

9n adual Survey ...•••.,•«• 415 



X 



« * <rf « 



« • • • 4 



« • f # 



•  ^ ^ , . 4 ^ — 



» .' . ' • J4 .. 



» » i 



* * I A 



t '* t i .•* 



• • • • 



• f 



1 • »-» 'ir •» 



- V 



4 
( ■» 



»  



•^ 



'- • t 



• •< 



«r 



■• •. :t 



mt . « t 



t *. 



•< -• % 



f • I 



»  * . 



k * • 



4f 



' •-• K\ 



I 



i. 



'l^ 



t • • ' 



■» * • ; 



 /. A •• . I 
• ? 



• • 



*'<ft •.».^ ••;>». 



• • 



• •. «-'j» i»..i -»V*. 
■» • • • 1^ .» •»• 



• « • « 



■*. » 



The RIGHT HON"! 



iftiiSriif(>ft6«J 



EARLoTSTVINt'ENT 



\? ^y Sanm^ »Sria Shut Li 



MlQGMAPHICdL MMMQIMS Of 

JOHN JERVIS, EARL OF ST. VINCfiNT, 

>lrio>T'o> r>i >o)T HottoitaAaLi akdik or rat ■*«>( 

' -Tboi you Sll'l 

Thcurwhhibciutiaf joTi unl did procUioti *' 

Whta Hoilc luU ld( dMO, and piio-kolc'd De«dr 

Horn'd wtih nil-flntch'd winp ens thoi beadlf 

To DM, u to the Neptune of the Sta, 

ThcT (nr'd the rettitucioa of lb(ir pad% 

Their livcf ind libotia. MAUIHeaa> 

TT it difficult to ponitrtj. with truth the chanAen of 
living personi. The^ may be compared to piAuret 
drawn from the life, tn which every feature mott be some- 
what heightened to obain the reputation of umilitnde. The 
exaggeration of beantiea and of deformitict are, it is tnie, 
etiualljr and alternately censured by friends and enemies ; but 
if the likcncn were exaAly correA, it would be admiied by 
none. The artist prefers, therefore, the approbation of half the 
world to the centure, or at least the cold neglefi, of the whole | 
and sacrifices the fidelity of his portrait to the incorrigible 



a klOGIA^HlCAL MKItOt&S 

pttsioils and inveterate prejudices of partial speAatdrs. Timei 
however, the great correAor of all faults, softens down those 
asperities which the pencil had left ; spreads a sober tint over 
the iMilliant lights, and mellows the shadows to a milder hue. 
A cool recolleAion of the original, and the comparison with 
other representations of the same obje£t, aid us still further iit 
the discovery of the truth, and the whole is at-length exhi- 
bited to posterity with a degree of corrcftness which is almost 
always denied to contemporaries. 

The noble person of whom we are to speak is a striking 
instance, perhaps, of the justice of these remarks. As an 
officer, he has been charged with too strift an adherence to 
that steady discipline which the wisdom of our forefathers, 
attentive to the public good, ordained in naval regulations, 
and from which a mistaken spirit of kindnrss in our time has« 
on some occasions, unseasonably rehxed : as a senator, he 
has been censured for what is called an uncertainty of political 
condud ; in other words^ for asserting, in his parliamentary 
life, an upright and dignified independence,'equ^y unbending 
to Nfinistry and Opposition, equally inaccessible by interest 
•-or adulation : as a. man, he has been said to maintain a gra* 
vity of deportment bordering on reserve and severity, because 
he has too much feeling, and too much sincerity to waste on 
knaves and fools those honest smiles, and that jfreedom of 
conversation, to which bis friends, to whom he never denies 
them, have an exclusive right. Time will place these cir- 
cumstances of charafter in a proper point of view ; while he 
Vho justly experienees the love and esteem of all who know 
htsn, joined to the gratitude of a nation, need not complain 
that he has not his share of this world's charities* 

His Lordship is the descendant of an ancient and truly 
respedable family, setttcd'in the county of Stafford : being the 
second and youngest son of Swynfen Jervis, Esq. Barrister at 
Law, some time Counsel to the Board of Admiralty, and 
Auditor of Greenwich Hospital He. was: sent at a veryiearly 
age to, a celebrated school at Burton-upon-Trent, which he 
fitted, when ten years old, in consequence of his father 
having! ia conformity to his^own inclination^ determined $o 



OP JOHW JtSVISy BA&L OP ST. VINCBNT, K. B* % 

educate him for the tea service. The iniancy of his naval lUe 
received the first rudiments of instruAion under that truly- 
amiable man, and gallant officets die hte Lord Hawke ; and> 
liaving been rated a Midshipman about the year 1748^ 
he served in that capacity on board the Gloucester, of 50 gunsy 
th<^ commanding Ship on the Jamaica station *• After aft* 
almost unHiterrupted series of service, which, owing to thr 
peaceable situation of public affairSf affords not sufficient inte-^ 
rest to render a particular detail of it either necessary or 
amusingi he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant \^ and* 
not long afterward, selected by that admirable officer the kte 
Sir Charles Saunders to serve on board his Ship. 

He accompanied, accordingly, Sir Charles in the expe* 
dition |Knt against Quebec : an expedition which, though* 
successful in its termination, displayed, for a considerabte 
time, nothing but a series of disappointments, and diffi* 
culties, that, had they not been combated by the utmost 
exertion of human ability, gdkintry, and perseveraiice» 
9i%ht have proved insurmountaUe. Soon after the re-^ 
dufiion of die town, he was most deservedly advanced 
to the rank of Commander ; and having returned to Europey 
he proceeded, not long afterward, to the Mediterranean) 
as Captain, we believe, of the Albany sloop. His former 
Commander $, who had become intimately acquainted with 
the many excellent qualities he possessed, and which peculiarly 
fitted him to fill, wkh the highest honour to himself, and 
advantage to his country, the station of a Naval Commander, 
appointed him ading Captain of the Experiment, apoat Ship^ 
mounting 20 gun^, during the indisposition of Sir Joiin 
Stracban* This temporary promotion was extremely fortu- 
nate to Mr. Jervis, who, having been ordered out on a Medi- 
terranean cruise, had the fortune to fall in with a very lai^ge 
xebec trader, Moprish colours, though it was very evident the 
whole of her crew was French. 

* Bcariog the Ivoad pendant of the RttMunble Oeei^ Towiiihend» 
t On the 19th •£ Fehruary 1755* 

% Sir C. Saunderiy who proceeded to the Medtterruieaii at the COBimflDet» 
ment of the year 1769, ai Commander in Chief on that itatiofl* 

4 



4 BiQORAPBlCAL MftMOIM 

The superiority posseased by the enesiy in point of natunl 
force was so great, itliatthe event of the contest would at besf 
l^ave been doubtful, had not that enemy been resisted^ on the 
part of the English) by the most consummate ability» joined 
tp the most aftive intrepidity* The xebec, exclusive of the 
s^vantagc sbe derived fkom berlowoonstru^on, paiticuiariy 
Wi smooth wal:ex; and those light winds, which prevailed atthe 
time of the attack, mounted 26 guns of very heavy calibre, 
besides a coBsida:able>number of bu^ swivels or patararoes. 
The cfew^ which was nearly three times as numerous ss that 
of *ihe Experimene, ooosiated of men seleAed frotti the har- 
diest dass of society, on whom the appellation of desperadoes 
mi%ht be very aptly and justly bessowed. The grand obje^fts 
of their fierocions. minds were lupine and plunder. Lawless in 
^eir pufsvuss, insatiable in their avarice, and most intemperate 
in yfhdt they cpneideied their pleasures, they attempted {in« 
sle9l4 pf displayii^ <h|it cool and dignified conduA which) 
wheipi^ecoiilende ion boiMmrable terms, exciass ouradmicatioR 
even <of so eneaay,) to jdart on their pray with the savage 
apkit of vultuxcs^ dttrabog to satiaie dieir voracious appci-* 
tiles. 

The ccmflid, . though ftirious, was^ short ; determinate 
bravery prevailed over fury ; and the assailants . eonsidered 
themsdves extremely fortunate iil not being so disabled as to 
prevent them from taking the advantage of a light and favour* 
able breeze of wind, which in all probability preserved them 
fiom a dis<;omfiCttie much more serious, if not a capture. 
Captain Jeryit, having veturned to England, continued to 
command tl)e Albany sloop till the thirteenth of Oftober 
176O9 when he was promoted to the rank of Post Captain by 
commission appointing him to- the Gosport, of 40 guns. 
He continued in this ship till the end of the war, very un- 
interestingly employed on tlie home service, where the iassi* 
tude with which hostilities wore permitted to linger, through 
the waut of the power of offence op the part of the foe, and 
the generosity of Britain in disdaining to take advantage of 
dut Allen state, afforded no opportunity for the exertion of 



or JORir JtRVIf, SAUL or ST. fllfCtNTy K« B* 5 

die spirit of entseq>rize9 however naturally it might wish to 
display itself in the service of its country. After having 
remained some time on the home station, Captain Jervis 
was ordered to the Mediterranean, Whence he did not retnm 
till the coodiision of the war» and^ being then paid off, 
held no subsequent command till the year 1769 ; when being 
appointed to the Alarm frigate, of 32 guns, he was again 

oniercd to the Medieerranean. 

• 

The command of a frigate on a foreign station for three 
years, during a time of profound peace, cannot be suppoani, 
according to the genera] course of eveoits, toafibfd any male* 
rials suficientiy interesting to attraft ttbe BOtioe of a bitogra* 
pher. Captain Jervis was not, however, a perfeft example of 
the troth of this genenl observation. In the month of August 
1 770^ being at ViUa-Franca, Ik had the honour of eAtertaining 
on board his Ship the Due de Cbablats, brother to the King 
of Sardinia, who 'expressed himself most highly gratified at 
bis reception •, having found, not improbably widi surprise, 
that elegance of mannei% and the most polished behaviour^ 
were not incompatible with the charafter of a Naval Oficer * 

Not long after the return of Capuin Jervis to England^ 
where he arrived in 1774, be was promoted to the Foudro* 
yanty of 84 guns : a Ship originally belonging to the French, 
and captured from them in the year 1 758, by the Monmouth, 
of 64 gun^. This appointment was a very convindog 
proof of the esublished and high repuation he had ac* 
quiied in the service : for the Foudroyant was, with very 
great truth, considered the finest two*decked Ship belonging 

* His Royal Highneu ihowed the greatest curiosity to be informed of the utc 
of every thiag he taw. He detired the chain-piuBps to be worked, and a gtam 
!• be ewciied, an4 betweea tho several aotiona made the meat pertineDt 
remarki. Having latufied hii cnriosity, he testified hit gratification by the 
magnificent presents he made on that occasion. To the Captain he gave a 
Ai f^ttm^ ring, enclosed in a largf gold moff-box ; to the two Licntenants a gold 
box each ; to the lieotenam. of Marioea who mounted the gnard, the Midship* 
man who steered his Royal Highness, and those who assisted him vp and 
down the Ship's side, a gold watch e^ch, one of which was a Paris repeater, and 
another Mt with sparks, together with a large smn of money to the Ship's com* 
^asy. Mia Royal Highness suyed about two hows, and was saluted on hia. 
going aboard and comiiig ashore with one and twenty guiM» 



6 BrOGRAFHICAL MCMOlHY- 

to the British Navy. His oc?cupation from tiie time of hit 
having first received his commission for this Ship was hj no 
means suited to the'dignity of his charader and the abilities he 
confessedly possesses : for, owing to the multitude of frigates 
and sloops of war which the dispute with tlie American colo« 
nies tendered it expedient should be kept on their coast, it 
had become necessary to employ Ships of the line as cruiser^ 
in the Bay of Biscay, in order to prevent, as much as possible, 
all intercourse between the revolted States and France : as on 
French assistance the colonists placed their principal depend- 
ence fioT support^ and for those stores, without a supply of 
which they could not possibly have carried on the con« 
test. 

Fortune, as if she had frowned indignant at the degradation 
both of the Cbmmander and of the Ship itself, employed on 
a service that was much better suited to a sloop of war or a 
privateer, appears to have afforded him only one opportunity 
of making a capture ; and even that was * as ignoble as 
would be the destruftion of a mouse by the fangs of a lion : 
but the unwarrantable interference of the court of France in a 
dispute which was of a peculiar nature, and whichdemanded 
their neutrality beyond every other case that could possi* 
bly have been framed, raised Captain Jervis, though at the 
expence of his country*s welfare, into a situation better 
suited to both his talents and (waving the cause which gave 
birth to the effeA) his inclination. 

The Foudroyant being ordered to join the fleet equipped 
for Channel service, under the command of Admiral Keppel, 
Captain Jervis was selefied by that gentleman to be one of 
his seconds ; and it were almost a needless piece of informa- 
tion, considering those subsequent occurrences in his life with 
which the whole, world is intimately acquainted, to say that 
he distinguished himself to the utmost extent the existing cir- 
cumstances of the adion permitted : his gallantry not only 
reflefted honour on himself, but may be considered as having 

^ * The Finch, an inconsiderable vet«el, bound from Nantz tp £oc(iOQ, tfittl a 
^ar^ of arnt and clothing, tahcn in the month of May i;;^,. 



Of JOItN JtRVll> tARfc or ITk VINCBNT9 K.B« ^ 

1>een in no small ciegree instrnmentai to the pretenrttion of 
many liveft from among his people \ which most have been 
lost had the force of his attack been less animated. The enemy 
shrunk from him in dismay, and left him^ in more instances 
than one) disabled as he was, to enjoy the empty honour of 
4lefeating him ■; .while the situation in which he was placed (as 
one of a community in which all the members were to regard 
the advantage of each other, and not seize, Ut the expence of 
irregularity, any opportunity of adding to their own peculiar 
£ime,) prevented him from pursuing the blow he had struck, 
and completing his triumph by that unequivocal conquest-^ 
the surrender of bi^ enemy« The evidence that he gave during 
the subsequent trial was spirited, and iropartiaL It proved him 
animated only by the stridest attention to what he con- 
sidered that duty which he owed to his country, without 
conforming to die opinion> or entering into the views of any 
party whatever f. He continued uninterestingly employed* 

* The Foudb^yanthad five men only k^led, and eighteen wounded. 

f Indeed it is impossible to convey a better idea of his Lord^ip's charader 
and opinion relative to that engagement than by the following extra As from the 
«lear, coBiiatenc, and pointed testhnony, which he gave npon the court martial 
called npon Admiral Keppel* 

Upon the following questions being put by the Admiral : 

i^ifiM. Yoor ttation behig neareit me during the ponuk of the enemy, and 
after the adiotty which gave yon an opportiutty of observing my oond^^ an4 
•f seeing objeAs nearly in the same point of view with myself, I desire you will 
state to the Court any instance, if yon saw or knew of any such, in which I 
■egligently performed my duty on the twcnty^seventh or twenty-dghth of 

Ams. With great resped to you, Sir, and deference to the Court, I hope I 
nhall be indnlged wMi having fhat question put by the Court. 

The Jndge Advocate, mftoHs anftamUi, then put the question* 

Atu, I feel myself bound to answer that question ; I believe it to be conso-' 
aant to the general pnidice of sea courts martial.*- 1 cannot boast of a long 
mcqnatotMice with Admiral Keppel ; I never had the honour of serving under 
him before ; bnt I am happy in this opportunity to declare to this Court, and to 
the whole world, that during the whole time that the English fleet was in sight 
of the n«llch6eet,fae dUpHytd the greatest naval skill and ahlHtyy and the Boldest 
aattrprhu^ mfm tba twnif'Sevemth •/ Jafy^ vMk, wtb th* pt w mfikmU afSir Jttkrt 
Sarlastd^ wtt it tmlje&s tfrny adanratkm and iaritatUn as Ut^ as I live. 

From, the evidence given upon this trial it appears, that the Foudroyant, which 
lud got into her station about three, and never left it till four the oeret morning, 
vcfjckiefytogaged, and ta a most disabled atate. Her main^mast had 



on the variotts sertioes allotted* to the bome to Channel fleet; 
commanded iii succession, after the resignation of Mr. Xeppel{ 
by Sir Charles Hardy, Admirals Geary and Darby. The 
absence of an enemy precluded a possibility or*cpntest; ' and 
the events of war, so ^r as they regarded this consequc^ntial ^ 
annaiaenti sptrecaBfinediaQr^y to a 4u4 ayH><^ft»nLyt^f cfr^ 
tying into exftcation every strvke on(w)iiobiMKa«'Ofdei«df 
without erer bekotdtng a fbe^ at least anfoii«tlMiriaeiifMl«o 
dignified an appellation. • >  . / * . , i 

. In the month of April i??^, a slight interruption' was givtn 
to this long con^kiMi^^c^ne of tedious in^fUvUyi^. (^leUigenpe 
having bem ^^cotf«dt^itimt %i&*ren43ii*armwiDipn<|,€#ii#iMngpf 
■four or ^^ Ships^rWjMT und^fcTcra! trsntpoMi "vQBifO rtJd/ 
for sea at Brest, destined foir theEastlndfesi a stJoatProil, c^- 
^isting of several Ships of the fine, was ordered out.iinfe'tho 
command of Vice- Admiral Barrington, for. the purpose or 
intercepting tliem. The experimeoi. proyed in a great niisa* 
sure successful ; and the most brilliant |Kirt of that tuccess 
was attributable to the aAWity aifd spirit ^f Gn^in JeiVls. 
The part he so honourably bore in this affair will beWst 
explained by the account given by his Commanding Officer 
of the transa£lion, and that singular method he adopted of 
doing honour tohi$ gallantry » in declining to give any other 
account of the transafttoa than what had been, in such 
modest terms, transmitted to him by Captaf n Jervis himself. 

received a shot very near through <he head, which lodged in the check, and paiacd 
through the heart ol the mait, aad tcyeral other shpt iiudifieffejit placet ; ket 
foremast had also received aeveraljhoc; a large excavatios had hciea made.ia 
her bowfprit near the centre s the fore-top-mast was so disabled, that k wa» 
totally useless ; every rope of her running rigging cut, and her shrouds demo- 
lished ; no braces or bow-lines left, and scarcely any haulyatds, fortfstay, springs 
stay, and top-sail ties ; and the foot rope of the ibre> top-tail shoe away ; her tailr 
also were ^ery much shattered. ... 

In this shattered state, the Foudrcyant was not in a coitdkion to chase ^ 
but she kept Ifef nation ncBC tibe YiAoi^' at far to wsipdwaid a»yiniiT|l« ; ** I, 
was £9V€tous of it'ind^' said this brave officer ^ ** b*caus€^ dimtUd at I ttm vt9^ 
I ctmUlved the qjvant 'ge of the ivini toi/IJ carry me again into afiicn.** 

Being asked sOnie questions relative to the posRion of thrVice*AdmiraI jtfnd 
hU division, his Lordship pomtedly replied : ** he waa ait a amftmijmfi^* <^<M 
t»i^iif»UJmti\hkwtumtjftttaith^$9ib$JiiKkwi: 



«F JOHW JlRTIBi BAftL OF ST. VINCBNT, K*B« 9 

JfMltaS rf a Lwmi frmt AiMomwraUt Fia^JJmrd Barringtoit 
to Mr, STiriiENtf dated on board tie Britannia, «^St« HcIcds, fht 
l$th of April 1782. 

I have tbt pkasure to acquaint yoa* for the information of my Lordi 
ComntsMootfa of the Admiraltyt that on the twentieth inatantf 
Ushant bearing N. E. half £• twenty^thrce leaf^oes, at one P* M, 
I p c r ce i ft d the Anott» Captatn Madbride* with a tigoal out for dkco- 
vcriflg an cacny't flatti but at %i»ch a distance that it wai with, the 
■#taMft ^iKft(«liy I c«Mfa| diit«ii|Hidi lh« cobor «f the ftig; It was 
then oJm i but a brccse loon tprioffing iip» I inade the tigoal for a 
gcaenil chate, the enemy at luch a distaocc» that I could but juat dit* 
cover them firom the Britaniua*i mtet-head at thite o'clock* At the 
cloee of the ctemng aeten of our Ships had got a good distance ahead 
of Me, theFotaira^Hil, Captain Jevvjn, iht ieifiMoae f aid in tht atght» 
ll iw io g to Mvir itroi^ with faMy wctthtr, after havii^ bst sight 
^ hip ONiipoiiiooSy at fi»rty-aeveii nkuitea after twelve brought the 
P^gM^y of 74 guns and ^oo meoi to a close adion j which continued 
three quarters of an hour, when the Foudroyant having laid her on 
board on the huboard qoartcft the Frenchman struck. My pen is not 
equal to the praise that is due to the good condud, bravery^ and dis- 
dpliiie of Captain Jervis* his ^iiccra and s«aien» on this occasioa ; 
lei his own m^iimil narrative^ i^Mch I hemwitb indose» '^eak for 

The nea|t morning soon after day breaks the wind then at southf 
blowing strong, it shifted in an instant to the west, and with such 
violence, that it was with difficulty I could cairy my courves to clear 
Ushant, and get die Channel open i which being accomplished by noon* 
I brought to* mid remaintd so nntil the coaning of the twenty^seoond, 
to coUcA tbt tqmdfon. 

By the accounts of (he prisonen, there were eighteen sail laden with 
stores, provisions, and anmunitioo, under the convoy of Jthe Prote<5leur 
of 74 guns, Pegase 74, L'Andnnnache 33, together with L'A^on- 
aire, a two-decker, armed en Jlate^ all bound for L'Isle de France. 
They left' Brest the nineteenth instant. 

I cannot pretend to give their Lordships a parttcnlar account of the 
number of prues taken, but mint refer them to that which they may re- 
ceive u they arrive in port, though I believe there we ten at least. 



Proemdkgt rfM» M ^jm iy U Mf mJer my C t mmaitd /hm tie ootf mHanl. 

Near sun-set on the twentieth, I was noar enough to discover, that 
the enemy consisted of three or four Ships of war, two of them at least 
pf the Hn^ with, aevcntoen or eighteen sail unden their convoy, and 
that the ktter diipened by sign^L At h|lf pait niaOi I observed the 

mA. IV. « 



10 BIOCRAPHICAI. MBMOIRS 

tmallest of tlie Ships of war to speak with the headmost » and then hear 
away. AJ a quarter past ten, the sternmost line of battle Shipper* 
oeivin^ we came >up with her very fast, bore up also. I pursued her, 
and at -forty-seven minutes after twelve brought her to close a6)^on» 
which 0o,ntinued three quarters of an hour, when having laid her on 
board on the larboard quarter, the French Ship of war Le Pegasc, of 
74 guns and 700 men» commanded by the Chevalier de Cillarty sur- 
rendered* 

The diseipliiie and good condu^ of the oAicers and men tmder niy 
command wiU best appear by the state of the killed and woundedi and 
of the damages sustained in each Ship, 

I am happy to inform you, that only two or three peoplej with 
my self 9 are sUghtly wounded ; but I learn from the Chevalier de 
Cillart, that Le Pegase suffered a great carnage, and was materially 
damaged in her masts and yards, the mizen-ma&t and foretop-mast 
having gone awajr soon after the a£Uon ceased. 

It blew so strong yesterday morning, that I with di£Bciilty put eighty 
men on board the prize, but received only forty prisoners in. return ; 
in performing which I fear two of our boats were lost. The disabled 
state of the prize, together with the strong wind and heavy seaf^ 
induced me to make the signal for immediate assistance, which Com- 
modore Elliot lufiplied, by making the Queen's signal to assist the dis- 
abled Ship« 

At eight o'clock' last night, tliey bore S. S.W. four miles distant 
from- us. We lay to till ten in hopes of their joining ; but not perceiving 
them we bore up, and ran N. 15. twenty three miles till day-light ;' 
when seeing nothing of them, we brought to, and at half past eight 
made sail to join the squadron. 

By all I can leara from the prisoners, this small squadron, composed 
of Le.Prote^keor, Monsieur de Soulange, 'Commodore, Le Pegase, and 
L'Andromaque frigate, was making a Bccoad attempt to proceed on an 
expedition to the East Indies. Some of the troops having been befoiv 
captured under that destination by the squadron under the command 
of Rear- Admiral Kempenfelt, in the presence of the above-mentioned 
Ships of war. 

f9udmyamr April z%i^ lyStv J* JERVIS. 

The w<yand of ^Wch Captain JijWfs tnakes such trivial 
mention in his precec^pg narrative was occasioned by a splin- 
ter, which struck hini on the'tetopli, ^nd s6. severely afFcftcd 
him. as to -endanger hisieye sight : nor have the consequences 
ever been compfctely removed since that time. His galiantry 
did not pass unnoticed or unrewarded by his Sovereign, who. 



OF JOHN JBtVIS, BA&L OF ST. TINCINT, K« B, il 

oa the twenty-ninth of May following, inveited him with 
the most honourable Order of the Batli. Sir John Jervis, 
as it now becomes incumbent on us to call him. conti* 
nned to retain the same command till the month of No- 
vember following, having, during the interval, attended Earl 
Howci who was sent at the head of the main or Channel 
fleet to relieve the important fortress of Gibraltar, which was 
then very closely presse(J,on tlie land side by a very powerful 
Spanish army^ while at the same time the combined arma- 
ments of France and Spain, amounting to nearly fifty Ships 
of the line, attempted to block it up by sea«. 

Immediately on the return of the fleet to Englandj Sir 
John quitted the Foudroyant; and being advanced to the 
rank of Commodore, hoisted his broad pendant on board the 
Salisbury, of 50 guns, being chosen to command a small 
squadron, which was to have consisted of nine or ten Ships 
and vessels of war> with a number of armed transports, and 
was destined on a secret expedition. The sudden, and almost 
unexpected cessation of hostilities which took place immedi- 
ately after he had received this appointment, necessarily super- 
seded the necessity of carrying the objeft of it into execution* 
Sir John struck his pendant, but only exchanged, after a very 
short interval of retirement, one active scene of life for ano- 
ther. 

At the general ele£lion which took place 1784. he wa^ 
diosen representative in Parliament for the town of North 
Yarmouth, and soon proved that his abilities and general 
intelligence in the capacity of a Legislator, were little, if at 
all, inferior to those he had displayed in the station of a Naval 
Commander. Whatever difference of opinions some men 
might affed to hold in regard to his political conduct on cer- 
tain questions which (nilitated s^ainst the principles which 
they then^elves professed, his countrymen in general, and / 
that abstract part of them connefied with the Naval Service, 
can never refieA on his behaviour when any question was 

• See Vol. I. p. •^ * 



12 •l6GkA?lilCAt MtMOIRS 

agifaftefln the smallest degree conne6Ved with it, 'with<JUt 
effusions or gratitude, admiration, and dehght. 

'The firmness wfth which he opposed a romantic, extrava- 
gant, and most expensive scheme, for fortifying the different 
dock-yards, will stand a lasting proof to the latest posterity 
of his attention to the honour of the service ; and his humane 
exertions on the part of Captain Brodie *, of his no less strong 
regard to Its worldly interests. Oft the twenty-fourth of 
September 1787, a protnotioin of FUg Officers took place, 
in consequence of which Sir John became advanced to the 
Tank of Rear-Adrtiiral of the 'Blue, as he afterwards was, on 
the twenty-first of September r7<^0 t, to the same rank in the 
White squadron. A dispute with the Court of Spain, relative 
to'Nootka Sound, had; for some months previous to the last 
promotion, rendered it more than probable that a rupture 
would take place. ' A formidable armament was accordmgly 
equipped, to bb iti readiness for invmediateadion the moment 
such an eVient should take place. The chief command was 
given to Admiral Barrington J and Sir John most readily 
accepted of the high'ly honourable statioh of iirsr' Captain, or 
Captain of the Fleet, tfnder \m old Friend and a>mmander» 
The supposed impending storm of war dispersing quietly» 
without rising h^to a temjiest, Mr. Harrington struck his flag 
in the month of Novetilber;as)d Sir John taking upon him- 
self the command of the fleet till the 'whole should be ordered 
to be dismantled, hoisted his own ptoper flag on board the 
Sanie Ship (the Barfleor) which had in the first instance 
been appointed for the Cortmiander in Chief. The certainty 
of ti oMtinuahce of peace soon , produced the same cScSt 
with regard to Sir John that it^ had done to Admhrai Bar- 
ririgton; and after fl<M time he most diligently and unin- 
terruptedly confined himseif to his senatorild duties till the 
month of February 17^4.^ -.He then accepted of the com* 

• Sec Vol ni. p»ge 103, 

f Inibc fti^utb «f M^y^hu^yifwtfbi cooaegucnce of the general eledion which 
the« toojc ]pltace» ^scp reprciaat^|iycio,PAiliaQiut (or the borough of Chipping 
Wycombe* 



OY JOHN JlkYlS, lAAL or 8T« nVCfVTi K« S. 1} 

mand^of a squadroa equipped for the West. Indin«' and 
destined to z& in con}anftion with a formidable land forcct 
sent thither at the same timCf under Sir Charles Gzey against 
the French' settlements in that quarter. . 

The whole armament having rendezvoused at Barbadoes, 
operations were immediately commenced by an attack on the 
valuable island of Martinico» It fell after a^ short* but very 
vigorous contest: and this success proved. the. prelude to, 
^^ms speedy a redudion ofthe islands of St.. Lucia and Gua-* 
daloupe. Thus did Great Britbin^TiImost with astonishment^ 
> behold herself in possession of all the French colonies in that . 
quarter^ nor did there appear the smallest pi'obahility that any 
of them could ever be; wrested back from her ducing the con* 
tinuance of the existing oaatast. ' Strange however, and almost 
incredible, are* the events of war; a« petty armamenti no% 
exceeding four Sb^>s of war, the largest mounting only fifty 
guns, and five transports having on board. about 15CO troops9, 
had the address and good fortune to elude the vigilance of 
the British Commanders, and reach Guadaloupc in safety. 

This event, so totally unexpe&ed, gave a sudden and fatal 
turn to the issue of the caipcipaQ;n« But the reverse of fortune 
was not attributable in the slightest dqgree to amy nc^le^ or 
misconduA of the two gallant conquerors,- whose exertions 
had hitherto been so uninterruptedly crowned with success* 
Not the smallest information had reached them that fuch a 
force was on its passage ; nor, considering the state of the 
French navy at that time, contrasted with ths^ of Britain^ 
could, it ha»ve been deemed probablo, or perj^^ps possible^ 
that France could Isiave been rash; enough X9 exfi^^ <a 
squadron. -which, > inconsiderable as it was, proved of .no 
small public value, to the double risk of being captured 
the instant it quitted its own ports, or^ should it. escape 
that first danger, of being txpodied tc^ % second , no, less 
formidable, ere it could arrive at its place of destination. 

* On this occaiion lie vacated bbieitln paf&iirtiiti' 6A tb(^ fittt nffebftftry 
in the preceding year he had been adVanc^ to At ralnh of Vict-AdAiM oltbc 

Bine ■^nadron. 



^4 BIOGRAPHICAL UEMOXItS 

Its ^fc arrival) however, and subsequent succes$i may serve 
as a very useful and instru£tivc lesson to mankind^ that the 
j:vents of war frequently defy the utmost human sagacity, 
being conducted and governed by the hand of Providence 
alone. 

This reverse of fortune furnished an opportunity for vari- 
ous discontented persons, many of whom smarted under that 
rigid condu£t of the Commanders in Chief towards them, which 
their own behaviour had occasioned, to join that description 
of pe(^lein Knglan,d> which exists in all countries whatever, 
ready to seize every opportunity of aggravating misfor* 
tufiC) tlK)ugh by the most unjustifiable means. To clamour 
succeeded unjust accusation ; and to the latter an acquittal, 
unequivocal, and most highly hojiourablc* The charge it-^ 
fi^Uy as well as the -refutation of it, cannot by any other 
fiueans hti made so clearly appear, as by the following letter \ 
winch, long as it is, will interest the reader sufficiently to re- 
pay the trouble of attention, and which it would be an aft of 
the highest wrong to the injured honour of the Commanders 
to abridge in the smallest degree. 

TO His GRACE THE DUKE OF PORTLAND. 
Mr L0RD9 
' We take the liberty of trailing your Grace on the subje^ of the 
memorials which have been presented to your Grace by the West 
India planters and metchantSy and otherst respeding our proceedings 
and condu6l as Commanders in Chief, upon and subsequent to the con« 
quest of the French West India Islands* Some of those memorials 
vere presented during our commands in the West Indies ; and if we 
«re oorredly informed, they were preceded by personal communica* 
4ioaft toaic to his Majesty '« Ministecs upon the authority of private 
Jctters from merchants .and traders. in the West Indies. How far 
these representations and memorials have been a£led upon by his Ma* 
jesty's Ministers, we arc uninformed ; but from the nature of the al- 
legations contained in them, and the obje^ls which the memorialists 
profess to have in view, we assure ourselves that they cannot be counte- 
nanced ; if they are. it places us in this singular dilemma, that in the 
discharge of our public duty, as Commanders in Chief in the West 
Indites, we could not avoid either disobeying the instrudions and frus- 
trating the Tiews of his Majesty, or exposing oursely^ii to censure^ by 



OF JOHK jiRVlS, feAltL <f? IT. TtkCEHT, K. B, ij 

iisappointing the wishrt and cxpc&tions of Merchants and trader* 
conne^ed with the West Indies. 

The West India merchants appear to be art)prehen8ive only of th6 
consequences which may result to them fWra any precedent esta^ 
blished by our conduft upon which the French Government may aft 
towards them in case of a reverse of fortune.— ** Should the fortune of ' 
war/* ^hey-say, *• be reversed in tliat quarter, and any of the British 
islands be captured by the enemy, (an event to be apprehended from 
the reduced state of the British forces in those islandsj and from tht 
untoward accidents which have prevented the departure of the itln- 
forcements provided^ retaKation, however temperate in its prindpte 
aad extent, wiH be little^ short of total ruin to the fortune of your 
memorialists, and to a very considerable portion of his Majesty's 
8ub]e6ls." 

The ground upon which this complaint is founded, we take to be 
totally distin6t from that which has been more generally and most 
loudly urged (which we shall observe upon afterwards), viz. that the 
property of emigrants, or those who were friendly to the British Go- 
vernment, and contributed their assistance as iar as they were enabled^ 
or allowed to do, to the conquest of the French Islands, were sub- 
jeaed to indiscriminate confiscation. The fear of retaliation must arise 
not from our treatment of the encmii? s, but of the friends of the French 
Government« The apprehension stated is, that in case of a reverse of. 
fortune, that Government may treat our subjeds as we have treated 
theirs. To this we can give no other answer, than that the peculiar 
nature of the war, and the orders transmitted to us by his Majesty's 
Ministers, left us no discretion as to the treatment either of that Go* 
Tcmment or its supporters. Upon a reference to our secret instructions, • 
your Grace will perceive that Government to be represented as an 
Usurpation, having no legal authority, and its supporters as rebels and 
traitors. We arc directed by an order of Council to prevent forcigncri 
resorting to the islands without licence, and that order by a letter 
from one of his Majesty's confidential servants is explained, as •* clearly 
marking the intention of the British Government to keep pn% of th^ 
conquered islands all persons whose principles were in the least degree. 
to be suspcfted ;*' and ht adds, •* I hope you have driven out of them^ ^ 
all persons of this description." We certainly a^ed in conformity ta .^ 
the policy here laid down m many instances. The subjefts of the • 
French Government, or the pretended National Convention, as it jyi ~ 
termed in the proclamation, were, in many instances, sent away, an^ " 
their estates sequestered : this became necessary for the security 6f 
those islands, which, in all our letters and instruClions, wc considered . 
ourselves dircfed to secure as a permanent acquisition to.the crown of 
Oreat'Britaia. It became the more necessary, as our force became 



i6 tiooK^nieAii aittiouis 

weaker; but fcr die pnseieat fiuMMiwI hj ibm fvoeecdiagt, wc 
are Dot ropootibk i and to the nqatt^nafd otates recetfvn were tnv 
nediatdf appointed lor tlM beaefit of Govermnenti tliej atill con- 
liaiie» we bdieve, to f«eeive fiur GoferonuaBt tiie profitt of those 
cttatct from which the capton have la no one iMtance dcnved any ad- 
vaitage or eipdument of wf kiod to themaelYef* 

Having flnade these obaervatioaa on the prindplet avowed by the 
mefloorialiftst we most beg leave to call your Grace's attention to a 
ftatemeot of our proceedings in the conqiieied iihndsi 

For a detail of our proceedings in the ooaquest of the ialandsj we 
must beg leave to refer your Qrace to our public an4 private dis- 
patches. His Majesty's forces were resisted in aB of them so long as 
resistance was pradicabfe. l^ town or distrid^ nor any body or 
description of the inhabitanta» ever signified an intention to accept or 
accede to the terms of the proehmation of the ist of January 1794* 
On the contraryt in many phees the inhabitants manned batteries to 
pppose the attack of his Majesty's troopsy and in every other respe& 
contributed to resist them ; they even fired upon our flags of truce. 
Upon the conquest of islands under such circumstances, we conceived 
it to be our duty to seoire such property as appeared to us ungues- 
lUiiaable booty. We apprehend it was our duty to do so upon two' 
.groundsy vis. 1st, To proted the rights of his Majesty ; adly. To 
secure to the officers and seamen and soldiers such booty as h^ Ma- 
jesty hadf or might think fit to giant them as a reward for their Kr- 
vioes. The booty taken on shore we conceive to be given to the 
navy and army by his Majesty's separate instrudions to Sir Charies 
Gfey»/imd by Mr. Secretary Duodas's confirmation of our plan of 
division of booty in his leuer to Sir Charles, of the 7th of March 
1794. Tl^s idea was communicated to the army in pnUic orders, 
with a view to encourage the troops, and promote good discipline, by 
ranoving all indoccmf nt to plunder. 

Havii^ submitted to your Grace our ideas rtsprding booty, we 
veqoest your Grace's attention to the nature and extent ^ the aeiznre 
afiuatty made. The principal estates in the island were in the pos- 
session of Republican agents, as confiscated property, and the produce 
bad bfcn Knt to the towns of St. Pierre and Fort Royal (which were 
both taken by assault) in order to be shipped to France, or otherwise 
disposed of on aocount of the RepnUfe. The pbinters resident on the 
iJaiid bad likewise sent p?9duce to St. Pierre, to be shaped or sold. 
The fonner description of property we considered as beloaging to the 
Frefidi Government, and as such, to be lawfol piiee. The latter we 
ponsidered aa,subjeS to confiscation, in consequence of the proprietors 
kaving either resisted his Majesty's fisrces, or dedined acceptii^ the 
terms ofaed by the proclamation of the ist of January. The towns 



the mmamn fMftioe«of war , ^9U exposed t?o pltAder r littr*tlM^troftpi 
weKfettmned-lrom aii^«A of that kftidf by the>^aM«ra&i» given 
them that thcy^oiddhe mud tobxe beeeftted by «'^r and equal 
dittfibiittoii of bebtyt than by indtsdhtintfiaite pfflage* Under thevir- 
cuinstancea in which the towlu ti^r9 tekeiiy h was the opinioii of the 
aavy and army^that aH the proiieity found in* them wiUto be considered 
as prise or booty. We- declined saiiAioiring' seizttMn tO-this extent ; 
bttt being of offaiM that the pnod^e of the ishrndfomd at dt^-Pi^re, 
wnm unquestionable price, as belooging either to the RepuUiean Go* 
vertnnen^ or to indi«duah who had resisted the BiKtish fopoesy or re- 
joflad the tennaoftitdby the prockunatioh of the r«t- of January^ 3fre 
diredcd theraciaarc of it« No oiherprivate propettyKif anydescrip- 
tioft was 'molested. Although the town of St. Pierre was uken by 
assatdtr yet^ the shops in it were publicly opea the next day, and the 
inhadntaats employed in disposing of their property and transaAing 
their banness as usual. The provisions and necessaries supplied to. 
the navy and army, were regulariy paid for, and every species of ge«i 
neral merchandise (provisions included) was left in the uncoatrouled 
disposition of the inhabitants. The property seLied on shore con- 
sisted only of the following articles, the produce of the -island, viz. 
sugar, cocoa, coffee, cotton, and cassia. '* 

At the tinse of tlie seizure, noman intimated the sm^est doubt 
either of the legality or propriety of our condu<9 ; ori the contiaff, it 
vras the general opinion, that, in point of stri^ness, all the movitable 
property in the Islaad was liable to seizure : in this iipinion we have 
since been confirmed by better advice than any we could then obtain. 
Your Grace will not suppose us to have deliberately weight fa* legal 
balances every measnre we took in executing the arduous, services £6m<* 
mitted to our care ; if that had been expend from us) ¥i^ tiU^hr to 
have been furnished with learned * civlliaiiB as adviseix or afeteSiOrs. 
Unassisted as we were with any. legal advice, we are escir|0iely happy 
to find, that instead of exceeding, we have Men vety fji^fib^rt 4^%%- 
crcising to their legal extent, the rights of- th< 'crowif^itrs^tin^ the 
booty which fell to the disposal of his Majesty. '*> ^; , • < 

If your Grace will have the goodness to fdTtr t6 thtftepmeatftri&ns 
fiiat made by the merchants to hig Majesty's Mikiist^ ufftto thi*44b» 
jed, you wiU fiad that the con^int.S'iKgalnA'tts .^srere^ cA^^ftl^ sug- 
gested by.British adventurers, who wmit.^ Martiniqub forllft pirtppse 
of posohanng prize |)roperty, and iivhh found' themselves' ext^^nely. 
disappotnted, Upon discovering that-the captors had'Hl^h stiehhiea* 
surcs' as were most likely to oBtain a finir price for it.' 'Many -ofthtse 
adventurers had been long in the habit of carrying on cbrnmeke with 

5301. IV. J> ••.—:.-.; ' 



]8 atOG&A^HtCAtr iitiioiu 

tlic French istandB, (wh-ther illicit or legal, is not for us to deternilnre J 
ind were deeply connefied with merchants and planters in Martinique^ 
whoy by their resistance to the British forces, or by disregarding the 
proclamation of the ist of January, had subje^d their property to 
confiscation. By way of reminding your GraCde €»f the source of 
these complaints, and of the regard paid by the persons making them 
to truth and candour, we beg leave to submit to your Grace's perusal, 
the following extrafi from one of the first representations sent to thia 
' country upon the subje6iy and which we are informed was laid before 
his Majesty's Ministers on an authority not to be questioned* 

Extras of a Letter to Mestru Georcb Baillib and Co. fnm tieif 
Correspondent at St. Vincent'Sf dated i^h o/* April 1 794. 

•* Our Mr. — — only returned last night ftom Martinique, 
where he went to see what could be done in the way of speculation. 
He found a wonderful coIledUon of people from all the islands, but 
every one equally disappointed. All the produce on board the vessels 
and in the stores, even to the length of powder and pomatum shops, 
tre con&cated» 

^ The sale began with sugar on the toth day. Fine clayed sold 
ISrom 60 to 67 per cwt. and being captured goods, goes home subjeft 
to the foreign duty. The produce has been all appraised by gentle* 
men from the different islands ; and it's the direction from the Ad- 
miral arid General, that the agents do not let a cask of it be sold under 
that appraisement : so the full value will be obtained otherwise. It 
is bought in for the capturers^ and it is thought the greatest part will 
fall into their own hands; they so much expeA so themselves, that 
the Ships will be the last of the sales, in order that they may buy in 
what is wanting to carry home the produce. After this is all over, 
the sum of 250,000!. sterling is to be demanded from the towns in 
Martinique; and all the produce on estates made previous to the day of 
surrender, is to be made prize of. Such extraordinary plunder (for we 
cannot %i^^ it a better name) was never known before on the like, or 
any other occasion, in civilized countries. At St. Lucia they are to 
levy immediately the sum of 300,0001. sterling, in lieu of evei7 thing 
else, and no produce of any kind to be shipped off the island by the 
inhabitants, until this money is raised ; so that, independent of half the 
ruin of the people in both places, no payments can'this year be ex* 
peded by the merchants in the English islands, who have very large 
turns due to them for Negroes, &c. sold before the war." 

No man who reads this letter can be at a loss to discover the motive 
in which it originated. After all the reprobation it contains of the 
€ondu& of the captorsy and the wonderful degree of philanthropy dis- 



or JOHN JKZVIB, SARL OF 8T« VIHCBNT^ K. B. > ^# 

flayed for the unfortunate 8ufferer8» it shews a pretty strong disap» 
poinlment at the writer's not being able to derive advantage from the 
plunder he execrates* by purchasing it at an inferior price. In shorty 
if the captors had permitted the adventurers» who wished to speculate 
ip the captured property, to have purchased it at half its Tahie^ the 
confiscation would have been approved by them, and the complaintf 
now urged against us would never have been heard of. It never oo 
curred to the inhabitants of the islands, that any thing more had beea 
done by the captors than what was usual in similar cases, or that com* 
plaints to his Majesty's Ministers would be likely to benefit them, until 
these notions were instilled into their minds, with a view to gratify the 
resentment, and promote the interested views of disappointed British 
2idventurer8. But independent of the very laudable motives in which 
the representation just stated originated, the essential parts of it are ia 
point of fa£l totally false. Instead of all the produce in the stores at 
St. Pierre, even to the ** length of powder and pomatum shops»" 
being confiscated, not a single ounce of property of any description^ 
except the produce of the island found in the town, was molested* 
We were so rigid in enforcing a stri£i discipline in the army, that two 
men, who had a6ied in breach of orders in plundering, or attempting 
to plunder some of the inhabitants of St. Pierre, were tried by a Court 
^arcial^ convided, and executed.-— What is said as to all the produce 
of the estates made previous to the capture of the island, being taken 
as pri^e, is equally unfounded in fadl, as not a single hogshead of pro- 
duce was taken from any of the plantations. As to the allegations 
respedling the contributions intended to be levied on the islands of 
Martinique and St. Lucia, we shall presently take the liberty of re« 
questing ^our Grace's attention to a corre6k statement of the fads, 
from the instance we have given of the regard paid to truth in the 
representations made from the West Indies, your Grace will not be 
surprised at those statements being followed up by memorials from the 
merchants and agents here> equally unfounded in fad and destitute of 
candour* 

The transadions which we have hitherto detailed or referred to, re» 
}ate principally to Martinique, that being the only island from whence 
the captors have derived any advantage from the captured property. 
After jhe conquest of that island, St. Lucia was the next objcd of 
attack, and was regularly summoned to surrender. The sumnaons was 
rejeded. The British troops landed in different places on the first of 
April 1794, and all the different forts and batteries were completely 
t?ken possession of on the fourth. But although there was no force 
on the island to make an efiedual resistance against that sent to attack 
it, and the iubabitaots bed known for near tVee mc^ths that it would 



^6 BIOGRAPHICAL MfeMOlM 

be attacked, yet every resistance was made thfit the force of the island 
' vr2is capable of; and no town, fortress, or any description of the in* 
habitants, either capitnkted, surrendered, or proposed smtendery upon 
the terms offered in the proclamation of the first of January, 1 he 
island being conquered by force, the navy and army did not consider 
the inhabitants as entitled to the terras offered by the proclamation ; 
but on the contrary, as liable to be treated as enemies, and subje^ed 
to all the consequences of conquest. Under this impression the navy 
and army conceived they had a right to treat all the produce of the 
island that had been manufa6iured, and sent to the town of Castriea 
(the shipping port), and also that upon the plantations in the poS« 
session of the agents of the Republic, as liable to confiscation, which, 
at th&time of the capture, extended to a considerable part of the crop 
of the year. Some merchants, who had been appointed by the Com- 
manders in Chief to 2L&. as prize agents, suggested to the principal 
planters and merchants, that it would be a beneficial measure for them 
to offer the navy and army a sum of money to waive their claims to a 
confiscation of the produce ; and that it would easily be raised by 
i^ay of assessment or contribution, on the different towns and estatea 
in the island^ in proportion to their property or value, and paid by 
Instalments, at different periods. Two commercial houses in Grenada, 
that were very much connected in St. Lucia, took an a£iive part in 
promoting this arrangement* 

The first sum mentioned as an equivalent for the captors waiving- 
vtheir claims to all confiscation whatever, was 300,000!. ; which fell 
infinitely short of the value of the colonial produce then upon the 
island. This sum was, however, by negociation and explanation, re<* 
duced to a moiety; and an agreement was entered into by the principal 
inhabitants for the payment of i jo^oooU by instalnients, viz, 50jOOol. 
in 1794, the like sum in 1795, and the remainder in 1796. The 
houses of Baillie and Co. and Munro and Co. of Grenada, proposed 
to come forward as sureties for the island, and to give bills on London, 
dated August 1794, payable at six months sight, for the amount of 
the first 50,000]. This proposal, which held out to the captors the 
certainty of a large sum of money, without the trouble attending the 
Seizure, condemnation, and sale of enemy's property, was accepted 
tinder the idea that they would experience no farther trouble or diffi« 
culty about it. The gentlemen who had proposed to give bills for the 
money, suggested from time to time such orders or proclamations as 
they thought would be most h'kely to carry into effcd the arrangement 
agreed upon ; hut instead of the captors deriving any advantage what- 
ever from this plan of a contribution, not a single shilling ever did, or 
will come into their hands from it. Instead of gaining any thing, the 



OF JOHN JIRVI9) SARL Of ST« TTNCBNT^ K. B« Sf 

captors were completely defrauded of eveiy ounce of property taken 
on the islaod, except the arms and military stores that were applied to 
the service of the public. So far from having pillaged or plundered 
the inhabitants of St. Lucia (with which they are charged), the cap- 
tors have not, to the present hour, received, nor have they any proba* 
bility of receiving a single farthing arising from prize or booty taken 
on shore, except the v^e of the military stores* We believe a sum 
of io,oool« or i2,oooL was coUeded in the island in part of the pro- 
posed contribution, and towards payment of the first instalment thereof; 
but not one shiUtngof it was ever received by the captors; and upon 
its being intimated to us that the receipt of any sum of money under 
the denomination of contribution would not meet with his Majesty's 
approbation,^ we diredled whatever had been coUedied to be returned^ 
which was accordingly done in November 1794- Supposing our con* 
du6^ originally acceding to the idea of a contribution to have been ever 
so unwarranted by the prance of war* and the law of nations, (which 
"Wc apprehend is not the case,) yet we have been very unfairly deah 
with by the inhabitants^of St. Lucia and their instigators : lor, not 
content with securing the property which was clearly liable to sdzure 
and confiscation, and afterwards getting relieved from the contribution 
'vvhich was proposed as the <;ofisidcrati6n for restitution, they have 
loaded us with every species of odium and reproach, which the most 
rigid eza^on of the contribution, or the most general confiscations^ 
could have excused. In all the representations made from the West 
Indies, and followed up by memorials to his Majesty's Ministers, the 
intention has been substituted for an aA, and urged against us as suchi 
even long trfter it was notorious that the idea was totally abandoned* 
lo doing this, the memorialists anxiondy suppressed the immense pro* 
perty liable to confiscation, which was given up by the captors, who 
certainly have the greatest reason to complain. The value of the pro- 
perty found on shore, which was fairly to be considered as prize or 
booty, was ycry large : the captors have been defrauded of the whole 
of it by an insiduous offer of a contribution, their acceptance of which 
is afterwards tunied against them as an exa^^ion of the most tyrannical 
kind. In acceding to the idea of a contribution, they lost sight of 
their real interests. They did not foresee the firaud artfully meditated 
to be pra^kised upon them ; they did not foresee that letting the pro- 
perty escape without any present or a^^oal consideration for it, they 
^ve time for partial and ex parte representations against them, and 
gave those into whose snare they had fallen, an opportunity of pro- 
curing a revocation of the whole proceedings ; by permitting the re- 
moval of the prize property, the captors furnished the induceiticnt, at 



\ 



ft BIOCRAPHICAL MBMOlKt 

the lime they removed all ground for the damour that has been railed 
against them. 

The preparatory arrangements gave time to ship away the produce 
that was the subjed^ of confiscation ; and the period stipulated for the 
first payment, gave an opportunity for a communication with the 
mother country, so as to try whether by calumny and clamour, sup^ 
ported by falsehood and misreprescntattons, a disapprobation of the 
measure on the part of Government could be obtained. The plan so 
completdy succeeded, that th^ only result experienced by the captora 
from the projedked contribution, is a heavy estpence diarged by some 
«f the agents who first planned and then defeated ity for commiisioii 
end ehargesy and every species of opprobrium and obloquy that iate* 
f ested malice or resentment could suggest. 

The idea of contribution first originated at St* Lucia, in the man* 
aer above stated* It was afterwards suggested that the planters is 
Martinique ought to pay a certain sum in consideration of the produce 
upon estates possessed by Republican agents^ or by persons who had 
taken an a£tive part in resisting the British forces, or who rejected the 
terms offered by the proclamation of the first of January, not having 
been seized or confiscated. This suggestion originated from the same 
quarter, and in views of the same nature, that produced the plan of a 
contribution at St. Lucia. Various preparatory orders were issuec^ 
but the memorials presented to your Grace seem principally to confine 
their animadversions to those of the tenth and twenty-first of May« 
upon which we beg leave to say a few words by way of explanation. 

The island of Martinique having been conquered by force, wilhoijft 
any capitulation or compad having been entered into with its inha- 
bitants, we apprehend the whole property of the isUmd became liable 
to aeisure, and at the disposal of his Majesty. At Commamlers in 
Chief, we heve sdready said that we conceived it our duty to prote^ 
bis Majesty's rights ; but in doing so, we did not enforce them to any 
thing like their full extent* The property that was in h& seized was 
confined to the produce of the island found in the towns carried by 
assault. It was aftervrards suggested to us, that if we gave up the 
remainder of the property liable to confiscation, we should deprive hit 
Majesty of an opportunity of rewarding the Navy .and Army to that 
extent which his rights afforded the opportunity of doing. Anxious 
to do justice to the Fleet and Army, and at the same time desirous of 
alleviating the situation of inhabitants, who by their coududt had in* 
curred a forfeiture of their property, we listened to the proposal of a 
composition to be raised by way of contribution. In doing this, we 
perhapk overstepped the stri^ legal line of conduft we ought to have 



t 
I 



OP JOHN J^RTISi BARt OP ST. TIVCENT, K. B. Sf 

parsued; aa the coinposition ought to have been confined'to> and re<« 
ceiled from* the proprietors of the property liable to confiscation. But 
it ought to be remembered} that it was our wish to alkyiatCy and not 
to aggravate the situation in which the inhabitants had placed them* 
•elvesi by needing the terms offered by the proclamation of the fiivt 
of January ; and by acceding to their propossd of a contributioiif w€ 
were told we should do that. By the terms ** general coafiscatioay*^ 
¥re must be understood to mean a confiscation of the property oi the 
inhabitants who had not entitled themselves to the proteAioo offered 
hy the-- proclamation of the fiist of January* In shorts none of then 
acceded to, or accepted the terms offered in it ; and we believe your 
Grace will find the legal consequences resulting from that coadudf 
placed their whole property in the discretion of his Majesty. That 
being the case* we were called upon, as his Majesty's representatives* 
to secure it so far as we should deem it consistent with his royal in« 
tention* The daim» therefore^ to a general confiscation» wiU not be 
found unwarranted^ according to tlie rights of war* So far> thereforct 
firom complaining against us for having stated such a right, we think 
the inhabitants ought to consider themselves as favourably treated in 
its not having been enforced. 

The proclamation of the twenty-first May was founded upon the 
same idea as that of the loth : but there is one expression in it which 
seems either to have been misunderstood^ or strangely perverted by 
the merchants) dec* v^ho have made complaints against us. We mean 
the part where it is proposed <' to raise a sum of hioney adeqmite to 
the value of the conquest." We trust we are not to have our con* 
duft decided on by a rigid criticism upon the language of our public 
orders. That the a£b done by us, and not the phraseology of a paper 
we may have signed, will be attended to. But if we are to descend 
firom the stations of General and AdmiraU to answer verbal criticisms, 
we need only suggttt a small variation in the language of the paper we 
are speaking of, to render it perfe6Uy consistent with the idea above 
suggested, viz. that of accepting a composition for the restitution of 
property liable to confiscation. If instead of the words •* adequate 
to the value of the conquest," your Grace will be pleased to substitute 
the words '* adequate to the value of the property liable to confia* 
cation," nothing will be found in that paper inconsistent with our idea 
of the rights of the crown, and the plan of accepting a composition 
upon declining to enforce them. It can never be supposed that by 
the words ** adequate to the value of the conquest/* we meant the 
value of the island and all the property in it. £ven the gentlemen 
who complain against us, do not impute to us so extravagant an idea* 
** The value of the conquest" must be understood as referable to the 



^4 itOGRAPHtCAL MEMOtft^ 

• 

property which the cooquett of the island had made the lulged of 
bobtyt aad which ^e capton concetved had been conferred apoo them 
by his Majesty's separate iostrudbioas to Sir Charles Gicy. But .whe« 
ther the coatribtttion which these prochunationa proposed to levy was 
jttst or UDJust» either ia principle or extent) we did not expe^that it 
would now be made a icd>j^6^ of enquiry^ as not a singk farthiDg was 
coUe6led« The prcjeft was in iad abandoned Ipng before it w» 
known that his Majesty disapproved of contribtttions* No loss or 
injury of any kind was in point of h£t sustained by the inhabitants, 
nor have tbey themselves expressed any discontent or dissatts^dion^ 
though advantage has been taken of these proceedings to load us with 
every sort of malevolent mxsrepresentatioo and abuse* * 

We shall now request your Grace's attention to the memorial agned 
by Mr* nrhellosson. By way of impressing your Grace with a just idea 
of the candour of the memorialist, the first parag^raph' charges us with 
having exercised injustice and oppression towards the inhabitants, 
without giving the name of any one person that has been injured, or 
instancing a single h^ or transadlton to warrant so strong an imputa- 
tion. It is not usual for men in high responsible situations to be 
charged in general terms with the exercise of injustice and oj^ression, 
without a foundation Jbeing laid for such a charge, by a statement of 
-iads from whence it can &iriy be deduced. Here the charge is Ix^y 
made at the outset ; and when the subsequent detail of fads (if any 
thing stated in this paper deserves that appellation) comes to be exa- 
mined, it will be found composed of either positive falsehoods or wilful 
misrepresentations. It is not a little smgular, ihat the name of no one 
inhabitant of Martinique should be brought forward as having author 
riscd this complaint. As to the supposed sufferers, whether they were 
planters, merchants, or traders; whether they were Frenchmen, 
Creoles, or persons of colour ; what is the Mature or extent of their 
k>88e8, and how sustained or occasioned, the memorial is totally silent. 
Mr* Thellusson states, that the persons he represents were not adhe- 
rents io the National Convention, Jior did they oppose the proclama^ 
tion of the first of January. Wliether that fad is true or ialse depends 
merely upon his assertion, which in the terms in which it is made can-* 
not receive an answer. If their names and residence had been men- 
tioned, we should have had an <^portunity of answenng this allegation, 
by shewing what part the persons named took in the contest, and 
how far they suffered firom the seizure that took place. The silence 
observed upon this subjed pretty clearly shews, that the principals 
wish to shrink from personal ^enquiry and minute investigation, and 
prefer the mode of circulating their calumny in the name of an agent 
who does not hold himself responsible for what he states. The aUegatioa 



OP JOHN J8S.VIS9 EA&L OF ST. TINCIKT, K. B. 2g 

with respefi to the state of St. Pierre wh^n first summoiied» and the 
quiet Qod peaceable submission of the white inhabitants, is posttivcly 
^d absolutely false* To prove it to be so, it is only necessary for your 
Grace to relvr to the answer given to the Mayor of St« Pierre to our 
summonsy. and the detail of the conquest of the island contained in our 
puUicdi^atches. Your Grace will find» that the town of St. Pierre 
was the b»t piace taken, except Fort Bourbon aad Fort Royal. The 
Aid*dc«Camp who carried the summons to Su Pierre on the sixth of 
February, instead .of being received and listened to, was insulted, and 
not permitted to enter the town ; and the Mayor gave the watch word 
for resistance and defence. So far were the inhabitants from being 
well affe^ed to the British Government, that they manned some of 
^eir batteries near the town, and several armed vessels were under the 
necessity of firing upon the town* to deter them from giving farther 
support to the adjacent forts at the time they were attacked by the 
British forces. Their suf^posed quiet and peaceable submission 
extended no farther than to their not engaging the British troops 
when they entered the town sword in hand^ after having taken the 
surrounding forts by assault, and when farther resistance would have 
been fruitless. To the allegation that states the inhabitants, repre* 
aentf d by Mr. Thellusson, to have relied with implicit confidence on 
the security held forth by the proclamation of the first of January*-*- 
loose and general as it is — we feel no difficulty in giving a positive 
contradiction to, as no description of persons in the island ever intimated 
at the time the most distant idea that they considered, or vrcn in a 
condition to consider themselves entitled to the benefit of the procla- 
mat ion. It was public and notorious to every man in the ishmd, both 
British and French, that every £oot of it was conquered by force ; 
but relying upon these fa^s not^beiog so gcneraEy known in this 
country, and encouraged by their conne^Uons in the British islands, 
and those which they have recently formed in Great Britain, it is not 
improbable that some of the inhabitants may have been since induced 
to authorise these false reprelentations, in the hope of obtaining rtsdtu« 
tion of the property which their resistance to the British forces 
exposed to seizure and confiscation. Not content with stating the 
condu^ of the inhabitaata to have been the dired reverse of what it 
in fad. was, ^he memorialist proceeds to alkdgCf that ail the produce 
and provisions in tha town of St. Pierre, and in some other parts of the 
islandf was seized and sold for the benefit of the captors. The pro- 
perty that was seized' on shoce we have accurately stated. Not an 
ounce of provisions was included, except the produce of the isiand, 
such as has been named, should be deemed so. In short, the whole 
memorial is founded in fahdiood and misrepresentations. It is ^eitfacr 

aioi. IV. E 



l6 BIOGAAPHICAL MIICOI&S 

ftan6iioned by names» nor supported by any document or evidence of 
tnj description ; and yet upon such spurious and anonymous authority 
We are grossly calumniated^ ** as having violated British faith solemnly 
pledged, and a6led contrary to all the rules of war as carried on by 
civilized nations." 

Whether the terms offered by the proclamation of the first of 
January 1794 are to be considered as addressed to individuals only, 
or to the body of the people, is perfcAly immaterial ; for no indivi- 
dual from whom an ounce of property was taken ever intimated a wish 
to accept the benefit of it until after his place of residence was in pos« 
session of the British troops. His professions of regard for and attach- 
ment to the' British Government, might, perhaps, then become vocife- 
rdus ; but what would have been said of us if we had given credit to 
the professions of such men. Had the same opportunity offered at 
Martinique that afterwards occurred at Guadaloupe, all these profes- 
sions would have vanished, and the persons making them .would have 
been found amongst the supporters of the invading enemy. 

The first memorial of the West India planters and merchants appears 
to us to be rather a remonstrance against the condu6l of his Majesty's 
Ministers than a personal attack upon us— we therefore consider it as 
not calling for an answer on our parts. But the other, which refers to 
that we have just observed upon, and calls the attention of his M&j^sty's 
Ministers to the proclamations of the first of January and the tenth and 
twenty-first of May, we consider as demanding ours. It mani- 
festly proceeds throughout, upon a supposition that the fads stated 
In the other memorial are true, and that the inhabitants of the con- 
quered islands had by their submission entitled themselves to the 
benefits offered by the first proclamation. We are not much surprised 
to find false allegations and unfounded calumny stated in a memorial 
that may be fairly said to deserve the charadler of anonymous ; but we 
cannot avoid expressing our astonishment to observe the West India 
planters and merchants adopting it. Had they possessed no means of 
ascertaining the truth or falsehood of the matters stated in it, some 
apology might be made for their doing so ; but the manner in which 
the islands were taken being matter of public history, there is no 
excuse for their adopting a false representation. It was only necessary 
for them to refer to the Gazette to discover that the memorial pre- 
sented by Mr. Thellusson was positively hiac. But it seems the 
planters and merchants did not wish to be undeceived, as there would 
in that case have been no colour for their putting the interpretation 
upon the proclamation of the first of January which they have done* 
His Majesty's proclamation he|d out an encouragement to submission 
€0 his arms, not a reward fur rtttstance to them« They do not txtat 



OP JOHN JHRTia» SARt OF ST. VIIICBKT| K« B, Tf 

this instrument as containing an altemativey but as offering unqualified 
terms* which the inhabitants of the conquered islands were to hare the 
benefit ofy be their condu6l what it mighty whether they subroittedi or 
whether they resisted* In this respedi it is more uncandid than the 
other memorial ; and in stating the demand made by the proclamations 
of the tenth and twenty- first of May» it keeps pace with it infaimesst 
by suppressing the fa^ that not one shilling was ever collected under 
them, and that all idea of contribution was abandoned many months 
2:go. This £id was equally well known to the monorialists as those 
they have stated) and could only be suppressed with a view to gist their 
complaint a degree of plausibilityf which a fair representation would in 
no degree have warranted. AU this industry and anxiety to pervert 
the meaning of public papers* and to misrepresent or suppress the fads 
requisite to a proper judgment of their true operatiouj must have pro« 
ceeded from a consciousness* that a fair interpretation of them* and 9l 
candid statenoent of all the material fads* would have shewn that there 
was no just ground for complaint. Taking the complaint in its 
strongest sense* when the fa6^ is ascertained it amounts to no more 
than that the Commanders in Chief having been under the necessity of 
conquering the islands by force* conceived the conquest to give the 
captors a right to substitute a general contribution for a confiscation of 
property which the condu£l of the proprietors had exposed to forfcit- 
.ure* but which contribution had not been paid. Had it been so putt 
the enquiry called for^ would have appeared ridiculous. 

The memorial from the Liverpool merchants seemsof a very singular 
nature. It calls upon his Majesty's Ministers to disavow principles 
which were never reduced to pradiice* and for a restoration of payments 
that were either never made* or long ago returned. Though it givfs 
a false colour to what has been in the conquered islands* it is not quite 
so destitute of truth and candour as the other two upon which we have 
jost observed* and In that respe^ only differs from them. We shall 
here dismiss the subjeA of these memorials with this short observations 
that if there had been any fair and just gp-ound for complaint which the 
memorialists could have established upon investigation* so as to entitle 
themselves to relief* the courts of justice would have long ago resounded 
with their clamours for redress* and his Majesty's Ministers would have 
been t^e last persons applied to. Conscious that their complaints are 
unfounded in fa£l* and their claims unsupported by any colour of law* 
they substitute misrepresentation and oelumny in their place* and en- 
deavour privately to ruin and disgrace the charaders of men whose 
condu£^ they have not ventured publicly to attack. 

With respeft to the personal request made to your Grace by the 
.West India merchants on the twelfth instant* as stated in the minute of 



\ 



t9 llOGRAPHtCAL MIMOtRf 

the conference sent us by your Grace, we cannot avoid observing, that 
it faib her short of what is called for by their memorial. That paper 
rather indnuatet than charges miscondu6^ ; bat in the prayer of it> 
yoar Grace a called upon to institute an inquiry into our puUic 
condu^, *^ in order to ascertain how far the national charaAer and 
the public justice of the country have been duly and properly supported 
by us* in such high and respk^nsible stations." To our very great 
surprise, the merchants, in their conversation vrith your Gracr» state, 
*' that their obje^ in the application was not a call for enquiry, with a 
view to tnoulpation of our conda<ft, but a public disavowal of the 
measures proposed by the proclamations of the tenth and twenty-first 
of May." : So that after indiredly suggesting to your Grace, that 
the»iiational cfaara&er and the pubh'c justice of the country has been 
wounded hy our condud, nothing more is asked than a disavowal of 
supposed priocijdes, which were never reduced to pra^ice, and of the 
terms of a^rookmadon which are wilftdly misanderstood ox pervcrtedi 
forthe purpose ojF giving a colour to the clamour raised against us. 
In short, the merchants finding that the prayer of their memorial is 
not warranted by aay thing they have to urge s^inst us^ wish, b^ 
indire^ means, to prevail upon your Grace to advise his -Majesty to 
censure our condud! in the way most disgraceful and humiliating to 
us, viz; by a public disat«mal and disapprobatfon, not of an- a6i done 
byiis* but of^aa inteation chat was not carried into efie^ and whidi 
intention is itself grossly aisrepreaented* The merchants have not 
shewn such a disposition of forbcaraace towards iis, as to iaduee your 
Grace to belter, that if they eould have proved us guilty of miscon- 
du^ they >iirould have resorted to an attack upon an unexecuted 
intention^ and have confined their application for ndress to a dis- 
avowal of opiaions entertained by us with ttspc&. to the rights and 
pra6lice of wan If we have aAed illegally or unjustly, the courts of 
justice ore open to the parties vrho may think themselves injured ; and 
from the disposition sbevrn towards us in the menoorials pMsented to 
your'Crace, it is nnanifest, that tenderness to us is not the motive 
which has hitherto wityield the chiinnants from seeking redress in the 
ordinary way* 

Since our -return to this country, we have made aH the enquiry in 
our. power withreq)e& -to the pradice ia former* wars^ wlxtre any 
island or place has been carried by assault ; and instead of discovering 
that we havi; exceeded .former pra^ice* with respeA to the seizure of 
booty, we. find that we have fidlen very far short of it« In his 
Majesty's separate instro^cms to Sir Charles Grey^ diredions are 
given with respe&to the division of any booty that might be taken on 
shore ; and we therefore presumed that it must have been his Majest/s 



OF JOHK JEKVlSi EARL OF ST. VIMCIMT, X* 8« 39 



intention that such property as by the rights ftnd pra^'ce of 
became Tested in the crown, should be setzed» and distiibated between 
the navy and army as booty. We have always understood it to be 
admitted as a general proposition^ that goods taken from an enemy are 
the property of the^ conquerors, and that it is acknowledged right by 
the law of nations to seize enemies goods whenever they^an be founds 
if the vigors are not restrained from doing so under some compaift or 
capitulation. Seizures of a similtr nature to that made by us at Mar- 
tinique have been made in every war many years past : as for inataooe ; 
at Vigo in 17029 at Payta in 1741. at Senegal in I759» «t the 
Harannafa in 1763, at Omoa in 178O9 and at St. Bustatius in 1781. 
The property taken at the last mentioned pkce included all the goods 
and eiFe& of every description found upon the island^ except some 
inconmderable quantities given up to a few individaals ; and yet ■# 
instrufHons were given to the Admiral and General for making such a 
seizure.' It was however afterwards approved by his Majesty* 
and a grant made of the whole property taken in favour of the 
captors. 

In the esnierence between your Grace and the merchants, it seems 
*to have been- taken for granted, that the proclamations complained of 
by them were inconsistent with that of the first of January* If your 
Gface w31 refer to the latter^ yon will find, that in the event of the 
terms offered by it not being acceded to* all^rsoas ading in defiance 
of it were to be ^ treated as entades, and exposed to all the evils which 
the operations of war would neceaaarily brings both on their persons 
and possessions.'' In this predicament were all the inhabitants of the 
conquered islands, and oons^uently all our subsequent orders ought 
to be considered as issued against persons subjed to all the rights and 
severities of war, and although your Grace seems to hive been of 
opinion, that in exercising those right% we were unauthorised by any 
'< power," other than the force we commanded ; yet upon a reconsiu 
deration of the subjefk, vre are persuaded your Gracie will find that wv 
possessed ail the power vested in his Majesty as Sovereign of the State 
whose force we commanded^ and were not 01^ warranted, but tn duty 
bound, to exercise the rights of war in such a nuinner as.we i^ould 
think most likely to meet with his Majesty's approbation, regard being 
had to the iDStru&ions witb which he had honoured us. In the 
situation in which we were placed, much was left -to our discratioiu 
His Majesty pointed out to us the obfeds be wished to accomplish^ 
but the means were left to us ; and with resped to all inferior obje^, 
they were left to our management, without any instrudUons whatever. 
If we have exceeded or abused the powers ddegated to tts> we are not 



39 BIOGAAFHICAL MEMOIlls 

only amciiablc to faia Majesty in a court mDitary^ but to all individuals' 

in the ordinary CQurts of justice. We are perauaded, that neither 

jour Gnu:ej nor any other of hia Majesty's Ministers, will think us 

obje6is of censure* on the ground of mere unexecuted intent ions, evcQ 

if they should be found to have originated in error or mistake. We 

^re convinced, that it never occurred to the inhabitants of the captured 

islands that we had treated them with unwarranted severity, until the 

idea was suggested to them by British traders, who had interested views 

to answer. Our conduA was approved by the principal planters and 

the public officers of the island, a3 your Grace will perceive by the 

testimonials which we take the liberty to subjoin. Various misrepre* 

sentations havjng been circulated as to the value and extent of the 

property seized, it is proper that your Grace should be informed, that 

the whole that was taken, both afloat and on shore (excepting arms 

f^nd military stores) produced only iSj,oool> oiur proportion of which, 

yhoukl it not be diminished by claims or litigation, or by dishonoured 

bills, will be 11,437!. each* We trust your Grace will cucuse our 

having entered at such great length into the discussion of the 8ubje£^, 

as we consider our personal honour, and the reputation we have 

hitherto held in society, as seriously attacked* 

We have the honour to be, &c» 

^,f jur I .^^. CHARLES GREY. 

jth March fjgs. j. JERVIS. 

Calumny repelled with honour and with effed) renders the 
charaAer of the person against whom its envenomed shafts 
were unjustly direftcd, more brilliant, at least in the public eye, 
than it stood before the sera of the invidious attack. It is 
even reported, that several of those persons who had inconsi- 
derately joined in the clamour, became very soon afterwar^L^s 
so i^shamed of their delinquency, that a deputation from the 
worthy seccders waited on Sir John Jervis, and after an ap* 
propriate declaration of their high sense of the important ser- 
vices he had rendered his country, particularly during the 
time he held the West India command i requested his accept- 
ance of a valuable piece of plate, accompanied with their 
intreaties that he would solicit his re-appointment to that sta- 
tion which he had held with so much honour to himself. 
Tbc vote passed by the House of Commons on the §ccon<J of 



OP JOHN JBRYlSy BAtL OF 3T. TINCBNT* K. B. 3I 

June *, in consequence of the vain attempt then made, to adJ 
by a vote of censure, the semblance of dignity and weight to 
that malevolence, which had entered the lists against the fair 
fame of Sir John Jervis and his colleague* appears as the 
grand conclusive climax of publrc approbation :— ^^ That the 
House cordially perseveres in the vote of thanks unanimously 
passed to Sir Charles Grey and Sir John Jervis, with the 
df&cers and men under their command, for the eminent and 
distinguished services which they had rendered to theit 
country." — Thus did truth most exaltedly triumph over 
malicious aspersion » and the latter, which in coverture of it& 
dark designs had assumed the specious garb of patriotic virtue, 
or generous attention to public honour : when stripped of its 
borrowed plumes, was exposed to the derision even of those 
who, on its first appearance, seemed pressing among the 
foremost to countenance and to worship it. 

All ranks of itien appearing as if ashamed of their first folly, 
vied with each other who should pay them the greatest ho- 
nour* A public entertainment was given to the joint Com* 
manders by the Grocers Company ; the freedoni of which, 
as well as of several others, add above all that of the city of 
London itself, was unanimously voted them. The Cham- 
berlain (the late Mr. Wilkes, the public and professed enemy 
of all conduA having the smallest semblance of tyranny and 
extortion) concluded the speech made them on presenting the 
latter nearly in these words : 

• 

* Dnrng the debate iivhich todk place on the fourth of May preceding;, 
Mr. Grey obcerved, *' That he should have imagined that if gentlemen h^d the 
feeling they ought to have for the charader of officers who had been fifty yeart 
in the senrice, and whose honour was hitherto without a staio» they would not 
iiave beea so forward in making charges, as it were by inl)>licatiob. A Itaettiorial 
was presented by a Mr. Thellusson against the condud of these officers in the 
West Indies Who that Mr. Thellusson was he did not know ; but his memorial 
brtathcd nothing^ but diredt and positive falsehood. This he was ready to prove 
at the bar of that House, if the enquiry was instituted. He should prove akp 
erery thing that was necessary to justify Sir Charles Grey and Sir John Jervis 
in ^eir eonduift in the West Indie^-^that they bad XBcrit^ aa4 rtcctved the 
thanlM of the inhabitants for what they dkL'* 



32 tlOaRAPlllCAL MEMOIRS 

*< Permit, geotlemen> the cUy wreaths to be mixed with the laurels 
you have fairly won, and which a general^pplause must more and more 
endear to you* These sentiments of gratitude pervade the country in 
which we h've» while they animate the metropolis of our empire. They 
give a full indemnity against the slanderous breath of envy, and the 
foul calumnies of the envenomed serpent tongue of malice, which in 
these latter times has scarcely ceased to,detra£i from, and endeavour to 
wound superior merit." 

Sir Johrii whose health had been considerably impaired, as 
well by disease as the fatigue which botli his mind and body 
ha,d undergone, during the time be was absent on the West 
India ststtion, having been somewhat restored after bis return 
to his native country : he seized, with all the enthusiasm of a 
)iero in the highest vigour of youth, the earliest opportunity 
bis convalescent state aiForded, of soliciting one of the most 
adive employments which the state of warfare at that time 
afforded. He was accordingly invested with the Mediterranean 
command in a few days * after that honourable and public tes- 
timony just related had been borne to bis merit by the House 
of Commons. He proceeded to the Mediterranean on board a 
frigate ; and immediately on his arrival. Admiral Hotbam* his 
predecessor, resigned to him this important trust. Notwith- 
standing thevery severe blow the French marine in that quarter 
had sustained, in consequence of the partial destruction of the 
arsenal, as well as the fleet, at Toulon, the exertions of the 
enemy, so extraordinary and unprecedented as to seem almost 
incredible, had refitted andcoUe&ed a force of nearly twenty 
Ships of the line. During the period of Admiral Hotham's 
command, this fleet had been hardy enough to venture out; 
and though two slight discomfitures had served in some mea- 
sure to prevent a repetition of the same presumption^ yet that 
very circumstance rendered the future operations in the 
same quarter much more irksome to the British Commander 
in Chief than a situation attended with more danger^ and 
requiring far superior exertions, would have been, 

* On the first of June he was advanced to the rank of Admiral ef the Bine, 
at he had before been, on the twelfth of April in the preceding year, to that of 
Vke-Admiral of the White* 

$ 



OF JOHir jiRTIS} SARL OF ST. VINCSNT^ R. !• 35 

The French armament lay ready For sea, in as good a stat6 
of equipment as the resources possessed by the enemy could 
pot it* The inattention of a few boutt might enable thif foe, 
rendered almost desperate by calamity, to escape from the 
state of duratice in which he was held, and efFeft considerable 
miscliief on some vulnerable territory belonging to the allieSf 
and friends of Britain, before sufficient discovery could be 
made of his route to render pursuit politic, or effefluaL The 
unremitting attention of Sir John operated very successfully 
to the prevention of any such disaster^ and the British com- 

m 

merce was consequently extended over the face of the whole 
Mediterranean, without experiencing any other interruption 
than some few casual depredations committed on vessels 
entirely, or at most, nearly defenceless, which the French 
corsairs, equipped from fhtn petty ports, were fortunate 
enCugh to fell in with. The French Direftory having, by 
insinuations, by threats, and othfer artifices of terror or 
persuasion, contrived, towards the end of *the year I7i96, 

to detach the Court of Spain from the alliance of Great 

_ • • •   

Britain ; the situation of the fleet in that quarter, under the 
orders of Sir John, was suddcjily rendered extremely critical. 
Though the state of the Toulon squadron was insufficient to 
create any disquiet in his mind ; yet the fleet at Cadiz afone, 
in the most perfcft condition for service, more than doubled 
the force he commanded. The political sitiiation of his 
country, at that time,' rendered the greatest exertions necessary. 
A formidable combination was raised against her, and the 
fleets of her opponents', Holland, France, and Spain, had they 
all been peritiitted to unite, would have composed an immense 
armament, cortfistrng 6f nearly one hundred Ships of the line. 
The internal commotions Which had for some time pervaded 
Ireland, appeared to afford these confederated foes the greatest 
hopes of siiccess, provided it Were {Possible for them to put oa 
shore any body 6f regular* troops sufficiently numerous to 
countenance the rebellious insurgents in their open avowal 



34 BIOGRAPHICAL IfEMOIltl 

of that treason, which owing to the insidious representations 
of those among their own countrymen who possessed most 
influence, and were considered as the leaders of their 
party, had long been cherished in their bosoms. At this 
period it had attained an height truly formidable and 
alarming. ^ 

An attempt was made by Frarjce, immediately after Spain 
became an ally to the cause of republicanism, to carry this 
proje£t into execution ; and though it had completely failed, 
there was little reason to exped that the want of success on 
that occasion would so far intimidate the enemy as to prevent 
a repetition of it. Regarding therefore , the general posture 
of public affairs, it must appear evident^ that very urgent 
necessity peremptorily demanded the immediate (execution 
of some grand and deQsive measure, which might, by its 
consequential success, contribute to dispel that tremendous 
cloud which appeared on the point of bursting over her. Of 
this situation, together with all the circumstances which led 
to it. Sir John was perfectly well acquainted : but very little 
relief could be expected, highly as the abilities of its Com- 
mander might be estimated, from a squadron consisting often 
Ships of the line, which| putting the French force at Toulon 
totally out of the question, had to contend with an enemy of 
three times its own force. 

. This disparity of numbers was in some degree reduced by 
the arrival of Rear-Admiral Parker from England, who 
formed a junftion with Sir John on the sixth of February. 
Still, however, his force was so very unequal to that of the ene- 
my, that nothing but the existing case could have warranted the 
attack, nor anything short of the greatest exertions in regard to 
professional knowledge and gallantry which the human mind 
is perhaps capable of making, could have rendered its event 
successful. Independent of that superiority which the enemy 
possessed in resped to force, they had the additional satis- 
faction of being so near to their own ports, that even in casb of 
discomiiiure, they could retire without dreading the conse* 



OP JOHN JERTIS, EAtL 07 ST. tlMCIMT^ X. B» jf 

quences of pursuit, and moor in safety under the cannon of 
their own fortresses in a less space of time than would be 
required to refit the rigging of a frigate, after an hour's contest 
with a vessel of equal force. The magnitude of the obje£l, a 
firm reliance on the intrepidity, as well as adivity of those 
whom be commanded, and a proper confidence in bis own 
judgment, contributed to make the British Admiral despise 
all the surrounding difficulties, and determined him to 
attempt a new mode of attack which he had long arranged 
in his own mind as practicable, should fortune ever favour 
him with an opportunity of carrying it into execution. 
He had long entertained very sanguine hopes it would be 
crowned with the most brilliant success, and the instant he 
received the augmentation of force by the junftion of Mr« 
now Sir William Parker, as well as became apprised of the 
situation of the enemy, he delayed not a moment in making 
known to those whom he commanded, his resolution to 
engage them, and the peculiar manner in which he in* 
tended to arrange his attack. The event is known to all, 
and the leading particulars will be best explained by the offi^ 
cial narrative of Sir John himself, 

silt, Fiffory, in Lagos Baj^ Feb. z6. 

The hopes of falling in with the Spanish fleet expressed in my letter 
to you of the thirteenth instant, were confirmed that night by oiur 
distio£Uy hearing the report of their signal guns, and by intelligence 
ivccived from Captain Foote, of his Majesty's ship Niger, who had, 
with equal judgment and perseverance, kept company with them for 
several days on my prescribed rendezvous, which, from the strong 
fouth*east winds, I hs^d never been able to reach ; and that they 
were not more than three or four leagues from us. I anxiously 
awaited the dawn of day ; when being on the starboard tack. 
Cape St. Vlngent bearing east by north eight leagues, I had the 
latisfad^ion of seeing a number of Ships extending from south* 
west to south, the wind then at west by south. At forty mi- 
nutes past ten, the weather being extremely hazy. La Boune Cko- 
yenne made the signal that the Ships were of the line, twenty- 
five . in number, hi« Majesty's squadron under my command, 
consisting of the fifteen Ships of the line named in the mar- 



3^ BIOGRAPHICAL MSMOIKS 

gm *, w^re happily formed in the most compa^ order of sailingi ia 
two lines. By carrying a press of sail, I was fortunate in getting in 
with the enemy's fleet at half past eleven o^clock, before it had time to 
connect and form a regular order of battle* Such a moment was not to 
be lost ; and confident in the skilly valour, and ^scipliney of the 
officers and men I had the happiness to command, and judging that the 
honour of his Majesty's arms, and the circumstances of the war in these 
seas, required a considerable degree of enterprise, I felt myself justified 
in departing from the regular system^ and passing through their fleet in a 
line formed with the utmost celerity, tacked aYid thereby separated one 
thitd from the main body, after a partial cannonade^ which prevented 
their rejundion till the evening, and by the very great exertions of the 



* COMPAKATIVS Vl£W OPTHft FoKCB Of THE BtxTISH AND SPAtrilH FLBtTt. 



Culloden, 
Blenheitn, 

Prince George, 

Orion, 

^ ColoMus, 
Irresistible, 

ViAopy, 

Egmont, 
Goliath, 

Britannia, 
BarflcttTv 

I 

Captaiii, 

Kamur, 

Diadem, 

£xcelleDt, 



•fB^Mlt «r Formed. 

' Commofiderj . 

Captain T. Troubridjrc. 

Captain J . L. Frederick. 
5 R car-Admiral W. Parker. 
( Captain J. Trwin. 

Captain Sir James Saiimarez. 

Captain George Murray. 

Captain Ceo. Martin. 

Admiral Sir J. Jervis, K. B. 

Captain Sir R. Calder, Knt. 

Captain G. Grey. 

Captain J. Sutton. 

Captain. Sir C. Knowles, Bart. 

{Vice-Admiral C* Thompson. 
Captain John Foley. 
5 Vice-Admiral Waldcgravc. 
I Captain J. R. Dacres. 

} Commodore Nelson. 
Captain R W. MiUer. 
Captain J. H. Whitshed. 
Capuin G. H< Towry. 
Captain C. CoUingwood. 



SfoMtb Fleet 9f»posei to 
tht Br'aiA. 



Frigates. 
La Minerve, 
Southamptcm, • 
Lively, 
Niger, 

Bonne Citoyenne, 
Raven, 
Fox Cutter, 



Captain Geo. Cockbura. 
Captain James M*Naip*ra. 
Captain Lord Qarlies. 
Captain Saniuel Foote. 
Captain Lord ^'ark Kert.' 
Captain William Prowse. 
Lieutenant Gibson. 



Shift. G 


'ufUm 


Santissima Trinidada- 


130 


Conde de Regla 


119 


Salvador del Mundo - 


11% 


Meiicana 


11» 


Principe de Asturias ^ 


11% 


Conception 


IIX 


San Josef 
San Genaro 


IJ^ 


74 


San Firmin - • 


74 


San Ildefonzo - 


74 


San Juan Nepomuceno 


74 


San Francis de Paulo 


74 


San Ysidro 


74 


San Antonio • f 


74 


San Pablo 


74 


Atlante 


74 


Glorioso • 


74 


Conquestador - 


74 


San Nicholas • 


84 


Oriente 


74 


InCanta de Pelayo 


74 


Firrae" - • 


74 


Sobenno •* * 


74 


San Domingo Cflvte) • 


5« 


San Juan 


74 


Names unknown 


5 74 
C 74 


Frigates, 


• »^^ 


Pcrla - - 


34 


Ceres - . - 


34 


Matilde - - * 


34 


Paz ... 


34 


Mercedes 


34 


JDiane 


34 


Antiocha « • • 


34 


Brigida . - . 


34 


Dorotea - - - 


34 


Vigilante (brig) 


xS 



OF JOHN JBATISt KARL OF ftT. V1N0ENT« K. B« fj 

Ships which had the good fortune to arriTe up with the eaetny on the 
larboard tack, the Ships named in the itiargiti * were captured, and the 
a6Uon ceased about Eyc o'clock in the evening. I inclose the most 
correft fist I hare been able to obtain of the Spanish fleet opposed to 
met amounting to twenty-seven sail of the line, and an account of the 
Uled and wounded in his Majesty's Ships, as weU as in those taken 
from the eoemy t. The moment the latter* almost totally dismasted; 
smd his Majesty's Ships the Captain and Culloden are in a state to put 
to sea, I shall avaQ myself of the first favourable winds to proceed off 
Cape St. Vincent, in my way to Lisbon* Captain Calder, whose abk 
assistance has greatly contnbuted to the public service during my com- 
mand, is the bearer of this, and will more particulariy describe to the 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty the movements of the squsi* 
dron on the fourteenth, and the present state of it*— «I am, &c* 

In addition to those circumstances already related, there 
are aeyeral} scarcely less consequential Xy whkh the confined 

* Salvador ddMimda^ 112 guns; Sanjotepk, iia; San Nicoka, 84; 8aa 

Ysidro, 74* 

f E9gWh Offcert kUUd and mmndid, 

Mr. Jotq>h Wiian, Master's Mate, wounded; Captain Major WiUiam MoP- 
ris» Marines, killed; Mr. James Oodencli, Midshipman, killed; Commod(m 
Nelson bruised, but not obliged to quit the deck. 

MxcgUeiO^^hlT, Peffers, Boatswain, killed. 

CvlbAii*— Mr. G. A. Livingstone, Lieutenant of Marines, killed ; Mr. Wm* 
Balfoor, Midshipman, wounded. 

T«tal kilUd and 'wounded 09 hoa^d the Spaniib Slips taken iy tie Sqvadr^n tmdir Shr 

John jfarv'u. 

Killed, s6i.— Wounded, 342.— Tots], 603. 

Among the killed is the General I>on Francisco Xuvier Wintlmysui Che£ 
d*£scadre. 

\ The following remarks on this splendid vi^ory are fiimiihed bf an ano- 
oymous hand :. 

« If a daring spirit of enterprize ever manifested itself in any chara&er, it 
surely never shone more conspicuous, than in the unparalleled attack made by 
Admiral Sir John Jervis on the Spanish fleet on the fourteenth of February. 
What is, however, if possible, still more worthy admiration, is the judicioos 
close of that glorious a^on, which evinces the gallant Admiral's judgment to 
be equal to his valour : lor had the signal to bring to, been delayed even five 
minutes longer^ oar trophies must not only have remained very insecure, but pos-* 
sibly, with the Captain man of war, might have fallen into the hands of the ene* 
my. Owing to the 'situation of both the fleets, the British Ships could not have 
formed without abandoning the prizes, and running to leeward, the enemy at 
this time having at least eighteen or nineteen Ships that had not suffered in the 
slightest degree hj the a^ioiit At this period the Captain was lying a per* 



jt BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

limits of a report hastily drawn up immediately after this 
splendid encounter, prevented the insertion of. When the 
Spanish reconnoitring vessels were distin£lly perceived, several 
British Ships were immediately ordered to chase : so that, oa 
the appearance of the enemy's van, it became necessary ta 
form the line ahead and astern of the Admiral, as most con- 
venient, without respeft to the order of battle. This was done 
by signal at five minutes past eleven. The signal to cut 
through the enemy's line was made by the Admiral at thirty- 
five minutes past eleven ; and this was immediately followed by 
that to engage. These signals were obeyed with equal ardour 
and celerity by Captain Troubridge, in the Culloden, fol- 
lowed by the Blenheim, Prince George, and the other Ships 
as they had formed. 

fed wreck on board the San Nicholas and San Joseph Spanish Ships, and many 
of other Ships were so shattered in their masts and rigging, as to bcwhoJlr 
ungovernable. 

The following are instances of the singular inteiposition.of Divine Providence 
in favour of the British in the late adion : 



ExiraSI from an Oncers Jeurnal of Sir yobn ycrvu*s Squi 

FelK I. The Culloden parted company in chase. 

Feb« 4. An American vessel came into the squadron, connsting then of only 
nine. sail of the Une^ which intelligence he afterwards communicated to the 
Spanish Admiral, 

Feb. 6. Rear Admiral Parker joined the 8q[uadronf with five sail of the line^ 

Feb. 9. The Cullbd^ and a cutter joined the squadron. 

Feb. 13. Commodore Nelson joined the squadron. 

Feb. 14. A fog concealing the British force, enabled fifteen Ships of the \fntt 
to attack the Spanish fleet, consisting of twenty-seven, among which were sevep 
three->deckers» La Santlssima Trinidada, of 150 gui^s, was so disabled in ^e 
adlion that she was obliged to be towed off for Cadiz in the night. 

Feb. 16. The squadron was forced into T agos Bay, to secure the prizes, and 
repair the^ damages it had sufstained in the adlion. A few days after it ex- 
perienced the tail of a gale cf wind : had this blown home, every Ship am) 
man muist have perished, as from th% badness of the ground most of the Ships 
drove, or cut ihcir cables. The ViAory, Inresistible, and Salva4or del Mundp 
parted their cables. 

On the twenty- third sailed without accident, and arrived at Lisbon on the 
twenty-eighth, aftcl* pasiiilg'ncar Cape St. Vincept**, which station the Spanish 
fleet, consisting of twenty-two sail of the line, had quitted the evening before. 

However incredible it may appear, it is a positive fadl, that in theadion o( 
the^foi]ihteenth of '^ebruaiy, Commodore Nelson, in the Captain of 74 guns, an^ 
Captain Troubridge, in the Culloden of the same force, turned the whole vai^ 
of the Spanish fleet, consisting of three l^rss rates, and four 74 or 8c gun Shi^!^ 



OF JOHN JB&VlSj BA&L OF ST, TINCSNTj £• B» ^9 

The fnciDCDt the enemy's line was broken, all the Ships to 
Windward wore ; some in succession, others two or three 
together, as their fears or necessity compelled them. The 
signal was then given for the British fleet to tack in sac* 
cession. This was immediately done by the greater part of 
the line; but the Captain, bearing the broad pendant of 
Commodore Nelson, being in the rear, wore and pushed 
on, with a view to support the CuUoden, and prevent 
the seventeen Spanish Ships already cut off, from re* 
joining tli^ir van. This manceuvre completely succeed* 
ed. He was soon followed by the Excellent, and pre* 
sently after by the Diadem and Namur. At one o'clock, 
the Britannia's signal was made to tack, the headmost of the 
British Ships having so much damaged the Spanish van, that 
it began to move off, and the principal force becoming, in 
consequence, necessary for the succour of the Ca^itain and 
the Culloden, with the other Ships that were then commenc* 
ing their attack upon the enemy. On the Britannia's put* 
ting her helm a-lee, the Barileur instantly wore, and, as 
being a £ister sailer, soon reached within a cablets length of 
the Vidpry, diredly in her wake, which station she main- 
tained till the end of tlie adion *, about a quarter of an hour's 
interval excepted, when the Namur^. from her swift sail* 
ing, was enabled to push between her and the Victory. The 
Spanish Ships being thus cut off, and prevented from rejunc* 
tion during the battle, by the quick and well-dire£ted fire of 
the Prince George, the Culloden, Blenheim, Orion, Irre* 
sistible, and Diadem ; tlie rest of the British squadron fought 
with the others, and, before sun- set, took possession of the 
Salvador del Mundo, and San Josef, of one hundred and 
twelve guns> the San Nicolas of eighty^four, and the San 
Isidro of seventy-four ; the Santissima Trinidada, the Spa* 
nish flag Ship, escaping with considerable difficulty, and ia 
the most shattered condition. 

At this period, nine or ten of the Spanish Ships that ha4 
been separated, and, therefore, unengaged during the whol^ 

• Sec the Plate. 



jf9 BlOOItAFHICAL MBMOtftS 

contest, having at length ciFefied a jtinfiton with their van^ 
were preparing to come down and renew the aftion. It was 
now that the great merit of Sir John Jervis displayed itself 
to advantage^ With the most prompt resolution be brought 
to, and made so able a disposition for the defence of the Ships 
under his care, that» though still superior in number, they 
thought proper to leave their friends, and avoid the danger 
with which they were threatened. 

The consequences of this viAory were as happy, as the 
circumstances which attended it were glorious. The ar- 
rangements made by the enemy^ in all tlie pride of expeded 
triumph, were completely disarranged ; and the British fleet, 
though for a long time inferior in numbers, as well as force, 
exhibited the singular and wonderful spedade to the rest of 
the world, of the power it possessed, in being capable of con« 
fining a fleet stronger than itself, within the harbour of the 
principal port belonging to Spain, and insulting that port 
it8elf> by every ad an enemy elated with vidory could de** 
vise. The joy with which the news of this success was re* 
ceived in Ejigland, was in no degree inferior to the magni- 
tude and consequence of it ; nor did the public gratitude 
keep an unequal pace with the general exultation. Sir John 
received from bis Sovereign, exclusive of other inferior ho« 
nours, the more consequential elevation to the dignity of a 
Baron, and Earl of Great Britain, by the tides of Bs^n Jer- 
vis i of Meaford, the place of his birth, and Earl of St. Vin- 
cent, the scene of his glory* A pension of three thousand 
pounds a year was also bestowed on him by the unanimous 
vote of Parliament. These honours and rewards posterity 
can never think unmerited ; they in some measure become 
necessary, in an historical light, to put the cause of gratitude 
otit of the question, for they stand an established proof to 
the latest tnoment of recorded timei x^hat ofi the fifteenth of 
February iJ^J^ fifteen British Ships of the line engaged and de^ 
fia^d a Spanish fleet^ consisting of twenty SkipSy the smallest of 
fhem tarrying T^gUns^ and seven others mounting from II2 /• 
I'iP guns eacb% 



^9 jOHK^lV&TISy BAflL OV ST. VIKCBHT^ K. B. 41 

His Lordship continued during the space of the two sue* 
cccding years, uninterestingly for himself, but. gloriously for 
his country, occupied in the blockade of Cadiz, or such ser- 
Tices as the depressed spirits of his antagonists rendered it 
necessary for him to undertake, either in his own penon, or 
by proxy. Among the latter may be reckoned the vidory 
obtained by Lord Nelson in the Bay of Aboukir, the hmt 
of which is too great, and too recent, to need the smallest 
eulogium or account from the pen of the historian. 

Finding, however, his health considerably impaired by the 

£itigue of his very laborious service, he was compelled to 

return to England in the month of July i799> ^"^ ^^^^ ^ 

long struggle with disease, was fortunate enough to overcome 

the only enemy of whom he could stand in dread. . He ire* 

covered his health in so great a degree, as to enable him in 

the mionth of May, 180D, to .take upon himself the command 

of the fleet which was sent from the shores of Britain in 

earnest search of that armament which now comprises nearly 

the ^hole of that marine force possessed by her combined 

enemi^, tot which, formidable as its numbers may seem, 

appears to shrink from the contest, and consider itself happy 

in the safety it derives from the batteries of Brest, which 

have hitherto defended it from the e|Feds of his Lordship's 

terrestrial thunder. 



&rabSc Fartknlaxs relative to the Earl of St* Vinuat* 
He is descended from James Jervu^ of Chatkill, in the county of 
Stafford, who lived temp. Henry VIIL and whose second son, Wfl* 
liam, having settled at Ollerton^ in Shropshire, was the ancestor of 
that particular branch of the family to which his Lordship belongs. 
He has an elder brother now living, or very lately deceased, William 
Jervis, of Meafbrd, in the county of Stafford. Their mother was 
Elizabeth, daughter of Gkorge Pau*ker, of Palk Hall, in the parish of 
Caverswale,'in the county of Stafford, and sister to Sir Thomas Lord 
Chief Baron of the Court of Exchequer. Earl St. Vincent married 
June fifth, 1783, at St. George's, Hanover Square, Martha^ daughter 
of the bdbre-mentioned Sir Thomas Parker, by whom he has no 
issue. 

tnou IV. o 



4» BIOG&APHICAL MEMOIRS OF THE EARL OW ST. TIMCBMT. 

Arks.] Sable a cheTeron Ertnine bttireen thrte martlets, Or. 

Crsst.] Out of a naval crown Or, encircled with a garland of oak proper, 
a demi Pegasus, winged Ajpnre, and charged on the sinister wing with a fleor de 
lis Or. • 

SuppoETims.] On the dexter side an Eagle, ^whigs elevated t ^ the claw, m 
thunderbolt proper. On the sinister, a Pegasus Argent, wings elevated Azure, 
thereon a fleur de lis Or. 

Motto.] Thus. 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF NAVAL TACTICS, 
Drawn from aSuai Eventt, and the Success vfbich has attended parUctdar 
Manmmres praB'ued in Engagements between Two Fleets, ' From the 
Revolution down to the present Time, Arranged in Chronological Order. 



I 



*' BXAJfrtaS'TSACH WHIM PRICSPttS «^XL»** 

S a trite proverb, well knoi/vp to every achool-boyv Never^ perfaapst 
^_ did the truth of any one appear more forcibly than the application 
of it in the present instance. The scientific theorist* may amuse him- 
scflfin'bis closet with fanciful artangements,' whicH, boweveringenioiuly 
contrived, are not decidedly oMaift at to dieit e&As. i'.But of thoie 
effeds which adual pra£tice has produced, thert cannot remain a 
shadow of doubt* n. _ ; / . 

Examples of a Fleet halving the Weather Gilgi iOttaclhtg an AiMif, and 

defeating him, by a Pressure of the Fan before the Rear could get up to 

its Assistance. 

IN the battle fought in- 1665, a viftory was obtained by the 
'English 'over the Dutch, in consequence of the former having the 
weather-g&ge*, ahd pressing the kading part of the enemy ^s fleet. 

The same thing happened in the second action which toakipboein 
1666, on St. James's Dayi* the enemy lying in the same position *• 
The battle w^ vh^n^by the finish after two- ikours fight, by pressing 
^e-beadmost of the eneiliy^ which were not able to sustain themselves 
til'therestoflfaetffi^eC came to engage. >! " / 1 

Intheyeai*'i<^ft» in 'Sole Bay, the English suffered in like .manner. 
The Earl of Sandwidh) with the rest of his divisioni hard pressed by 
the enemy, andMriving to gain the. wind, were overpowered, when 
the rear fek little or nbthing of the battle. * : 

On the fourth of June 1673, the Eaglisb.met with thr same 
accident. The enemy came out upon them, beaoiig only upon the 
leading squadron, and, never regarding the rear of the fleet, till such 
time as the former were scarce able to maintain the battle* But night 
coming on favoured them. 

in the same manner, on the eleventh of August, the English laid*tp 
to receive the enemy, in which they had the same success which always 
attended this order of battle. 

* See the plate. 



IbLOITftATIONI or MATAfc TACTIC). 



V ' 



44 ILLUSTRATIONS OF NATAL TACTrC9« 

Reference to the preceJin^ Figure. 
, The larboard tack on board in both fleets* 

BHOLXSH FLAOft. 

Sir Tho8. Tiddbmah, Vice-Admiral Tbs Pbiwgs and Dose» Generak 
of the White. Si a RoBbrt Holmbs, Rear-AdmihL 

Sra Tho. Allbn, AdmiraU' Rear- Admiral Kb mptho a hb* 

ReaiwAdmiralUTBER. Sib Jbkbmt Smitb. 

Sir Jos. Jordan, Vice-Admiral of Sib £d. Spraoo« 
the Red. 

DUTCB FLAG. 

£tbbtz, with the ZeaUod Squadron. Van Tromp^ with the Amsterdam 
De Ruttbr, those of the Maae« Squadron. 

Trarulatton of the Dutch Jiccount of the EngagemetU with the British 
Fleetf eommanJed by his Highness Prince RirpBaTi and Ins Grace the 
Duie of AhhEMAKLEf on the i^h ^June i666» 

 

From a MS* preserved in the British Museum* 

ji Narrati've of what pasted in the Sea Fight hetmxt the Fleets of 
Enghnd and the United' Netherlands* Drawn up accorSng to 
the Commands and Orders of the States General of those Countries ^ 
14/A June i665» h ^he Raet Pensioner Da W1TT9 VayisaofiN 
HuoLETHy «ik/GBRLATioN8) Deputies and Plenipotentiaries of 
their tftgh and Mighty Lords^ He* &r« heing at present in the 
Weilings, for the Expedition of the Management of the Nether- 
land Fleet, after a narrow Examination of the Chief Officers, 
Commanders^ and Captains of the same Fleet, 

'"IP HE Holland fleet upon the firsts second, third, fourth, and fifth of 
J^ June {new stile) sailing from the Texel, with variable winds afid 
calms, approached the English coast on the eighth. The eleventh, 
they were Kven or eight miles £. S. £. off the North Foreland, where 
they anchored. The English were at anchor in the Downs, but set 
sail also the fifst {rather eleventh) of June, and met the same day the 
Dutch fleet, which was eighty -three men of war strong, besides ketches 
and fireships. Just before the flght, one of the biggest Dutch Ships, 
Captain Col. van Gent, was disabled, and sent home ; the Captain 
n;ioving into the Ship of Captain Golskers. English fleet about eighty- 
strong. Fight began at one in the afternoon. Dutch fleet cut their 
cables* Both fleets steered south, wind at W. S. W. ; a that the 
Dutch rear guard, commanded by Lieutenant- Admirals Tromp and 
Van Meppelen, became the van guard. He behaved well ; and the 
Colonel General De Ruyter, and Lieutenant-Admiral Van Ness, 
commanding the centre, soon fuccoored him* In a short time^ an 



tlLUSfRXTfO^S Off XAVAL TACnCt, ^f 

EngBsh frigate of 50 guns was seen to sink, by a broadside from De 
Rnyter. The squadron of Lieutenant-Admiral Cornelius Evertson* 
lind Eerrick Hiddes de Vric, was long before it could come into fight. 
The fight continued till fi?fe, when the English turned, and steered 
N. W. going before the witid ; and theki the squadron of Evertson 
and De Vrie came into fight. In tackiifg, some of the hindermost of 
the English were taken, and some brought into Holland* The Swift* 
lure, 70 guns, Coalfflodore Sir William Berkeley, Vice Admiral 
White, taken bj Hendrick Adrmnson, commanding the Keyger, of 
70 guaa^ was kHled in person, (^n. Who ?) The Seven Oaks, of 
60 guns, taken hj Captain Wander Zae, commanding a frigate of gz 
guns ; the Loyal Geoi]ge, 44 guns, taken by Captain Swaert, Com- 
mander of the Dewoittr,^ 66 gttnr; all belonging to the College of 
Amsterdam. 

Two Dutch Ships wen set on fire, the Duy Tan Vord, 46, Captain 

Treslaugh, and the Hoff of Zealand, $8 guns. Captain Simon Blocke, 

both burnt by accident. On board Captain Treslaugh's Ship were 

the Prince of Monaco, and the Count of Guiske. Van Tromp's and 

Van NciM's Skips were so mudi dasHagod, that they were <^ltged to 

shift their flags. The English passed by the Dutch fleets and their 

Admiral, with some Ships, came to an anchor ; but seeing De Royter 

Aake after them, cut their cables, and another aftion ensued, in which 

no Dutch Ship was lost- ; but about se^n or eight in the evening, 

an BnglMiShYp, of about sixty or seventy guns, of the blue squadron, 

was sunk, about a musket shot from De Ruyter's Ship. Towards 

the evening. Rear* Admiral C. Harmann, of the white flag, was disabled 

by De Ruyter, and afterwards set on fire by a fire-ship which was 

sunk by her aide. A second fire-ship was dapt on board her from the 

Zealand squadron ; but even this she got dear pf, as also of a third, 

ythich was sent on board under favour of Evertson's guns. But the 

^Rear-Admiral of the White defended himself against all these, although 

at least three hundred of his men leapt overboard ; and late' in the 

evening he made a shot which kiUed Evertson. Night coming on^ 

the fleets parted, and it is uncertain whether the English Rear- 

Admiral was sunk or towed home. On the twelfth, the English were 

half a mile to loof of the Dutch, wind W. S. W. Both 'fleets made for 

''^ch other, the Dutch steering N.W. and the English S. So soon as 

'they came near, the Dutch also steered south. The English having 

•the wind came upon the Dutch, and there was a great fight. The 

fleets having passed each other, without any loss on any side, a* calm 

followed, during which each party repaired, as well as they could, till 

eleven o'clock. Before noon, the wind rising, the fleets made towards 

•each other, the Dutch being then above the wind. De Ruyter having 



^5 XLLVITltATlONS OF NATAL TACTICS* 

got near the English^ heard a great shoatingt aad therefore returned 
into his equadroni where he found Lieutenant Admiral Van Tromp* 
Vice-Admiral Van der Huht, ad also Captain Peter Salmonz den 
Haen, and Van Amstel, in the midst of the enemy, all much battered, 
and in great danger of being burnt or sunk, Captaii) Salmonz being 
already on fire ; but the crew were saved ; the Captain was howeHr 
afterwards slain in the Ship of Captain Schey ; the rest were also 
unserviceable.' In this enoounter, Vice- Admiral Van der Hukt waa 
tiain. Many English Ships were sunk and burnt. Those of wbick 
we are certain are as follows : 
A Ship of the red Squadron, 60 guns, sunk about noon. 
'A Ship of the blue,' 60 guns« sunk about three P. M» 
A Ship of the white, 50 guns^ sunk hsdf an hour after by De 
Ruytcr's squadron. *'••', 

The Black Eagle, sunk by Captain Marreult* 
Another Ship«unk in the middle of tte Engiidi fleet. 
Several other English Ships sunk and burnt> of which we have no 
certain knowledge. . • . .• 

The fleets charged three times through each other ; but on the 
Dutch ofiering the fourth chaige, the English set by all the sdfl Akiy 
could for their own coast, being then reduced to thirty-eight or thiit/- 
nine men of war. On the thirteenth, the English, finding diemsdvet 
pursued, set on firr their disabled and bad sulihg Ship4 ; the Eiiglish 
say only three in their Gazette^ but our people saw many -moitft 
t'N.^Bi Fourteen is maried irt the margitt.] In this rctreit, the R^yal 
Prince, of 90 brass guns, commanded by Sir Gedrge AAewr^Aedmifil 
of, the White, struck upon the Gsdlop^r, and beidg left- waa- takebpfi* 
soneri and sent with his men to the Hag^ue $ the Shipms'ncbct 4layaet 
on fire.^ In the afternoon, there came from ^€ west Prince Riipefty 
With twenty-two men of war, who it seems wte senttheday before tuf 
the Channel, to get what Ships he could out of Portsmouth a6d ^y- 
mouth, to make after the French fleet under the Duko of Beaulbrt. 
The Dutch seeing this fresh suf^ly, sent the Zealand and Fri^ftknid 
squadron to attack him ; but the Prince made for the main body b£ 
the English fleet, whom he joined late in the evening. The Engli^ 
fleet being sixty or sixtyi-one sail of good men of war, the Dutch^bout 
sixty.four, but much damaged by a two days fight, and having three 
Ships burnt or sunk, with several sent home. The next morning De 
Ruyter called a council, and exhorting his Captains to do their duty^ 
fell again upon the enemy, about eight A. M. in three squadnms. He 
passed the English fleet, and tacked again, fighting all day with great 
fury ; during which a Dutch man of war. Captain Vytehhout, waa 
sunk and burnt, and another Dutch Ship that came to save the Vice- 



i J 



ILLUSrmATlOflS OF NAVAL TACTICS. 47 

Admiral Dc Hefday from an English fireahip. A Dutch fireshtp 
bdngsent ta board Prince Rupert waa stopped by an English one^ and 
the two fireships burnt, together with an English Ship t^t had the 
misfortune to fall in between them. Van Tromp> with several others^ 
were forced to retreat. General De Ruyter finding night coming on, 
resolved to give a general charge to the English, which he did with 
luch effect that the English were totally defeated, leaving behind se- 
vera! pnze8*---the Bull, and the Essex, a brave frigate of 58 guns, were 
taken by Captain Paw ; the Clove Tree of 64 guns, and Convertine 
•f 54 gUB8» The same day two more En^ish Ships sunk, one 
belonging ta the White about six in the evening, and another a short 
time after. Several others destroyed, not known with certainty* A 
thick mist coming on, the Dutch, after a pursuit of four glasses, were 
forced to leave off, De Ruyter ordered the fleet to drive all night { 
and findiQg no enemy in the moming« arrived that day with sixty safl 
at the Weilings ; ten who were, disabled put into Goree ; ten othetf 
for the same reason, made for the Texel, and the four which were 
bursty made in all eighty-four,. the full number that went from the 
Te^cl. In these fights, the English have lost at least twenty-three 
Ships sunk, burnt, and taken. * 

This done the a6th of June i666« 



PLATE XXXVIT. 

-rSt a. representation of the a^ion fought off Cape. St. Vinccntt 
-■•between the Spanish and British fleets on the fourteenth of 
f ^bruayy 1797* Thq ^ime chosen by the artist is the moment 
whcp ti}e^ Viftqry, of 190 guns, bearing the flag of Sir John Jervis, 
thc^Pompaander in Chief, is comiiig up under the stem of the Salvador 
del Mundo;» yf .1 1:; guns, and is in the aft of raking her : a measure 
which- caused her almost immediate surrender. The Barflear, of 90 
guns, the flag-ship of Vice-Admiral Waldegrave, is seen m the wake 
of the Vidoryr the British Ship on the right hand is the Excellent, 
of ^4 gmi^ commanded by Captain C. Collingwood, engaged with the 
Ysidro Spanish Ship of the same force, which is nearly dismasted, and 
very soon afterwards surrendered to him. The Ships on the right are 
the seventeen sail which were separated from the rest of the Spanish 
fleet inconsequence of the judicious manceuvre pra£Hsed by the Com- 
mander in Chief, who cut through their line, and prevented a rc« 
jundUon with their shattered companions till the evening of the same 
day, by which time the viftory was secured, and the Spanish Ships 
which fell into his hands were taken possession of. 



. C 4B ] 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF NAVAL HISTORY, 



Letter from Sir GeoROs Btng, afterwards Lord Ftteount Ton* 

&INOTON} to Admral Baker. 
f Gibraltar^ the 2Ad Sept. 1709. 

IT is above a month since I arrived heare with Mr. Stanhope in 
hopes of meeting you hear with troops for an expedition on Cadtz* 
The time is over, the enemy beeing prepaird for receiving uss not ia 
Y manner as at first laying of the proje6fc was expefted* For my own 
particular part» I am not disapoynted ; I all waies have more opinion 
of force then credit to believ men will give them selves up to you till 
you bring strength to proted them ; my Lord Gallway writeing us 
word the ministrie in England have given over the projc6l» and that 
you are ordered with the troops dire6ily to Catalonia. Mr. Stanhope 
remains hear in expeSation of your squadron, that he may return with 
you and myself. Beeing told by my friends from England their is leave 
given for my goeing home» and havetn^ with me the Ships named in 
the margein that are crasie and worme eaten, and not five weeks pro* 
▼ission, none at Lisbon or Mahon^ I have resolved to proceed direftly 
for England, though my orders for so doeing is not yet come. I dont 
forsee any orders can come with you for me to put in execution, but 
what will as properly be don by you ; therefore have left an order^ 
(w'^ accompany 's this) for you to put in execution any such orders aa 
may come for me. So do you as you shall judg most reasonable. 

If you shall find yourself under any difficultie therein, I would advise 
to call a councill of war ; but before you do so> consult with Gen^ Stan- 
hope, with home pray all waies live well, for he is most honest, and a 
very worthie man as ever lived. All that I have more is, to wish my 
deare Baker first his healths and next his pleasure ; and after that, in 
order to support the former^ all the health is possible for fortune to 
favour or rather reward you with ; for nobody is more sencerelie your 
well wisher and fitithfull hum^ terv^ then 

My service to Littleton O. BYNG. 

& the Gent*" with you. 

Admral Baker* 

Prhate Letter from an Officer on hoard the Fleet commanded fy Lord 
Fiscount HowB, ictf/J Trident, Sandy Hook, i%th August 1778. 

SlRt 

IT is with the g^reatest pleasure I embrace this opportunity of 
writing ; and I should have been glad to have acquainted you withT 



tltUSTRATIOira OF KATAL HISTORY. 49 

the defeat of the French fleet ; but it has proved otherwise. Not but we 
had every reason to hope for success on our first setting out after them. 
We had been blocked up by them at Sandy Hook for about ten days, 
when a gale of wind drove them off to sea. All our men lay during this 
time at quarters, expeding them to come in every day ; which had 
they done, the first or second day after thdr arrival, they must have 
certainly carried their point ; and the fete of America been decided : 
as they must have taktn the Navy and Army all prisoners. Having 
escaped this, our strength daily increased ; being joined by the Corn* 
waB, one of Admiral Byron's fleet, we put to sea in quest of them, oa 
Saturday, the eighth day of August^ and found them on the tenth in 
the harbour of Rhode Island: which island had not then surrendered* 
On the eleventh, at break of day, the French fleet got under weigh, 
and received a hearty cannonading from the fort. We were obliged to 
cat and proceed to sea* At first, I thought Lord Howe meant only 
to dear Block IsUnd, and then to engage ; but as they always kept 
the weather gage, we could not make use of our fireships, which were 
pur chief dependance, but kept under an easy sail all that day ; so 
that» had they had any inclination to bring us to adion, we did not 
•eem any way averse to it* They still pursued us with reW6bince, 
Bother caring to engage, nor leave us. The next day proved very 
equally ; and we were obliged to batten down our lower deck gratings, 
to get our ports up, if necessity required it. The gale still increased. 
About five in the evening, they came within shot of us ; and Lord 
Howe having shifted his flag on board the Apello, ran through our own 
fleet. Ship by Ship, speaking with every one ; and each saluting him 
with three cheers, the French fleet still within shot. Whether from a 
timidity of spirit, or from finding a determined resolution through the 
whole fleet to engage should they make an attempt, 1 cannot answer ; 
but they thought proper to bear away about six. The gale still 
increased ; and we were obliged to lay to two days : during which 
time both fleets were separated. The third day we made, in all, 
only eight sail ; but the -whole fleet has joined us since at Sandy 
Hook, except the Centurion and Se\iegal. The Renown fell in with a 
French cighty*four gun Ship, called the Tonnant, and gave her several 
broadsides ; she was obliged, however, to sheer off, inore of their fleet 
coming to their assistance. The Isis fell in with one of their sev/enty« 
fours, which she engaged, she being in distress. The French Ship 
shooting ahead, gave her an opportunity of raking her, so that she 
thought proper to sheer off ; the Isis being unable to- pursue, having' 
adl her foremast shrouds shot away, except one and the swifter. ' The 
Isis had one man killed, and thirteen wounded. One of the French 
fleet is driven ashore to the north of Cape May, and the Languedoc ha$ 

Vol IV. H 



50 tLLtrsTllATZOlf^S Ofr HlYAt HlfttORY. 

lost all her masts* The Languedoc is ooe of the French eighty-rotir 0f 
ninety gun Ships. When the French fleet appeared o£F Rhode Islandf 
tt was thought proper to destroy the shipping in that harbour, which 
was pat into execution by burning and sinking them. The following 
are the names of the Ships that are destroyed : the Orpheus of 3 a 

funs, Juno of 32 guns. Flora of 32 guns. Lark of 28 guns, and the 
alcon sloopy besides transports. The seamen took possession of the 
fort under the command of Capt^^Brisbane^ which they defended with 
the greatest bravery, parading the tops of the embrazuresy while the 
French fleet entered the harbour, and had but one man slightly wounded 
in the finger. What loss the enemy might have sustained on their 
coming out, I am not certain. The Cornwall sprung her main^mast in 
the partners ; the Raisonable her bowsprit ; and the Apollo lost her 
j^oremast, mizen, and main-topmast. We are getting ready as fast 
as possible ; and imagine we shall be out in about four days. The 
Monmouth arrived here this day. Whether any more of Byron's fleet 
are on the coast I am not certain. Admiral Howe's condufl in this 
aHair deserves, I think, the highest encomium* His drawing the^ 
tVench fleet from Rhode Island has saved it» and near 7ocx> meui from, 
the enemy's hands ; besides securing the island to his Majesty, 
£vading an adlion in which there was such little likelihood of success^ 
their fleet being far superior to ours, has saved New York and all our. 
troops in America, which mast have fallen into their hands^ had we 
failed. The loss of one of the French fleet» and the additional strength 
of the Monmouth to ours, will^ I hope, give a happy turn to afi^irs* 



THE TRANSIT. 



nPHIS vessel, of which some account was given in the preceding 
'*'* volume*, has bee^i taken into Mr. Perry's dock, for the purpose 
of being copperedi and fitted for a foreign voyage. Her length by the 
Iceel is 97 feet ; her extreme breadth at the gim-wale, which is the 
broadest part, is 22 feet ; she is 1 1 feet deep in the holdi and is esti- 
mated at the burthen of aoo tons by the custom-house at Chichester, 
where she was registered. A more enlarged and particular account of 
this singular and highly patriotic exertion of the mind to efled an 
improvement in one of the most consequential sciences existing, will be 
given In our next. For the present suffice it to say, the following are 
the reaions given by the ingenious inventor in support of his new 
ajrstera* 

* See pages 41a and 505* 

I 



FftOfERTiSS or THB TRI^KSIT* ^I 

Tie OljeSs ofiUs Invention are numerous y and as follow : 
First, Faster smttng ijuitb a side wind^ asid closer to the wnd^ than 
'vessels of the present construSion^ 

This, I think, will be allowed* upon a general view and examination 
of the vesseL The peculiar form of the hull admits her principal 
capacity to rest nearer the surface of the water, so that in her progress 
•he may remove a volume of water more superficial than vessels of her 
tonnage of the present mould, inasmuch as that water nearer the 
surface is more readily removed than water deeper situated* 

She possesses the property of being weatherly, from her length, 
depth of keel, and form of bow ; and of great stability! even at a light 
draught of water, firom the iron ballast being situated so much below 
her priudpal capacity, as, in effe6^, to produce the stiffness that would 
arise from a SQlid iron keeL I'liis extraordinary stiffiiess is certainly 
objeflionable in vessels as they are at present constru£ied ; but that 
imder consideration is exceedingly light rigged, and cannot roll with 
the violence of a stiff Ship, from the nature of her form : of course* 
the masts wiU be infinitely less in danger of being carried away, not* 
withstanding the stiffness of the vesseL 

Having examined the general qualities of her hull, let us turn to the 
nature of her sails. They are contrived to approach a flatter sur£ice 
than sails at present do, and to make the fore andaft sails stand at the 
same angle with the wind, both below and aloft, which cannot be done 
in the present fore and aft vessels. For instance : To make the head 
of a cutter's main-sail stand upon a wind, it it necessary to haul the 
boom in almost fore and aft ; thus in effe6i, by making the head of the 
sa3 serviceable, the foot is rendered almost useless. The saib top stand 
with that uniformity and openness of situation, as not to take firom 
each others power, which is repeatedly done in a Ship, by the over* 
lapping of stay >sai] over stay- sail, and square-saS over square -sail, (ach 
destroying the effe€l of the other 'by back and eddy winds. Again, 
the sails being placed uj^on a greater number of masts not only afford 
the advantage of small and commodiouis fore and aft sails, which can be 
gibed with safety and be managed by a few hands, but also produce 
more weather-leaches, by the united effort of all which, the accelera* 
tion of the vessel will be much augmented. The weather part of every 
fail being struck by the wind with more force than the lee part : of 
course, if the same quantity of canvas be set obliquely to the wind ia 
detached pieces, their united efforts will be greater than the same quan- 
tity of canvas iu one piece set to the same position. 
Secondly,. Easy and qiuck manauvrmgm 
To stajf merely put the helm down, and brace round the head yards^ 
yiuc]) is the wMc 4uty to be performed, ai the after sails of tbemsdvea 



gZ rs.OrBKTIEI OF TRB THANIIT. 

«r31 swing over to their proper angle for the other tack *• To ^ur^ 
let fly the sheets of the three after masts^ then proceed with the head- 
sails, as is customary in a Ship, gathering m the after sheets as the wind 
gets round upon the opposite quarter. Should it blow fresh) it will 
be proper in veering to brail up the three after topsailsi and to take ta 
the mizen and quarter courses. Laying'to is performed by bracing 
aback the head'Sails, and hauling in flat the after sheets ; and at all 
tiipesy the proper balance of helm may be produced^ by takiqg in one 
or other of the after sails. 

Thirdly, The great saf^ arising /rem the ease wth which iml 
may he reduced. 
In a sudden squall, the iperely letting fly the mast sheets of the fore 
and aft saih, is an instant relief to all the after mast4» the head saiU 
only lequiring particular labour and attention. 

Fourthly, The extreme smtgness which the vessel admits of. 
The topmastSf even at sea, are readily struck, without impediment 
to the working of the course sails ; which sails, when the vessel is thua 
made snug, may be carried in very hard blowing weather, to the pro* 
bable advantage of turning her off a lee shore. 

Fifthly, The masts do not depend ufon each other ^ or ufon the hoW" 
sprit for their support. 
Thus one mast may fall without endangering or destroying the e&ft 
of the rest. 

Sixthly, The great reduSionin tep hamper, height^ and size of masts. 
With convenience she will carry every store belonging to her, even 
spare lofwer masts* 

Seventhly, The ahridgmemt ofchmn waks for her riggingm 
These can very well be dispensed with, on account of her tumbling 
out as she rises ; which alao gives her the advantage of coming 
alongside another vessel with safety. 

Eighthly, The 'very great economy of every kind of store* 
This circumstance arises from the equality maintained in masts, sailsp 
and rigging, and from the sails being so contrived as to fill up the 
whole space between the masts, without that frequent over>lapping of 
canvas we meet with in a Ship«-one-third of the canvas will undoubte^y 
\ic saved. ""^^ 

Ninthly, The masts heing equally spread throughout the vessel mil 
produce so even a strain vthen she labours as not to wear and rack tht 
hull partially. 
This is not the case in cutten, brigs, or Ships, particularly, near 
the main-mast. 

* This proved to be the case, without a single exception, during the pasnee 
•f the vessel from Chichester to the river : in short, praftice has hitherto faiij 
tonfi rm cd, when iDgenious theory first suggested. 



I ss 2 

f^SSriOlfS AND ANSWSM MMLAriTM «^ 

NAVAL GUNNERY. 

J^sAm. *VTTHAT are the dimendoiit of a tndj fortified ira^ 

AnnotTm A XXsAj fortified iron gen ouglit to measure eleven <£a« 
meters of the bore as the ciicomTerence of the base ring, nine diame* 
ters at the tranmons^ and seven as the circamference of the muzzle 
ring, 

J^. What are the dimensions of a truly fortified brass gun ? 

A* It should measure two diameters less at each |^e of measure* 
■lent than the iron gun ; that is to say^ nine diameters of the bore asf 
^ circumference of the base ring, seven at the trunnions^ and five the 
muzzle ring, 

. i^ How are you to discover when a gun quaihrateSi or hangs well 
in her carriage ? 

A* Every gun ought to measure in length seven times her own dta« 
meter at the yent ; the trunnions ought to be pkced at the distance of 
tiuxe diameters from the base ring ; then there will remain four dia* 
meters in distance from the muzzle* 

^ How can you discover whether the carriage is proper and of 
due length for the gun \ 

A* A carriage ought to be five-eighthii the length of the gun, and 
the eye wiU easily discover if it is wide enough and high eaoughi or 
too high. 

^ How do you dispart a gun in order to take proper aim at a 
given objed ? 

Am Insert a priming wire iato the vent^ and let it touch the lower 
part of the metal of the bore % mark the wire dose to the vent» take it 
out) and rest it on the lower metal of the rose at the muzzle, and the 
distance between the muzzle ring and marked part of the wire is the 
height of the ^spart. 

^ How vrill you find the thidiLness of the metal at Tcnt^ trun* 
jBons, and muzzle ? 

Am I wiU take the diameter of the gun at the vent, and by it down 
thus I  I, which will express the diameter; then I will insert a 

priming wire into the venti and let it rest on the lower metal ; mark it 
dose to the yeat, and taking it out^ lay the mark on the line of the 
diameter, thus |— — |— — |. I will then crook the end of the 
wire a littkf that it may enter the vent, and inserting it a sec;pnd 
time» turn it round till it catches the upper metal of the bore % thea 



L 



54 QpiSTIOHf 4t]> ANSVEM 

mark it again close to the Tent, set off the distance on the same IToe 
of the diameter, and mark how far it reaches from the other end of 

the line, thus | — ^ — kJS 1 — ^ — | ; then will A and A repre. 

aent the thickness of the meta!, and B the here of the gui) ; and if 
t]»e portions A A of the line are equal to each other, the thickness 
of the metal is equal, and of course the gun centrally hored. I will 
then girth the gun at the trunnions with waxed twine, and . if it 
nieasures nine diameters of the bore, the gun is so &r truly fortified. 
Observing the same operation at the muzzle, where it is to measure 
seven diameters, the process is complete. 

^ How are yon to discover whether a gun is truly bored? 

^, Take a spare sponge-staff and fix on .it a rammer-head, strike a 
f halk line on it, from one end to the other, and put it into the gun aa 
far as it will go, keeping the chalk line uppermost, and exadly in the 
centre ; then prick down the vent with a priming wire ; and if you 
find on taking out th$ rammer ypu l^zv^ pricked into the chalk line, 
you may reasonably conclude the gun is truly bored ; but if you misa 
the ch4k line, that it is not. 

^ How do you discover when a gun is honeycombed i 
, A. Take a spring searcher* witb five prongs and a reliever, mue« 
zle the searcher, and ram it hom^ in the gun ; take off the reliever, 
and keep turning the searcher backwaMrds and forwards; you will 
easily discover whether it catches ; when it does, mark the staff closQ 
to the muzzle, then turn the searcher again 9s before, and whenever it 
catches again, mark the staff as in the former instance ; so that by 
laying the staff when drawn out on the outside of the gun, you may 
yearly jiidge where the honeycombs are. 

j^ How can you discover the depth of the honeycombs \ 
, A. Take a searcher with one proi^, ai)d* a reliever ; arm the end 
of the prong with wax ; then ram it home in the g^un ; take off the 
];eliever, and turn the searcher till it catches, then will the impression 
made in the wax shew the shape s^nd depth of the honeycomb. 

^ How deep m4st 9 honeycomb be to render the piece unserviceable ?. 

A. If the honeycomb on either side, or on the lower metal between 
the breech and the reinforce ring, is three-tenths of an inch deep, the 
gun is to be condemned ; if on the upper nnet^l, four-tenths; if on 

^ * A most ingenious instrument invented by the Ute Genera] Deaagi^ier>t an4 
UDce brought to the greatest perfedion, has totally niperscded the use of this 
contrivance. All guns intended for sea service are now previously examined 
by proper officers belonging to the Ordnance Board, who, by me^^s of this in* 
ttniment, being able to ascertain, with the greatest precision, the internal state 
and defei^s of any gun, after a very short examination, of course rejeft all those 
Yhip|i, either from natural defeift, or labsequent injury, appear unfit for hit. Man 
Jesty'i service. 



tBLATlTB TO IIATAL eOllNBRY* ff 

iny pait' without or beyoad the reinfiarce ring, fifc-tenths are «uf«r 
licient. 

^. How are you to discover whether a gun is sound or cquked? 

jtm By strikiog a smart blow on the gun with a hammer. U it 
rings dear, it may be concluded the gun is sound ; if the gun jars, or 
emits a hoarse sound, 'tis most probable the gun is cracked.— -Or the 
following method may be taken :•— stop the vent, and light a piece of 
touchwood i put it into the gun, and stop the muzzle securely ; let 
the touchwood remain in the gun four or five minutes ; if the gua ig 
cracked, the touchwood will burn out ; if the gun is sounds extin« 
guished. 

^ How is a shot to be fitted to a gun ? 

^« By dividing the diameter of the bore into twenty equal ports^ 
the diameters of the shot ought to be nineteen of those parts. 

^ How are you to find the proper proportion of powder ? 

Jf» Eighteen-pounders, and all inferior calibres, require half the 
weight of the shot ; for all above» there are certain rules to find the 
proper proportion by. ' 

^ How is a gun to be secured, if it breaks Joose ? 

jt^ By cutting down the hammocks, tripping the gun, and lashing 
It to the ring bolts of the side till fine weather. 

^ How is a gun to be cleared when a bit is broke in it ? 

jf, Bf drawing the gun, and sprinkling powder with a ladle from 
the breech to the muzzle ; this done, drive in a tight tampion with a 
Imall score in it, and blow the gun off. 

i^ If a shot has fetched way in the gun, how is it to be secured ? 

uf. By damping the powder, or splitting the tampion ; then ins6t 
a rope sponge of a small size, and drive the wad home. 

■^ Suppose in loading your gun the shot sticks by the way; tf 
you fire the gun, it splits, and you cannot draw the gun, what niust 
be done to free it ?- 

jf. The powder must be damped, and whUe that is soaking, some 
powder must be mealed, and the gun primed, getting as much powder 
down the touch hole as possible ; then fire the gun off. 

^ Suppose a Ship going to sea immediately, it is required that all. 
things should be ready for adlion ; what must they be ? 

jf. The powder filled, the powder- horna and partridge or grape 
shot between the guns, hammered shot in the buckets, crows and 
hand-crows, leaven at the guns ; nets and cheeses of wads fore and 
aft ; the match-tubs in their places, the matches ready, the lockers full 
of shot, the spare tackles and brcechings ready, wet swabs at tl^e door> 
of the magazine and heads of the ladders; the boxes of band grf* 
Bades leady fin: the t ops. 



«> ,.«. *^u ^ 



56 AKTiriClAL to»Mt; 

^ How thick Mtgfat the metal of a gun -to be It the ?cM^ 
A. One diameter and a quarter of tlic bore in thicknen. 
^ Hot inaajr men are necctsary to a gnn in caae of ragagemeBtf 
A* 0»e nan to Cfcry five huodreid weight tA mctaL 



ARTinCIAL RUDDBR. 

' MR. IDtTOK, 

I beg leave to remind the public, through yoaT Chronicle, of an 
cspedient wludt was lucceufully tried in the year i75i,onboanl 
the ESaateth, from Jamaica, burthen 160 tonl^ Cbarlti Seatoitt 
Muter, after the had lott her rudder jn a itorm, tat. 43. 47. 
dirtant irom the Lizard about 500 leaguei , at the knowledge of 
tkii inTention may be of lofinite service to tmall Shipi in the lame 
unfortunate drcumstancct. 



m, t, Clciu Diilcd on the Ship"* dde to leep the guide rope in it» platen 
i, A bkKk to keep the rope from the Ship'i lide. 

\XT E took an old cable almoet four inches in diameter ; cut it off in 
•» BiaelengthstMlTefcet and an half long i and laahcd them one 
to the Other tilt the breadth wai about four feet t we then lashed small 
ipan aowi to keep them stiff. To the part nest the stem-post, and 
the back of the rudder, were bshed studding sail booms, the whole 
length (a square piece of timber would have done as well], to keep it' 
from bending. When let down into the water, tvro guides were 
fiutened near the bottom, and two near the top of the rudder ; and 
brought up on each nde of die ressd, to hold it to the stem post. In 
order to fix it, at first, a tackle was listened to the upper parti and also 
to a yard, wbich was laid from the mlzen nuut over the stem ; which 
yard we raised up, and then hoisted the rudder Over the stem ; which 
' we were obliged oftev to do to fix frreh guides. Steering tackles we' 
fitcd near the outside of the rudder, whicb being brought up each ude 
the nmt, itcncd her alnoat n well ai a proper nddcr wodd have donej 



i 57 1 

NAVAL LITERATURE. 



Jm Essi^ on Fe<vers^ wherein their Theoretic Genera^ Species^ and various 
DenomimitionSf are ^ from Observation and Experience for Thirty Tears 
m EnrcfCf Africa, and Amsricay and on the intermeSate SeaSf reduced 
under their chara8erittic Gentss, Febrile InfeSion ; and the Cure eifo- 
Mshedbf PhiJosophical Indudiott^ i|^ RoBBkT RoBlRTsoN> M />• 
Physician to the Royal Hospitsd^ Greenwich. OSavo. 286 Pages. 
gs. 1 790' G. G. J. and]* Robinson. 

T HAT 9tBdwt piinciple in the mind of man which is ahnott continto- 
aHy empioTed in tracing effeds to causes, from some incxplicabk 
fecasoD, fonns itt results* even where the greatest ingenuity and powers 
of perception and indu^ion reside^ with as much difoence and 
atgreat variety as there appears in the habits» peraona, and di^titions 
of nttnkind. Stilly there starts fortht in every eflint of real genius 
something highly probable, sonsething persuasive, and whidi, if not 
pcrfe6)tion- itself, appears a well judged attempt to produce it. This 
remark will appear perfedtiy just on comparing the theories of fevers 
finom Hippocrates downwards, to Hoffioian, Astruc, Huxham, and 
later writers with those of the present very ingenisus author, who, 
if his doArines of the causes of fevers should meet wi^ casual oljeo- 
tions among the sceptics, and not become the future di^ta of phystcj 
would only share the same &te with many authors^ whos^ labours havie 
handed them down to lasting honors. 

But whatever assent or dissent there may be as to these do6^rioes of 
causes, there will, with the really ingenious practical physician, be little 
disagreement on the propriety of the applications to, and condo^ o^ 
the cffcds. In the pursuit and di^lay of truth, perspkiHty of hm- 
guage is all that is aftually demanded ; but in a polite and enlightened 
ag?^ in a learned and elevated profession, the beauties of style, if not 
indispensable, are laudable in a high degree, '{liis is a praise, as weB 
as thai of deep research, penetration, and originality, that it would be 
unjust to withhold from the present work* 

The opinions of thia ingenious author are derived from the best of 
all sources ; for however theories fancifully and ingeniously drawn may 
aqgoise and entertain, it is to pra&ice alone we must look for instruc- 
tion. The general' acfbount of the disease, contained in the Pre6ce 
and Introda^on, will form a very proper and correA key to this tvuly 
.valuable produ^ion. 

Febrile infeaim is indeed a new term, as farna I know ; but I bdieve 
it will meet with Approbation, becausj? it* is definite^ sufficiently CQm« 

W0IIV. I , > 



KAtAt tntKAtVUti 

prehensiTCs and abo inapplicable to any other diseasci which cannot be 
•aid of the geqeral tcnn Fevtr ; for every reslder knows that fe^r 
accompanied in some degree every disease to which the human frame 
is subje^. Such a term> therefore, is vague and indefinite. I have 
moreover been determined in my choice of the . expression y^W^ 
ittfcQion, from observing that fever is sdways infedlious more or less in 
every quarter of the glohe» and in all seasons, according to circum- 
stances. Hence I infer^ that fever always has been, and always wiU 
be, more or less infedtious. Should praftitioners affirm, tfiat such or 
such fevers have not been infcftious, their declaration would no more^ 
invalidate the do£bine I mean to inculcate, than if they were to say, 
that small pox are not infedious, because they onay have Ken many 
pctaons escape in the same family where the disease has been raging^ 
Kay, it \» well known, that all possible means to communicate thf 
small pox by inocuhtion and contad have been often tried in vaim 
Bat does this destroy th^ geneiU dodrine and belief of the coatagi. 
oua nature of the disease. The faft is, that neither small pox nor 
^ftbrHe infedkion can be commanicated, unless there be in the constitu* 
tion a predi^K)sing cause, or state to receive the contagion. If Pro. 
▼ideoce had not wisely ordained this, every person who approached the 
sick, wherever theae disorders prevailed, would inevitably have been 
infeded, and the phigne, which I am satisfied is only febrile infeaion, 
•r endemic £ever in its most virulent sUte, and rendered so extremely 
deleterious by the impure air of crowded and ill |)lanned cities, un* 
wholesome poor diet, unskilful treatment of the sick, filth, season, and 
climate, would become universal, nd destroy mankind. 

Again, infcAious diseases in all countries, and at all periods, have 
been ranked among the severest calamities incidental to mankind, and 
febrile infedion (one species of these) has ever been considered as a 
tremendous and fatal foe to human existence. The millions who perish 
in the fleets and armies of contending nations are swept away in greater 
multitudes by the secret malignancy of fever, than by all the destruo- 
tive implements of wa|* 

An exaa register, not only of the number who fall viaims, but of 
the dtseates also of which they die, iu the public service (with the 
methods of treating the diseases in peace as weD as in war) would 
greatly obviate this calamity, and be produdive of general good ; and . 
the plan might, I think, be extended. beyond the limits of navies and 
camps to civil society at laiigc. The judicious ind diligent praditioners 
would then be distinguished from obstinate or inddent theorists^ 
The inexperienced would either be instruded, or compelled by shame 
to withdraw koxn a profession for which they were unqualified j 
while thoterwho, by an unwearied attention to diseases and the effe£b 

4 



«f remedieSf promoted the public good, would <le9erTedly receive thft 
well earned rewards of their labour and skill* Young professors would 
no longer be led by any theoretic authority whatever, but would 
adopt those methods which experience had shewn to be most succcti* 
foL Emulation to excel in so laudable a plan, instead of an ambitioA 
to establish the virionary theories of a day, would universally previik 
For God's sake, let not mere theory or hypothesis any longer regu* 
.late the profession of a science upon* the success of which the interest 
and lives of mankind depend. . 

Fever has been my favourite study for thirty yoars ; and having 
been chiefly employed in the Navy during that period, I have enjoyed 
in three quarters of the world a more extensive field for observation 
than any man, as £ir as I know. Who has ever writ&n on the subjefL 
tjpon entering this field of observatidn, I was almost deterred ^ra 
any pursuit by pradltcal writers ; for according to their systems, 
much time was requisite even to Jinow the names, the genera, and 
species of fever ; nay, thousands of yeacs, I found, had not been suffi* 
cient to mark these, much less to furnish a complete history of them 
on their visionary hypotheses. Even Sydenham, a favourite author, I 
obseivedi went on adding annually new species to the immense stock i 
so that, instead of being instru6ied, I was bewildered and lost. In 
this state of perplexity, I resolved to attend diligently, and to mark 
down minutely, every case of fever, as it occurred to me in every 
country, climate, and season ; and upon comparing them together, | 
have found that fever is universaDy one and the same disease. 

'As there were at different periods various theories of fever, so the 
treatment of fever varied accordingly. , Dr« Miller's Observations on 
the prevailing Diseases in Great Britain, together with a Review of the 
History of those of former Periods, and in other Countries, were pub- 
lished in March 1 770. Dr. Clark's, on Diseases in long Voyi^es to 
Hot Climates, and particularly those which prevail in the East Indies 
in 1773, and mine in the years fy6g, yu 7»» 73» 74# 79$ 77, 
and 78, had already extended to Africa, the West Indies, Continent 
of America, and different parts of Europe,. The success of the 
treatment In the different quarters of the world, which was seen in 
comparing oor observations, proved on what a solid foundation the 
system was laid. My observations ;bave since bcea made in various 
Pfirts of Europe, and are published up to May 1 789* 

Such a coUeflion of important observations to be made by gentle- 
men nearly at the same time, without each other's knowled^» was a 
little extraordinary, and, without vanity I believe I may add, forttmate 
for mankind, as aU the proofs which could be wished for on the silbjeift 
grc now furnished, lndee4| tm\j pradioneis and writers have been 



i 



^ 



VATAL LlTBftATVtB*- 



•o wen ntisfied with thaii» that they havt? lecrctly adopted them i 
and whfle they have dotely imitated the least heBeficialpart of the 
phn with very little decorum^ have daimed the honour of being the 
originals. By one writer, an entire new dodrine has been buik on the 
aacoessful event of this new plan or system ; which dodruMy as far as 
it re«pe6b the new mode of treatment of feyer* wiH« I may venture to 
say^ last as long as medicine is pradised, after it is once adopted ; 
which will soon be the case untvefsally, I have no doubt* 

Having, in my Physical Journal 9fid ObservationSy laid befefe the 
reader the appearance of fever from the four great and dreadful sources 
of febrile infefkion, viz. marsh miasmata, jails, ho^tals, and Ships ; 
and having avowed that the infedion of the three last sources is one 
and the same, as they produce a fever perfefUy similar, Consequently 
thai the fever is. the same ; and as it may appear obvious to every 
reader, by comparing the histories of the fever, that fever from these 
sources difiers in no essential respeft from fever arising from the other 
grand source of febrile infedtipn ; and as the same mode of 'treatment 
is equally successful in all of them ; I am led to conclude, thai fihrile 
mfeQlm is ibg tame thrnsghaut tie unh/crtct and that the cure depends 
upon one invariable philosophical principle. * 

\7h be amtmitedJ] 



pfydX ^mciy 



OR 



R£AR:ADMIRAL LORD NELSON's VICTORY. 

« 

Noft ilH imperium pelagi, saevumqiie tridsntem 

Sed mihi forte datasu ViaoiL* 

YE painted Chieftains, whom, at honour's call. 
To battle roused, no danger could appal ! 
Who Cssai^s might with baked breast withstood. 
And drench'd the plains of Kent with Roman blood y 
Who with rude arms, and inexpert in war. 
Thro* the thick legions drove the scythed car \ 
Fac'd their bright steel with irretorted eye. 
And, tho' you could not conquer* darM to die ! 

And you, their sons, as terrible as they. 
In courteous chivalry's heroic day, 
Prompt to unsheath the sword with equal zeal. 
For beauty's smile divine, or England's weal ; 
Who strew'd the field of Cressy with the dead, 
By Edward^ sable boy to glory ted I 



WATit lilTBftATUtt* 6f 

You tody who danr^dy at Jgincourt^ oppose 
A tmall) but patriot, band* to hoets of foes ; 
When your fifth Harry's arm, with hardy bkiw. 
Laid the pluin'd crest of stout Akuuon bw ; 
When each youth foughtt as on bis single knee 
Had hung the fiite of Albion and of Fnuice i 
Look» oh ! look down from your celestial static 
Ye sacred shades of the departed Great i 
Say for your Country's good, your Country's iam^ 
Did e'er your bosoms bum with brighter flame 
Than that which glow'd in Nelson's gen'rous sodt 
Where the proud Nile*! majestic waters roDf 
When humUy bow'd the boasted tricobr 
To British valour on th' EgyfUan shore ? 

.As some bright angel of unwearied wing, 
Arm'd with the bolu of heav'n's eternal Kt^g, 
Sublimely soaring, at the high command. 
Hurls dire destru^on on a guilty land ; 
So, at her awful voice, Britannia's sonj 
Far &m'd for many a deed of prowess doncy 
'Mid the fell bands of France to spread dismay. 
And curb ambition, ploughs the wat'ry way. 
With daring prow, with swelling sa3 unfurl'd. 
Charged with the vengeance of a sufP'ring world* 

O for that seraph voice, whose lofty strains^ • 
Sung warring spirits in th' etherial plains 
And Gabriel driving from the realms of bliss 
Hdl's vanquished Iqpons to the deep abyss i 
Then might I paint the fury of the fight. 
And all the horrors of that dreadful night. 
When the great Nelson, in Aboukir's Bay, 
Descried the Gallic fleet, and darted on his prey. 

Now issue forth, firom each tremendous tire. 
Volumes of smoke, and catara£U of fire ; 
The roaring cannons, thro' the pitchy gloom. 
Disgorge Death's dsmona lurking in their womb $ 
Hiss thro' the hurtled air the whirring ball. 
And all is desp'rate rage, and darkness all. 
Save when the vivid lightnings^ as they play. 
Flash on the decks a momentary day* 
The Chief unmov'd, amid the iron shower. 
Calmly dire6b the thunder where to pour ; 
Loud shrieks are heard ; and ting'd with hostile gortf 
The sea flaws purple to the fri|^ted shofc ( 



6Z irATAL LITEHAfVltB. 

In speechless anguish stands the fi>e aghast ; 
Rattle the yard-arms ; groans the idling mast ; 
And with torn sa9» and many a tattered vane* 
Dash their long ruins o*er a foaming main. 

See ! from yon Gallic Ships * a flood of light 
Breaking impetuous on the aching sight; 
' AU glaring as the sun's meridian rays^ 
Flame rolls on flame, and blaze succeeds to blaze ! 
Where, where, ye Gauls f for safety shall ye go ? 
Fierce fires above, the yawning deep below.  
Ah ! soon each heart- perplexing doubt is o'er ; 
The huge volcanos burst with hideous roar ; 
Aloft th* enormous wrecks in ^ther fly. 
And planks, and arms, and men, are whirPd into the* sky ! 
Quakes in her slimy bed the crocodile, 
-And all the monsters of prolific Nile ; 
The hollow shores rebellow to the sound. 
Tremble Rosetta's turrets, sh^es the ground, 
While the wild Arab, 'mid the.tott*ring walls, 
X'Caps from his couch, and on his prophet calls i 
And each fond mother, with pale fear oppress'd. 
Hugs her child closer to her swarthy breast. 

Lo ! on the rear of that immortal night 
The fair Aurora peeps with golden light ! 
The scen^ how chang'd ! ere while her orient ray 
Danc*d on the Gallic streamers,' bright and gay ; 
In firm array the naval tow'rs display'd 
To wondering Mamcduhes and Cepbts dismay'd, 
Whence floated on the breeze, the palms among. 
The shout exulting, the triumphant song. 
The scene how chang'd ! of all their glories shorn, 
\j8Xt sorrowing Egypt's terror, now her scorn ; 
With ensigns lower'd, and with blood o'erspread. 
Forts choak'd with men, the dying and the dead | 
The pond'rous hulks, their thunders forc'd to sleep. 
Load with their shatter'd mass th' Hesperian deep. 
Thus, when the tempest, scowling o'er the waves, 
Forth rushes from the dark CEolian caves. 
And, through the lurid aif with clouds o'ercast, 
O'er pines Nor<ateglan sweeps the howling blast. 
The proud trees crash, their tall tops downward sunk* 
Lays stript and bare each mutilated trunk. 

* «The Orient and the Hmoieoii. 



VAVAL LITB1.ATURI* 6} 

"^lic Via'iy, faithful to z patriot Kino» 
Thus on his valiant Na?y spreads her wing. 
The notes of fame the jnlghty deeds relate i 
But Europe trembles for her hero's fate ! 
Crease, cease its fears ! the scar which glory ploughs. 
Intrepid Nelson^ on your manly brows. 
She tends with lenient hand, and, hov'ring round. 
With all her laurels veils the glorious wound. 

These are thy triumphs, firitain ! Thine alone. 
Great guardian of the akar and the throne. 
To speak in thunder to the world around. 
And grasp the trident of the Deep profound. 
O'er seas, by Commerce led, securely roam. 
And bring the wealth of distant empires home ; 
Unfold thy union- cross, withouf controul. 
To the scorch'd Line, or ice-encrusted Pole j 
Climes where the Lapland peasant shiv'ring roves, - 
Or the soft Indian lies in citron groves ; 
Thy powerful aid to sccpter'd suppliants yield. 
And o*er them stretch thy tutelary shield j 
Imperial Austna*% drooping eagle raise, 
New plume his wings, restore his wonted blaze % 
Relume the Turkish crescent in its wane ; 
Bid Memfhit* tawny sons no more complain ; 
Beneath the shade of British banners bold, 
Bid Tagm fearless roll o'er sands of gold ; 
From rapid Volga* ^ banks call armies forth. 
And rouse the millions of the torpid North ; 
Pitying the orphans and the widow's tear. 
Arrest of fivitic Gauls the wild career ; 
WhOf deadlier than an earthquake or a storm. 
Fair Nature*8 works with impious hand deform, 
And tear, disdainful of the wrath divine. 
From men their blessings, and from God his shrine. 

Let vaunting Gallia view with jealous eye 
Thy smiling plains, the seat of Liberty ; 
Of future conquests in her orgies boast. 
And dream of golden plunder on thy coast ! 
Still shalt thou brave, wide Ocean's stately queen, 
Her rage, all impotent, with looks serene ; 
Show thy great Chiefs, to foes untaught to bow, 
^Duncan, ViMCBNT, Nelson, /mJ a Howb, 
Prepar'd to smite the base ^invading horde, 
Like the bright cherubim, with flaming sword. 



v 



WATAl LITt&ATUftl* 

Fhc'd on the confines bf th* Almighty powV, 
To guard the sacred pass of Eden*% bgw'r. 

fflostrious names ! if e'er the Muse can giTC 
Immortal fame» immortal shall ye live ? 
Still shall ye shine in glory's high abodes 
Amid the heroes and the demtgodsy 
To save a sinking world by heav'n designed 
The Fathers and Prote^^'ts of mankind I 



WEST INDIA DOCKS. 

THE Ceremony of Laying the First Stone of the bnildiogs of 
this magnificent undertaking was performed on Saturdayt the 
twelfth init. the anniversary of the day (the twelfth July, 1799) ^^ 
which the AA of Parliament for carrying the same into effe6U re* 
ceived the royal assent. 

The company assembled at the London Tavem» at one o'clock^ 
-and moved. in the following procession to the Isle of Dogs : — 

The DIRECTORS of the WEST INDIA DOCK COMPANY^ j 

And in the last of their carriages 
The Chairman and Dbpvty CnAiaMAN; 

THEN 

The Lord ChanceDor, ^ 

Earl Spencer, 

Lord Hawkesbury» 

The Right Honourable William Pittf 

The Right Honourable Henry DundaSt 

The Right Hoiuurable Dudley Ryder, 

The Right Honourable Thomas Steele, 

1 George Htlibert, Eiq. Chairman, Minchig Lsne. 

a Robert MiUiffan, Deputy Chairman. 

j Sir John WiUiam Anderson, Bart. Adelphi. 

4 Robert BuUcock, Eaq. 172, Bishopsgate Stnet. 

5 Sir f ohn Earner, Knt. Wood Street 

6 William Chitholme, Esq. 74, Queen Ann Street, Eait* 

7 WiUlam Curtis, Esq. AUiennan, Lombard Street. 
I Henry Davidson, Esq. 14, Fendrarch Buildings. 

9 John DelTell, Esq. 19, London Street, Fenchurdi Stnsf. 

10 Thomas Gowland, Esq. 7, Savage Gardensi 

1 1 James Johnston, Esq. la. Upper Wimpole Street. 
1% Edward Kcmble, Esq. 

13 William Luihington, Esq. 33, Mark Lane. 

14 David Lyon, Esq. Clothworker^s Hall, Minctng Laae. 

15 Neill Malcolm, Esq. 7, Upper Seymour Street. 

16 Thomas Plummer, Esq. a^ Fen Court. 

17 Thomas Simmonds, Esq. 58, Red Cross Street. 

18 Joseph Timpeon, Esq. »6, Philpot Lane. 

19 John Wedderbume, Esq. 35, Leadenhall Street. 
so Joseph Welch, Esq. 1 1, Crooked Lane. 

at Henry Wildman, Esq^ 6, Fen Court. . 



.WtST INDIA DOCKS* 

The Right Honourable SHvester Doughs, 
Sir Joseph Btuiks, Bait. K. B. 
Sir Andrew Snape Hamond> Bart. 
And a numerous train of Members of Parliament* induding those 
of the Seled Committee of the House of Commons for the Im- 
provement of the Port of London. 
Soon after two o'clock the Procession arrived at the Wbrks^ where 
Lord Carringrton, and many other distinguished personages of both 
aezes had assembled to be present at the ceremony, which was con* 
dueled in the following manner :— - 

The Stone had . been previously prepared to receive two glass bot^ 
ties, one of which contained the several coins (gold* silver, and cop- 
per) of his present Majesty's reign, and in the other the following 
inscription and translation thereof in Latin were placed :«• 

Of this Range of Buildings, 

Construfled, together with the adjacent Docks, 

At the ezpence of public-spirited individuals. 

Under the san^ion of a provident Legislature^ 

And with the liberal co-operation of the Corporate Body of the 

City of Londom, 

For the distindl purpose 

Of complete Security and ample Accommodation 

(hitherto not afforded) 
To the Shipping and Producb of the Wist Indiks at this wealthy 

Port, 

THE FIRST STONE WAS LAID, 

On Saturday the 12th day of July, A. D. 1800, 

By the concurring hands of 

The Right Honourable Lord Loughborough, Lord High Chan* 

cellor of Great Britain, 

The Right Honourable Wilb'am Pitt, First Lord Commissioner of 

his Majesty's Treasury, and Chancellor of his 

Majesty's Exchequer, 

George Hibbcrt, Esq. the Chairman, and 

Robert Milligan, Esq. the Deputy Chairman, 

Of the West India Dock Company; 

The two former conspicuous in the Band 

Of those illustrious Statesmen 

Who in either House of Parh'ament have been zealous to promote^ 

The two latter distinguished among those chosen to dire A, 

AN UNDERTAKING, 
Which, under the favour of God, shall contribute ' 
Stability, Increase, and Ornament, to 
BRITISH COMMERCE. 



'H WiSl- tNOlA l>0Cit9» 

HVIVSCE . VIRAEI 
^ VKA • CVM • NAVALIBV8 • VICINIS 

m? ENSIS • CIVIVM • DE * PATRIA • OPTIMB • PROMERITORYJM 
BENBVOLENtTA . SINGVLARI . MVNICIPI . VRBANI 
FAVSTA . SBNATVS . C0N8VLTI . TVTELA 
AVSPICIS • AVGVSTISSIMX . REGIS . FORIS • POTRNTIAB 

CLORIAE<^B 
8RITANN0RVM • DOMI , OPVLENTIAE . SECVRITATIQUE . NTN(^Ali 
' WON . PROSPICIENTIS 

SVSCEPTI . EXSTRUCTiqVE 
VT . FRAESIDITM . ET . SPaTIVM . REI . NAVALI . CAZISQVE . INDIAB 

OCCIDBNTALIS . ADPRIME . IDONEVM . PRAEBERET 
lACTA . FVNDAMENTA . IV . NOM . IVL . ANN .CHRIST . Clo . lOCCC " 
CTRANTIBVS . NOBILISSIMO . ALBXANDRO • BARONE • DE 

LOUGHBOROUGH 

SVMMO . MAGNAE . BRITANNIAE . CANCELLARIO 

B0N0RATI8SIMO • GVLIELMO . PITT . (^INTVMVIRO . RT • FISCI 

REGI . PRIMUM . LOCVM . TENENTE 

EMINENTIBVS . INTER . VIROS . EXIMIOS . ET PRAECLAR08 

qyi . IN . SENATV • ACERRIME . PROMOVERVNT 

GEORGIO . HIBBERT . ARMIG . PRAEFECTO . NEC . NON 

ROBERTO . MILLIOAN . ARMIG 

PRO-PRAEFECTO . REI . NAVTICAE • AT» • INDIAM . OCCIDENTALEM • 

SPKCTANTI 
IK8IGNIBUS • INTER • ILL08 . qVI . PRAEFVERB . OPERI . (^OD 
9BO « ANNVENTE . AD • SALVTEM . EMOLVMENTVM . ET . DECVS 
COMMERCl . BRITANNICI . CONDVCERB . POSSET. 

The bottles being deposited in the recesses made to receive them, 
and also a plate with the Directors names engraved thereon » Mr. 
TyrreKy the Clerk and Solicitor to the West India Dock Company, 
read the inscription, and the four noble and honourable Personages 
named for that purpose raised the stone (by means of four rings fixed 
thereto) and laid it in the proper situation. 

The speftators then garc three times three hearty cheers, and de* 
dared their best wishes for the success of the undertaking. 

After the ceremony the Company viewed the extensive works car- 
rying on at the Isle of Dogs, and expressed great pleasure and satis- 
fadion at the spirited exertion manifested by the progress* already 
made in a concern of such nuignltude. 



C 67 ] 



AsffttelLetterA 



ASMIRALTT-orriCI, JVVB %U 

Ctfj of • Later from the Earl of Si. Fimcent, X. B. AdmfiUwftie H^&fUr, f^t, U 
Evan Nefeaity Esq. Sated om hard hU Majesty's Sbip FUU sk JPmru^ of Utk^nt^ 
tb* iTib intt. 



SIR, 



T INCLOSE, for the Infonnation of the Lordc Cominifaiaoen of die Adm2« 
ralty, letters which 1 have this instant receivtd from Rear-Admiral Sir Johi* 

Bwlaae Warren, giying an accoont of the boats of the ships under his orders 

having cut out from St. Croix three armed and eight other veisels, laden with 

provisions, for the combined fleet in Brest. 

The Unicom being short of water, I havedireded Captain WiUdnsonto MC 

the prizes into Piymouth, and to tejoin the squadron the instant he shall have 

completed his water and provisions, 1 am, Sir, &c. 

ST. VINCENT. 

MT LORD, HenevfMf off the Penmmrhiy lltb Jtmt, 

I beg leave to inform you, that having observed a convoy of brigs and chfuse 
marccs at anchor near a tort within the Penmarkg, destined for the meet at Brestt 
and being of opinion that they might be cut out, ( direded two armed boats 
from this ship, commanded by Lieutenants Burke and Jane, together with Lieu- 
tenant Killogrivoff of the Russian Navy, as well as from each ship of the 
deuchment under my orders, to rendezvous on board the Fisgard, and to 
follow Captain Martin s diredions for their further proceedings, whose letter 
to me is inclosed : and I am happy to say that the service was performed with 
much gallantry and success on the part of the officers and men of the ships eaw 
ployed. Although some loss on our part has been sustained, I trust the measure 
wiU meet your Lordships' approbation. 

1 have the honour to remain, &c. 
The Earl of St. Fincent^ K. M. JOHN i30RLAS£ WARREN. 

siK, Fisgard, of the Penmarksy June It. 

In pursuance of the direflibns yon gave me yesterday evening, two Doats from 
each ship named in the margin * auemblcd on board the f iseard, in order to 
attack the convoy laying at Sc. Croix ; and at eleven o'clock, bdog as near the 
shore as the darkness of the night would permit (and the mode o? attack- pre- 
viously determined), they proceeded under the command of the following 
officers : Lieutenant Burke, Renown ; Lieutenant Green and Lieutenant 
Gerrard, Fisgard ; Lieutenant Stamp, Defence ; and Lieutenant Price, Uni- 
com ; but the wind being fresh from the south east, prevented their reaching 
the above anchorage till after day-light, when, in opposition to a heavy battery, 
three armed vessels, and a constant nre of musquetry from the shore, they took 
the three armed vessels and eight others, laden with supplies for the fleet «C 
Brest ; the rest, amounting to twenty sail, run upon the rocks, where many of 
them will certainly be lost. 

i have the pleasure to assure you, that the officers and men employed on this 
service shewed a degree of zeal and intrepidity that can only be equalled by the 
cool steady condudt which I had the satisfa^ion to observe in them, when 
passing through a very intricate navigation, under a constant discharge of can* 
jion frf>in the shore. 

Lieutenants Purke and Peah speak highly in favour of Mr. Jane, afting Lieu- 
tenant of the Renown, ^Jr. Fleming, Mate of the Fisgard, and Lieutenant 
Kiilogrivoff, of the Russian service la volunteer j ; and I am gUd they hi^vc hM 
(his opportunity of recommending themselves to your notice. 

* RenewO) Fisgard, Defimce, and Unicorn* 



SB ^ GAZSTTl LSTTBR8. 

The enemy have loit several officen and meo ; and r am lorrj to annex tl^e 
BUnes of several wounded in oar l>oats. , 

I have enclosed a list of vessels captured. 

I have the honour to be« &c. 
Jtur^Aimtral Sir J. B» JTarrtHy BarU K. B. B. F. MARTIN. 

V 

A List vfVtuelt taien hy the Boats efa D^achmettt of his J^ajtOy's Ships under the 
Ceitmmidrf Biar^Admiral Sir JUm B^rlast Warren^ ffgrt. iT. B, m thi iQlh ^ 

La Nochette eun-boat, of two 14-pounders. 
Two armed cEasse marges, of six and ten guns eaeh. 

Two Brigs, two sloops, and four chasse marges, laden with wine, brandy* 
loWy and pease, provistons for the fleet at Brest. 

(Signed) J. WARREN. 

BeM$wnf yttme it* 

Ji Bgiarss •/ Mat vnwMt im the Beats ieletsging to a Detachment vf hi* Maje$ty*s 
Ships nnJer the Commemi rf Rear Admiral Sir John Beriase Warren^ Ki B» in 
attaching and eatturing a C^rtMy Selenging to the Enemy ^ at the ^enmarks^ tn the 
Coast of France, lOth of Jane. 

^«Mwjf.— Robert Bulfrer, Admiral*s Boatswain, wounded, 
/nfvrdl*— Thomas Hall, Quarter-Master, wounded \ William Jones, marine, 
woQDded ; Robert Richardson, seaman, dangcroasiv wounded. . 

J. WARREN. 

ADXIItALTY-OPriCe, JUNE 21. 

MaetraM ff a Lftter from Admiral M'dhanke, Commander in Xlhief of his Majes^*s 
Ships and VesnU at Bortitnoutbi to Evan Nefcan^ Esq. dated the Ofiih inst. 

The Constance brig anchored here this morning from the westward, with the 
peux Amis, a small French cutter privateer, mentioned in the inclosed letter 
from Lieutenant Wright, her Commander. 

siKf ffie Majes^^s Hired Armed Brig Constance, Sfithead^ June ZO. 

1 beg leave to acquaint you, that at seven P. M* the loth instant, St. Albania 
Head bearing N. by £. four or five leagues, I fell in witn and captured a small 
French cutter privateer, of eight men, armed with musouetry, calkd the Lea 
t)ettx Amis, bdonging to Cherbourg, opt two days, and had captured a sloop, 
called the Friends of Guernsey, laden with stone, 

I have the honour to be, Sir, &c. 
dUmreU Mi&anhtt &*<. MAY50N WIUGHT. 

ADMIEALTT-QPriCB, JUNE I4. 

€epy of a Lftter from Vtec' Admiral Sir Thomas Pasley, Bart, Commander In Chiefs 
his Majutys Ships emd Fessels at Plymouth, to Evan Nepean, Esq, dated the 20t^ 

1 have the pleasure tp inclose, for the information of the I^prd Copimissionen 
f>f the Admiralty, a letter which I have received from that vcrj adive officer. 
Captain Seymour, of his Majesty's sloop the Spitfire, stating his having captured 
a very fine bpig privateer, with which he arrived here this morning. 

I am. Sir, &c. THOMAS PASLEY. 

SI a, Spiifre, JPlymouth Sound, June 20, 

I have the pleasui-e to acquaint you, that this slpop captured yesterday, ten 
leagues S. S. £. from Scilly, the French brig privateer L'hcurcuE Courier, of 
pranville, carrying 14 siz-ponnders and 54 ihen.r-She was on her return frofu 
her first cruise to the westward, and had made three captures, which reduccfl 
^er complement. I have the honour to be, Sir, &c. 

riu' Admiral Sir T. Pasley, Bast. b'f» ^1ICHA£L S£Y|40yR, 



GAZETTE LETTEK9* 6^, 

AOMIRALTT OF7XCB, JUNE a8. 

^py 9f « I^Utr from Vice- Admiral Lord Keith, K. £• Commander im CtUf 9/ hm 
Mtjulffx SAips ami Veueli in tbt Mediterranean^ U Evan Neptaa, Esq. iattdon 
k<uudibe MiMtaur^ojPGtnoa^ May %\. 

SIX, 

1 hive the honour of reporting to you, for the information of their Lordihipi^ 
that, by private inteHieence from Genoa, 1 understood the French had resolTed 
on boarding our flotilla in any future attempt to bombard the town, and 
yesterday, about tweWe o'clock, a very large galley, a cutter, three armed settees, 
and sereral gun-boats, appeared in array cS the Molehcad, and in the course of 
the afternoon exchanged distant shot with some of the ships as they passed them. 
Al sunset they took a position under the guns of the moles and the city bastions^ 
which were covered with men, manifesting a determined resistance. 1 never- 
fhelcts arranged every thing for a fourth TOmbardment, as formerly, under the 
dire^on of Captain Philip Beaver, of the Aurora, who left the MinoUor at 
Bine P. M. attended by the gun and mortar vessels, and the armed boats of th^- 
ships. About one o'clock, being arrived at a proper distance for oommiencing hia 
fire, a brisk cannonade was opened upon the town, which was returned trom 
various points; and Captain Beaver having discovered, by the flashes of some 
guns, thst they were direded from something nearly level with the water, 
judiciously concluded that they proceeded from some of the enemy's ^rmed 
vessels ; calling a detachment of the ship's boats to his assistance, he mad« 
dircdly to the spot, and in a most gallant and spirited manner, under a smart 
fire of cannon and musauetry from the moles and enemy's armed vessels^ 
attacked, boarded, carried, and brought off their largest galley. La Prima, of 
50 oars and 257 men, armed, besides musquets. pistou, cutlasses, &c. with two 
brass guns of 36 pounds, having about thirty brass swivels in her hold, and conu 
manded by Captain Patrizio Galleano. The bombardment suffered no material 
interruption, but was continued till daylight this morning, when the Prima 
was sately brought off : her extreme length is 159 feet, and her breadth 93 feet 
six inches. 

On our part four seamen only have been wounded s one belonging to this ship, 
Tn the boat with Captain Beaver ; one belonging to the Pallas ; and the other 
two to the Haerlem. 1 he enemy's loss is not exatftly known, but one man waa 
found dead on board, and fifteen wounded. 

The satisfadion which I derive from considering the seal, adivjty, and gal< 
lantry, with which this service has-been performed, is greatly augmented by the 
llattcring testimony borne by Captain Beaver to the good condua of the officers 
and seamen who ad.e(l with him on this occasion. 

I have the honour to be, &c. K£ITH. 

ADMiaA|.TT-OPrif:E, junx %%. 

Copy of another Lettfr from Vic f Admiral Lord Keith, JC, B. Commander in Chief of 
his Majesty* s Ships ifd VfS4fts in the J^ilefiierranean, tq Evan Nepoan, Esq, dated ojf 
Genoa, April 21. 

SIR, 

A letter, of which^ the inclosed is a popy, received by m^ ffom Captain 
OJiver, of his Majesty's ship the Mermaid, will inform their lordships how 
adivcly that officer has been employed in (he imporUntservicc of cutting off the 
applies clestiped for the enemy's troops in the city of Genoa, 

1 h^ye the honour to be, &c. KEITHf 

MT LORD, Mermaid, Mohon, April lO. 

I have tlic |)onpur to acquaint your Lordsfiip, that his Majesty's snip under 
|ny command has taken and destroyed nine vessels laden, mostly for Genoa, 
with wme and corn, between the id and 6th inst. Six of them were cut out by 
two of our boats, under the diredion pf Lieutenant Corbett ; they were moored 
tq a fprt yvit|)in t{ie small islands near Cape Corsetts. I had seen them coi- 
ieding all day ; and soon after sun set I went in with the ship, undfer the bat- 
tery, within the range of grap»*shot, and anchored with a spring on the cable | 
Wid, after canppnading the fort more than an hour, I saw the six vessels, which 
i4ir- Cof beft had niost' ably got under inrcigh, coming out, when i feUowcd them 






7« GAZETTE LITTIES. 

with the Bhip. I am happy to say that we have had no person hart on this scr- 
vice ; and a shot through our cut-water, which is of little consequence, is the 
•nly damage we have received. I have the honour to be, &c. . 
^Rigbt Hon. Lord Kcitb. R. D. OLIVER. 

ADMIRALTY Omci, JULT I. 

Cofy of a LeiUr/mm the Earl of St. Vineent, K. B, Admiral of the JFIntt;, t*fe. to 
Evan Ni^OMt Esq. dated oj" UsioHt, tie z6th of last Month. 

SIR, KiUedePath, offUihanU 

I desire you will communicate to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
the inclosed report from Rear-Admiral Sir John Borlase VTarren, of a well-con- 
certed enterprize to destroy that part of the enemy's convoy that had escaped 
from St- Croix to Quimper, which only failed of its well meditated success by the 
•hips retiring up the river ; and I camiot too much praise the condud of it. 

I am, &c ST. VINCENT. 

MT LORD , Renown^ at Sea, yam 24. 

1 take the liberty of informing your Lordship, t^iat having obberved a small 
squadron of the enemy's vessels at the mouth of Quimper River, L anchored on 
the 22d, at night, off the Glenans, and directed a detachment of marines, toge- 
ther with three boats, manned and armed from the different ships * under my 
orders, to rendezvous on board the lisgard, to follow the commands of Captain 
Martin, and to endeavour to take or destroy the above vessels : and 1 beg leave 
to refer yon to the inclosed letter from Captain Martin for the transa^ons on 
this service. I have the honour to be, &c. 

The Earl 0/ St. Fincent, X. E, Isfe. JOHN WARREN. 

SIR, Eiigardy at Sea, June 23. 

I beg to inform you, that the boats of the squadron and marines employed 
under my diredion« in attacking the vessels of war and convoy of the enemy iii 
Quimper River, arrived off its entrance at day-light this morning, and, in order 
to proted the boats in the execution of this service, the marines were landed in 
two divisions, the one on the right bank of the river, under Lieutenant Burke, 
of the Renown, and the other on the left, under Lieutenant Gerrard, of this 
ship. 

Lieutenant Yarker commanded the boats, and was going, with great ezped^ 
tion and eood ordcr,~to the attack ; but finding the enemy had removed to an 
inaccessible distance up the rive', he immediately landed, stormed, and blew up 
a battery with several twenty-four pounders. 

The other detachment also took and blew up two strong works. 

It gives me great pleasure to say this affair terminated without any loss on our 
part ; and the preparation made by the enemy in consequence of my reconuoi* 
tring their position yesterday morning, gives the most satisfadory testimony in 
favour of the spirit and condudl: of the officers and men, who in less than half 
an hour gained complete possession of both sides of the river to a considerable 
extent ; and if the vesseJs specified in the margin f bad not moved upwards, 
they would certainly have fallen into our hands. 

I have the honour to be, &c. T. B. MARTIN. 

P. S. The three forts had seven 24-pounders, which, with iheir magazines, 
were blown up. ' 

ADMIRALTY-Orr !CK, JDlV I. 

€opj of another Letter from the Earl^St Vineent, K, B. Admiral of the White, Isfe. 

to Evan Nejiean, Esq. dated UibalU, June 26. 

SIR, 

I inclose, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, a 
letter I have received from the Honourable Captain Curzon, of his Majesty's 
ship Indefatigable, giving an account of his having taken Le Vengeur, French 
privateer, of 16 guns. J am, &c, 

ST. VINCENT. 

^ Renown, Defence, Fisgard. 

f Frigate of 28 ^ns, brig of 12 gunS| lugger ^f |6 guiiS| gutter of xo gyns, and several 
«ail of merchant vesselSf 



GAZETTE LETTERS* 7I 

MT LOUD, ImdeftiigahU, al Sia^ llth Jum^ 

I have the honour to infonn your Lordship, that I this day captured L« 
Vengeur, a French hrig privateer, carrying six long four-pounders and ted 
eighteen-poand carronades, with a hundred men : two days from Bourdeaux* 
inteadins; to cruise on the coast of BraziL She sailed in company with three 
letters of marque, a ship, a brig, and a schooner, bound to Guadaloupe, and 
captured yesterday the Snake, lugger privateer, of Jersey. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 
Admiral the Earl of St, VtficenU K. S, H. CURZON. 

AOMIRALTY-OFFICB, JULV 8« 

Copy of a Letter from Sir CbarUs Hamilton^ Bart. Captain of bii Majesty i Ship 
Melpomene^ to Evan Nepean^ Esq. dated at Goree, the lid of April 1800. 

StK, 

You will be pleased to acquaint the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, 
that having been informed three French frigates were at an anchor under the 
forts of Goree, this intelligence, with the force and situation of these frigates, 
induced me to take his Majesty's ship Ruby, then watering at Port Praya, 
under my conunand \ and with this additional force I proceeded immediately iu 
^est of them. 

In the afternoon of the 4th instant, I reconnoitred the roadated of Goree ; 
But not finding the frigates there, and conceiving our appearance sufficient to 
alarm the garrison, I dispatched Lieutenant Tidy with a verbal meas^c, sum- 
monin^ the island to surrender (the incloeed letters having passed between me 
and the Governor) : at midnight Lieutenant Tidy made me the signal agreed 
on, that my terms were complied with ; the marines of the squadron were in- 
stantly landed, under the command of Captain M^Clevcrty, and the garrison in 
our possession before day. 

Tiieir Lordships will be weU aware of the strength and consequence of this 
acquisition, which, i am happy to state, has been obtained to eanly ; Mr. Davis, 
of the Magnanime, being the only person wounded before our flag of truce was 
observed from the forts. 

On the 13th instant I dispatched Mr. Pahncr with two boats and thirty men 
to Jool (a faSory dependant on Goree) r he returned on the a^d, having exe- 
cuted his orders most pcrfcAly to my satisfadion, and bringing with him from 
thence a French brigantine and sloop loaded with rice. ' 

I have the honour to be, Sir, &c. &c. C. HAMILTON. 

SIR, Melpomene, off the Island -of Goree, April 4. 1800. 

I have received your answer to my verbal message to surrender the island of 
Goree, and have to inform you, that the only conditions I can accept of are, to 
be put in possession of the forts and island of Goree before twelve o'clock to- 
morrow noon : I allow you. Sir, and your garrison, to march out with all the 
honours of war ; and these conditions only will be accepted. 

1 have authorised the bearer, Lieutenant Tidy, to fulfil my intentions; and 
have the honour to remain, &c. 

C. HAMILTON. 

N. B. All private property will be respeded. 
7a Hit ExulUncy the Governor of Goree, 

Goree, lU Germinal, %ti Tear of tie Frensh Repuhltt^ 

One and IndivitiUe. 

LIBKRrV. E<^UALITT. 

Hfg Commander of Goree to the Commander of the English Sqmadr^ off the Island. 

SIR, 

I have received the verbal summons which you have lent me by tw» 
officers of your squadron. 

Anxious to defend the place which has been entrusted to me, I am likewise «• 
to spare bloodshed. I expcd, therefore, to receive from you to morrow morning 
the conditions for the surrender of the place, to which I shall iigree if they are 
admifiible. 

The Commander of Goree, 

. GUILLEMIN. 
4 



ft •AZBTTB LBTT£11S. 

ADMIRALTT-QrFICEi JDIrT S. 

Cofy ^f a Litter from Sir Cbarles Hamiitom^ Bart. CaptatH rf hit JMajestft S^ 

Melpomcnt, to Evam Nepeam^' Eiq, dattJa* SfitbeaJ, the ^b utOaiii. 

Toa wUi be pleased to acquaint thetr Lordships, that on the ryth ult. after a 
^ace of fifty-seven hours, I captured L'Augruste French letter of marque, of I9 
guns and 50 men, from Bourdeauz, bound to Guadalonpe. 

. I h4ve the honour to be, Sir, &c. &c. C. HAMILTON. 

AOUiRALTr-omcE. jiTLr 8. « 

pdfy ^f a Letttrfr^m Captain James Newmam, CommaneUr of his Majesty* s Ship 
Loire^to Evan Neptam^ Ejg, dated at Liihon^the l6tb Jyae iSoO. 

tIRy 

I beg you will inform their Lordships, that on the 15th ult. at day-light, I 
discovered a strange sail in the convoy, which T had the satisfafftion to capture 
after a chace of five hours. She proved to be La Francoise French schooner pri* 
mteer^of 12 guns and 42 men, from Biurdcaux, bound to Guadaloupe. 

I am. Sir, &c. &c. J. M. NEWMAN. 

AOMIRALTY-OPriCE, JULT II. 

Copy of m Letter from Captaim Immam, of bii Majesty*x bip Amdrtmeda^ to Evam 

Nepeam^ Esf, dated of Dimbirb, July 8. 
SIR, 

I beg you will be pleaded to inform their Lordships, that agreeably to their 
«rders to me o^ the 1 7 th of June, to take under my command the fire venels and 
6thers named in the margin *, and endeavour to take or destroy the enemy's 
frigates in Dunkirk Roads, we joined s^t. the appointed rendezvous the syth fol- 
lowing, but, from contrary winds, and the tide not answering, coold not makft 
the attempt before last night, when I fear the enemy had been apprised of my 
intentiont as we were much annoyed by gun-vessels and others lymg advanced 
some distance, which afforded the frigates an opportunity to cut their cables^ 
and avoid our fireships. 

1 had direded Captain Campbell, of the Dart, to get in, if he could to the 
easternmost, and lay her on board, at the time I hoped the first fircship would 
have been entangled with the westernmost. 

The handsome and intrepid manner of his completely carrying her in less than 
a quarter of an hour, and bringing her out, must convince their I/ordships of his 
unptfallelled bravery, and the very gallant condu<% of his officers and ship'a 
companv, as the enemy's frieate was so much superior in force ; and had it not 
been so instantly done, the ship could not have been got over the banks, as the 
water had begun to falL By Captain Campbell's report to me, great praise is 
due to Lieutenant M'Dennext, who, I am sorry to say, is badly wounded. 

1 inclose Captain Campbell's letter to me, giving an account of this trant- 
aAion ; and have the pleasure to observe, that one spirit seemed to aduate the 
whole ; but I am sorry that, notwithstanding the steady condud of Captains 
Edwards, Butt, Leef, and Carthew, of the several fire^vessels, in remainine on 
board till completely in flames, the three enemy's ships, from cutting their cables, 
escaped before the wind, and ran out of Dunkirk Roads fome Tittle distance 
down the Inner Channel within the Braak Sand ; one of them got on shore for 
a short time, but at day-light we had the mortification to observe her working 
back on the ebb tide, and, with the other two, regained their anchorage, though 
not without considerable dsmage, havine received the fii« of the Dart, Biter, 
and Boxer gun-brigs, within pistol-shot^ before they cut. 

1 kept the Selby in the rear to a6l, had any remained long enough on shore, 
4o have destroyed them by firing carcasses, and have now to regret 1 reserved 
her for that purpose, as I am confident, had Captain Williams been diredtfd 

* Wasp, Captain Edwards ; Falcon, Captun Butt ; Dart, Captain Campbd! ; Come<^ 
Captain Leef; Rosario, Captain Carihew ; Selby, Captain Williims ; hotttr, Lieutenaat 
Gilbot ; Teaser, Lieutenant Robins ; Biter, Lieutenant Norman ; Stag Cutter, Lien- 
Xraant Humphrvs ; Nile Lugger, Ljcutenant Whitehead ; Ann Cutter, Lieuieoant 
VouQg ; KJSBt, XieuleaantCoooaD s Vigilant Lugger, Lieuteoauc Dean* 



CaZITTB LBTTIRflJ 7$ 

fo la^ one of Uie enemy** ships on board, he would hate been meoeiiliil is 
hringing her out. 

I pat Mr. Scott, First Lieotenant of the Andromeda^ in the command of thtt 
boats io a gtg, and Mr. Cochran, Third Lieutenant, in another boat ; and as 
I had all the cutters to attend on the fire-Tesels except the Kent,direAed their 
Lieutenants in eigs to put themselves under his command ; and by whtck 
means not any fives were lost ; the Kent, Lieutenant Cooban« I dire&ed' to 
atuck the gun-vessels, who trimmed them pretty handsomely, and prevented 
any boats from annoying ours, that were employed to take out the crews of the 
£r»>shiM. 

I feel particularly indebted to Captains Mainwaring, Baker, and heater, M 
also to Lieutenant King, Second Lieutenant, who was left in command of the 
Andromeda, for their perseverance in getting over the banks to render ns tycrf 
assistance by boats, and to be in readineis to meet the enen>y, had they ventured 
over the Bnak Sand; which position they maintained for that purpose in spite 
of freah gales, and dirtA opposition to the established pilots, who gave up tha^ 
charge of each ship on their hands while in this situation ; and before, when I 
first made the proposition, positively refiised taking charge of any vessels of the 
lightest draught of water intended for this service ; but with the assistance of 
Mr. Moor, Master (whom I put on board the Dart to lead in), and Mr. Wheat- 
land, Mate of the Anne hired cutter, who very handsomely volunteered their 
services to take any of the ships in, on my sugeesticg it to them, and some mpn * 
which I got out of smu|;glers, I was enabled to put one on board each of the 
gun-vessels and fire-brigs ; 1 feel an inward satisfiidion at bringing the whole of 
the squadron through the Roads without the least difficulty. 1 cannot omit 
mentioning that Mr. Butcher, Master of the Nile, and Mr. Dean, Master of the 
Vigilant (niggers), at my request would have laid as a leading mark at Grave* 
lines Hook ; the former peilormed this service, and t embarked with thirty 
volunteers from the Andromeda in the Utter : and through the whole of this 
service I feel particularly indebted to the Commanders of ue several vessels and 
cutters for .their very steady conduA. 

I inclose a list of killed and wounded, and am sorry to say that Captain Leef, 
of the Comet, is among the latter, having been blown up. I have also to 
acquaint you, for their Lordships' information, that from the mangled and uo^ 
happy state of many of the prisoners, 1 was induced to send a flag of truce witll 
them into Dunkirk* I have the honour to he, &c. 

H INMAN. 

SI a, Dart^^fDy/UirJi, Jm/jf%, 

Agreeable to the dire^ions you honoured me with to board the easternmost 
of the enemy's frigates in Dunkirk Roads, should it be pradicablc, 1 have 
complete satisfa^ion in acquainting you, that about one A. M. I succeeded in 
carrying- La Desir^, National frigate, mounting 40 guns, long twenty-four 
pounders, on the main>deck, with a complement of 35O men, some of whom were 
on ^ore. 

From your being so nearly situated to me during the attack, I have only to 
anticipate your approbation of the Dart's condu A ; but as individual merit could 
not be distinguished but by those present, I trust I may be permitted to speak ti\ 
terms the most gratifying of Lieutenant M*Dermeit, who gallantly led the 
boarders on this occasion, and who, I fear, will lose his arm by a severe wound 
he received : indeed, I cannot say enough in praise of his gallantry in this un- 
equal contest, having every reason to believe the eneoiy were fully aporised of 
▼our intentions, from the resistance they XBAlle, and the preparations that were 
lonnd on board. 

Lieutenant M'Dermeit, with much presence of wind, on being wounded, 
called to me he had )M)ssession of the ship, but feared they would rally, and re- 
quested an officer might be sent to take charge. Lieutenant Pierce gallantly 
Anticipated my wishes, by jumping on board, completely repulsed the enemy, 
trho were rallying at the after-hatchway, instantly cut her cables, got her under 
sail, and over banks which could not have been effeciltd half an hour later. I 
silsobe^to srate Mr. Ingledon, the Master's, condud, as highly meriioriousj 
«i placing the Dart so completely on board the Dcaiiee, and who nearly Uii hm 

fiOoliV. I. 



94 OAZtTTi; LttTBftt* 

life tupportiog tie bourden, hj falling between the %bSip%, Indeed, sU the 
eifficett whom I bad the honoor to command behtTed in •> manner that will 
ever merit my wannest acknowledgmcnti ; and when I think of the topporC 
fiTcn me by my brave crew, I feel confident I shall never forget their loyalty 
tind merit. 

Inclosed I tend yon a list of killed and wounded ; and am» Sir, yonr irary 
tumble servant, 

T» Cmftaim Jmuu. P. CAMPB£LL. 

Jt J^f •/ tbt FrencB Sqtuutrtn m Duniirh Roods, on the Eveithg o/tBe Jti o/ytfy* 

La Poursuivant, of 40 guns, twenty-four pounders on the main deck, wean • 
broad pendant. Commodore's name Castagnie, Chief of Division. 

Da Desir^e. of 40 guns, twenty-four pounders on the.nuin deck, commanded 
by Citizen Deplancy ; taken by his Majesty's sloop Dart. 

Xi'Incomiptible, of 40 guns, twenty-K)ttr pounders on the main deck. 

La Carmagnole^ of 50 guns, eighteen pounders on the main deck. 

A Rauru of KUM and IVouttdid OH board bu Majesty* s Shifs im the ASioa wki th$ 
French Squadron in Duniirh Roadt^ on tht Udorning 0/ the Ztk 0/ Jnly^ 

JD'art^-^l killed ; 1 1 wonnded. 
Cornet,"'^ wounded. 
BHer Gun Feuel.^l wot&ded. 
Ann (Hired Cutter J.^l Wounded. 
Xent (Hired (hater )^^1 wounded. 

Name* of Ofjicere nmmded. 

CMv«f.^Captain Thomas Leef, slightly. * 

. D«i^.— Liemcnaflt James M'Dermeit, badly ; Mr, Jamet Hall^ Matter** 
Mate, badly. 

Biter Gun j^«/i«/.— Lieutenant Norman, Commaoder, slightly. 

ADMiaALTT-OPPICI, JULY II* 

CeM ^f et Letter from Viu-Admiral Lord Keith, Commander in Chief of his Majesty's 
Shits and Feueh in the Mediterranean, to Evan Nefean^ Sif. dated on hoirdthe 
Mtnotaur^ in Genoa Mole, the ^th June, 

SIR, 

You will be pleased to lay before their Lordships the inclosed cq^y of a letter 
^hich I have rcceiyed from Captain Oliver, of his Majesty's ship Mermaid. 

I have the honour to be, &c. KEITH. 

■T Loav, ^ Mermaid, ojfCofe Croisette, 4ih Jmu. 

I have the honovr to acquaint your Lordship, that his Majesty *s ship under my 
command captured on the ist instant, twelve leagues to tiie southward of the 
Hieres, the French brig La Cruelle, of six guns (four of which were thrown 
overboard in the chacej, and 43 men, commanded by Francis Xavier Jeard, 
Enseiene de Vaisteau, with a careo of all sorts of provisions. She had been only 
cieht hours fimm Toulon ; sailed with sealed orders ; bntfrom what I can learn 
I have little doubt but she was destined for Malta : La Cruelle has been a bomb 
^essel, but left her mortar at Toulon. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 
Win-Aimiral L^d KM, Jt R. \^e. R. DUDLEY OLIVER, 

aoaaBiBaBBMamamavaBi 

PORt^MOUTH, JUNB a6. 

A COURT MARTIAL waa held on Captain Alms, his Oficert and men, 
for the lots of hit Majesty's ship Repuiee^ on the coast of France. — After a 
thorough investigation of the business, the Court was of opinion, that Mr. 
Rothery, the First Lieutenant, and Mr. Finn, the Master, had been guilty of 
disobeying the Captain's orders, sentenced them to be dismissed his Majesty *a 
aervice, and rendered io capable of serving again. That Captain Alait, bi« other 
Officers, lad tbip'i company are honourably acquitted. 



VATAL COUHTS MAITIAU 7$ 

S7. Pvnust to w ofder from the Lords Coiniiii«i«iMn of the Adminlty, % 
Coon Martial was held on Tuesday, on board the ' G/M&tf*!*, ia thU hai^our, 
mi Mr. William O'Kblly, Surgeon oC his Majesty's gun Yettel Sparkler. 

Rctf* Admiral Hollowat, President. 

He was charged by Lientenipt WALKta, Commander of the SpmrUtr^ that 
•n the asth of May Ust he beha^ved in a mutinous, riotous, and disorderly man- 
ner, disobeyed his orders, struck Mr. Allen (the Clerk), and said hpd^notcara 
a damn for the Lieutenant or his orders ; and, after being under atreity for 
snapping a loaded pistol several times at the sentinel on his post. 

Evidence having been examined on the part of the piotecutiony and hearihg 
the defence of the prisoner, the Court was of ooinion^ that the charges havin|^ 
been proved in part against the said Mr. O'Keily, sentenced him to be impri- 
soned in the Marshalsea for two years, and to forfeit all his pay. 

• ymfy r. A Court Martial was held, on board his Majesty's ship^ CimSsim , in 
thu harbour, pursuant , to an order from the Lords Commissioners of tha 
Admiralty, for the trial of Mr. John Shi a. Purser of his Majes^'s ship Btaverf 
on charges of having, on two different occasions, disposed of the provisions 
entrusted to him for nis own private emofoment, contrary to his instruAions^ 
and made a false charge on the sloop*s books ; and for having, on several occa* 
tions, treated his Captain, CHaisroPHta Bossit Jones, Kiq. with tasoleqc^ 
contempt, and disresped, and for having absented himself without leave. 

President, Rear-Admiral Po&t. 

The Court being of opinion that the charges had been only ia payt ptoved 
agabst the said Mr. John Shi a, did a4)ndM him to be reprimaiidedt aud ad- 
monished to ^ moTt circumsped in his conduA for jthe Ivtnr^ 

f. 4 Court Martial was held on bo^rd the GJadka^r^ for the trial vi 
Lieutenant William Walker, commanding his Majesty's gun-vessel Spariltr^ 
on a charge of having repqitedly answered, at the time of muster, for men w&o 
ran avray from the boat, and said they were on liberty ; and also for having 
answered for his own child, aged one year, rated A. B. and said he was on shore 
on duty { ^nd for having sent one of the ship's company (then on board) assomtng- 
the name of William Walker, his son, and received five pounds bounty, in Ports- 
mouth ; and of having shortened the fresh provisions from the ship's company, 
and drew it on shore for the use of his own table, and sent salt herrings on board, 
which he vended to the trcw Without a vegetable of any species ; and that he 
also drew the full provisions for fifty men, that complement noj beiDg complete. 

The Court being of oj^inion, that the charges had been in part proved against 
the said Lieutenant William Walker, did adjudge him to be aismissed from 
)iif Majesty's service. 

^. A Court Martial was also held on board the same ship, for the trial d 

iOBN Duncan, late a seaman belonging tq his Majesty's late ihip ffermoMf 
>r having murdered the Ofiicers of the said ship, or being aiding and assisting 
thereiiy ; apa for having aided and assisted in carrying thsl said ship to La Guira, 
and delivering her up to the enemy. 

The Co)irt were ot opinion, that the charges had been proved against the said 
John Duncan, and did adju4Ke him to suffer death, by being hanged by the neck 
on board such ship of his Majesty, and at such time and place as the Lords Com^ 
fnissioners of the Admiralty should dired. 

On the ioth he yas exccoied on hoard Um PtOummt ^ agreeably to the sentenct 
of the Court. About a quarrer of an hour before he was turned off, he addressed 
the ship's company^ and said how justly- ha Has coademned for being concerned 
in one of the worst of crimen, <^id warned then^ from ever being concerned in 
such an a^ of atrocity. 

II. A Court Martial was held on boi^'d his Majesty's ship Gladbat»r^ In this 
harbour, for the trial of Joseph Beown, a ^man belonging to his Majesty's 
iloop fairy, for desertion. 

' The Court were of opinion, that the charge had been proved against the- 
prisoner ; but, in consideration of his very good chara<^er, and paiticularly his 
great exertions and meritorious condu^ on board the Impregnable, after she was 
9n shore, and other circumstances, he was only sentenced to be inuldcd of his pyl 



t 76 3 

MONTHLY REGISTER 

OF 



LORD KEITH'S LETTER TO GENERAL KLBBER* 

tlt» ^eem CbarUUef Feh. 8. 

t INFORM yoQ, that 1 have receiTed pocitiye otden from his Majesty to con- 
^tto DO capitulation with the French army under your command in Egypt and 
Sjria, unlen it lays down its arms, and surrenders itself prisoners of war^ 
ibandonine all the ships and the stores in the port and citadel of Alexandria to 
the Allied Powers ; and that, in case of such capitulation, I am npt at liberty to 
aiUow any troops to return to France before they are exchanged. I think it also 
proper to inform you, that all ships haying French troops on board, and sailing 
n'om that country, furnished" with passports slraed by others than Uiosc cbat 
have a rieht to grant them, will be forced by the Officers of the ships which I 
command to remain at Alexandria. In short, the vessels which shall be met 
returning to Eurc^e with pa&sporu granted in consequence of a separate treaty 
with any of the Allied Powers, shall be detained as prises, and all persons oi| 
board considered as prisoners of war. (Signed) KEITH *. 

AMERICAN MARINE. 

The followiflg Is an abstraft of the expence« attending the building of the 
tiMXTKb Statis, Constitution, and Constcilatxon frigates, at PbH^'^ 
J^fhh^ Bwtm^ and Bahimpre : 

ComsthuiioM, of 1444 tons, and 44 guns. 
Labour . - . -j 10,75 odol. 94 cents. 
Materials * . « • 75,286 68 

Freight - • . • 4,020 o 

Fixtures - • - - i7,oc8 64 

Vnk§dSiaUs^ of 1444 tons, and 44 guns. 
Labour • - , - 83,701 dol. 55 cents. 
Materials - .^ - - - 77i497 *$ 

Freight . - - - 2,372 o 

Fixtures . « * « 14,889 37 

178,460 7 

CcniUU4iioMi of 1 145 tons, and 36 gups. 
Labour .... 112,777 dol. 24 cents. 
Materials » •> - - 85,987 74 

Freight . - - . 6,754 75 

fixMU-es • • -> - 15,964 10 



Being for the three frigates about 67,000!. 



221,513 8j 



Juty 1. Sir W. Rcott, Judge of the High Court of Admiralty, m^de the 
report to his Majesty of the three prisoners who were at the last .admiralty 
Session tried for being fVinnd fighting on board the enemy's ships of war, and 
^pitslly convided ; when James Wilson was ordered to suffer death pursuant 
to his sentence | and Thomas Downing and Janics Briggs Qoz, alias George 
Adaids, were reapited. 

• Slope the ahove, counter orden have been Uiuei* 



MONTHLY 1CGI9TBR OF liATAI* BTBlITt* 77 

AWACK of the ENEMY'S FRIGATES IN DUNKIRK ROADS. 
, THERE have appeared in some of the French papers, some t^Sima upoo tht 
li|umaiutyofthe British Officers and Seamen in the very gallant affair off Z)Mrii>i(, 
in which the French frigate La Detirie was captured *. We are happy in the 
opportunitv of meeting these rtflfSUom witbySi^/, from which it will appear, that 
the humanity eiercised by the British Officers kept pace with their distingaiilked 
gallantry upon this occasion. 

«* SIR, *^ Andrmfia^ cfjkmiirit Jiify 8, iSoa 

" Motives of humanity have induced me to send one of his Britannic Majesty's 
cuttera under my command, ^ith some unfortunate wounded officers and tnea oC 
La Desiree. 

** I trust the flag of truce will be permitted to return without loss of time« 
and that you will have the goodness to transmit me, by the sa'me conveyance, a 
proper receipt, acknowledging their parole, which their wounds will not suiSer 
them at present to give me without considerable dolay« that might be of seriout 
consequence to them. I am, Sir, 

'* To tbt Commamdmg OJ^r ttftht <* Yotilr most obedient hnmble servant, 
SrmekSfmdrom in DunkirJk Jioads.*' « HEN. I N MAN.'* 

From Connodore GAsvAGAita, commanding the Naval Force in Donkirk 
Roads : 

" SIR, •* JthitihM, Jqth JMTeuidor, 8fA Tear tffhe RetMe. 

** 1 thank yon in the name of xliy unfortunate wounded countrymen^ for yoQf 
conduft towards them, 

<* Your letter was givtfn me by the English Officer who brings this back. 

<* You will find inclosed the lists of the French officers and seamen he bat 
landed, with the receipt, which will in the exchange of prisoners account for 
men to your Government. I have the honour to be, Sir, 

«* CONNODORE GASTAGNIER.'» 
<* TV Capt. I/imoMt eommam^Mg the Emglhh S^uadrm cf Dtmkfri,** 
—About tweWe o'clock at night the squaidron got sight of the French ships, 
and when within sight the latter hailed the Dart, and asked her whence 
she came. The answer was in French, " From Bouxdeaux." The French- 
man then desired to know what convoy that was astern of them, meaning 
our fireships, which were at some distance behind. The answer from the Dart 
was, ** they did not know." On these answers being given, the Dart passed 
the squadron, until she came alongside the innermost frigate but one, from 
which she received a most tremendous broadside, but in a moment returned it 
with tenfold interest, the Dart*s guns being double shotted with round an4 
grape. The Dait then passed on and boarded the innermost frigate, by running 
£er bowsprit between her foremast and forestay, having let go her stem anchor 
to check. The First Lieutenant and his division immediately boarded her, and 
carried every thing before them. The Dart then cut her stern cable, and swung 
alongside the enemy, when the Second Lieutenant with his division boarded the 
French vessel on the quarter, and in about thirty minutes got possession of her, 
cut her cables, and brought her away throueh a small channel that was always 
supposed impracticable. Every Officer on board the French ship was killed, 
except one Midshipman t there were killed and wounded altogether nearly oi^e 
hundred men. 



EAST INDIES. 

A sixty-four gun ship is now building at Bombay^ for the Commodore's ship qf 
the Bombay, Marine. — ^The rest of his establishment are to be frigates, from 
»8 to 3s guns, besides the smaller cruisers. A Marine Board is also to be esta- 
blished, consisting of a Superintendant, Master Attendant, Commodore, and 
three senior Captains. In future, the Master Attendant is to be in the line of 
promotion. All convoy charges to the Bombay Marine are to be done away ; 
and in lien thereof, the Commodore, three senior Captains, junior Captains^ and 
Lieutenanu in conmiand, are to have fixed salaries. 

* See pa^e 72| for the official accoux;t« 



I 



ft MONTHLY REG18TBK 

ADMIRALTY COURT. 

' Jufy 1 i* Sir William Scott sat this day, and condemned several Danish «loop« 
and brigs, for breaking their neutrality, by entering the por( of Havre wheq lO 
a state of blockade. 

Ship Alczandir, of A lt on a. —-Thip ship was purchased at St* Maloea,by 
ft Danish merchant, from M. de Facio : she sailed to Altona in ballast, and was 
there freighted with a cargo to Lisbon, and ordered to return to Altona.— At 
Lisbon, she took in a cargo of cotton, cdfiee, sugar, &c. When ready to sail 
from Lisbon, the deposition seated that there was a fortnight's old sound provi- 
jionson board ; but the Captain chose to purchase a barrel of beef and a hundred 
weight of biscuit. She sailed from Lisbon on the 9th of last March, and on the 
15th, bein|roffthe coast of France, the crew discovered that the purchased beef 
was offensive and' bad. The Captain, although he had twenty days good old 
provisions, determined to sail for the first port in France for more. That port 
was Havre de Gra^, which it was proved he knew to be in a state of blockade. 
About four leagues from Havre, the Duchess of York cutter came up under 
French colours, and, after ezaminatiMi, s^zed the Dane, for having broken the 
neutrality. There was another cutter in sight. The defence by Dr» Lawrence 
wasythitf fhe w^ in want cif |>rovision8, and that a further elucidation was va- 
necessary. The Judge entered into the cause at full length. The ship and pac( 
pi the cargo were condemned as prise to the two cutters. 



PLYMOUTH REPORT, 

raOM JUNK 16 TO JULY IQ, 



Jime 16. WIND N. W. Showery. Sailed for Earl St. Vincent's fleet, th« 
John lugger, £)lot master, with porter, groceries, «nd vegeubles* 

ay. Wind N. W, Cloudy. Sailed the Suwarrow, 16 guns. Lieutenant 
Kicho^lson, with dispatches fof Earl St. Vincent Arrived the Cambrian, 44 
guns, Hon. Captain Legge, from the coast of Spain, having been lelicved by the 
bide^tigable, 44 guns, Hon« Cftptain Curson. 

18. Wind N. W. Cloudy. Arrived the Unicom, 36 guns, Captain Wilkin- 
son, from off the Penmarks. He brought in with him ten sail of brigs andchasse 
marges, deeply laden with proviiions and brandy for the French fleet at Brest. 
There were eleven sail cut out from under the batteries by the boats of the 
Jlenown, 74 guns, Rcar-Admiral Sir J. Warrcn,< Defence 74, Fisgard 4^, and 
Unicom 36. One foi^idered, but the crew were ^ved. 

1 9. Wind N. W. Fair, failed for Gibraltar, with naval stores^ the Abufw - 
dance store shipu Came in from o^^ Brest, the Lurcher cutter. Lieutenant 
Forbes, in damage, after a smart adion with a French cutter, in which ^e s^o^ 
ceedcd in cutting out from the Penmarks. 

20. Wind W. N. W. Fair. Arrived the Spitfire,. 14 guns, Captain Sey* ' 
mour, with a^ beautiful corvette of 16 French brass six- pounders and ^5 men, 
called L'Heureuz Courier. She had been out five weeks, had captured tw» 
Newfoundland brigs, and cut out of St. Michael's (where she was loading^ 
a Portufiuesc schooner. Nostra Scnora del Carno, De Casta Pinto, v^ich was 
retaken by the Tartar privateer 6f Guernsey, where she is arrived. It.appearai 
that La firdve French privateer, of 36 men, lost two men killed when fired into 
by the Anson, 44 gum, Captain Durham. Sailed again, on a cruises the Spitfire, 
^4gtins. 

. 22. Wind N. W. Fair. This morning the Marlborough, 74 gum, tnadd 
the signal for assistance to go into the harbour, which was answered by the 
, Port Admiral and all the fleet, whose boats proceeded to tow her up into ^rit 
Pool, where &he arrived at four P. M- Arrived from a cruise, the Naiad, 3S 
guns^ Captain Pierrepont ; Bai^eur, 98, Rear Admiral Coliingwood, to refit. 

23. Wind S. W. Fair. I'his forenoon a very interesting spedacle presented 
itself to a numerous body of people assembled on the Hoe, viz. upwards of 20Q 
sail of West Indiamen passing by the port» from BarbadoeSy Martinique^ 



OF NAVAL EVENTS. ^ 

tod ether ports in the West Indies. The fleet stretched from t'enke Point W. 
Id the Bolt Tail, £. uod^ convoy of the Prince 6f Wales. 98 g^s. Captain 
Renou ; La ViAorieuse, iz. Captain Dickson, valued at nnwards of three mil-^ 
lions sterling. Came in, the Elephant, 74 gnns, Captain Foley, to refit. 

24. Wind Variahle. Fair. Sailed the Chapman^ 24 guns, Captain Keen, 
with ft^ convoy. 

35. Wind S. W. Fair. Sailed the Fanny, 11 guns. Lieutenant Frissell, 
with a convoy to the westward. Arrived the Raqger cutter, M. A. Fraser« 
with a fine smuggling lugger, having on board 800 ankers of spirits, captured 
after a long chace wimin the limits of the Dodman. 

26. Wind S. E. Fair and Fine. Arrived from Portsnaonth, the He6tor, 74 

Sins, Captain Elphinstone. Letters from the Mars, 74 guns, (the advanced 
ip of the flying squadron) Rear Admiral Berkeley, state, that on the 33d inst. 
in sight «jf the Brest fleet, the crew of that ship adually painted ber from stem 
to stern, and then gave three hearty cheers. Sailed the Barfleur, 98 gum, Rear 
Admiral ColUngwood, to join the Channel fleet. 

2f^ Wind S. £. Fair. Sailed the Hedor, 74 guns, to join the fleet. The 
Unity, ^f Qvcenhorough, from Guernsey, having on board 1 70 casks of spirits, 
besides tobacco, concealed in her hold, was seized by the officers of excise in 
Hamoaze. Came in the |oseph cutter, Lieutenant Cowan ; he captured a sloop, 
in ballast, off the coast of France, and burnt her. Sailed the Unicorn, 32 guns» 
Captain Wilkinson, to join the fleet ; also the Clyde, 36, and the Beaulieu, 36. 

38. Wind S. E. Fair. Went into the Sound, from Hamoaze, the Immoita- 
Kte, 44 guns. Captain Hotham; the Dryad, 36; and the ReTolutionaire, 44. 
Sailed the Agcmemnon, ^4 guns, to join the fleet. 

29. Wind S. W. Cloudy. Letters from Fowey state the arriv;^! there of the 
liOrd Middleton, of and for London, from New Providence, richly laden with 
cocoa, indigo, coffee, sugar, and quicksilver, valued, per manifest, at 4$,ooo1. 
taken by a French privateer, and retaken within two hours sail of Boordeauz, 
by the Maria privateer, of this port, Captun Ruby. ' 

30. Wind S. W. Fair and Sultry. Arrived ta four days, with dispatches, 
from Earl St. Vincent, off* Brest, the Megxra &rc ship ; also, in forty-eight hours, 
the Temeratre, 98 guns. Rear Admiral Whitshed ; Robust, 74* Captain Coun- 
tess; and Magnificent, 78, Captain Bowatcr. Orders came down for the 2jdp 
or Royal Welch Fuzileers, to embark on board the Elephant, 74 gub^ and the 
Alcmetie, 36, to join the ttoops on the Isles Hodie and Houat. 

July z. Wind S. W. Fair ^nd Sultry. Letters from the fleet, dated the 
29th ult. state, that a cutter had spoke the Ville de f aris, no guns, supposed 
with di^atches from C^ibeion. The French fleet are almost manned, but are 
atin in harbour. Fish is caught in ereat plenty, and served out to the seamen 
daily. A long order was issued to all the ships by Earl St. Vincent, that when 
jnen of war were at anchor at home or abroad, the officers commanding the 
marines, is to parade every day a strong marine guard in as good style as on the 
best regulated parade on shore. 

«. Wind S. W. Fair. Letters from the Canada, 74 pms, Honourable Cap-' 
tain De Courcy, state the extreme gallantry of the marmes and seafnen in the 
attack of the boats of Admiral Sir J. Warren's squadron, at Quimper Pointy 
when the bfttteries were destroyed and blown up without any loss on our side. 
Arrived the Chapman, 24 guns. Captain Keen, with a convoy from Milford » 
also the Gipsey sloop, of Liverpool, from the West Indies, taken by La Brave 
Ffench privateer, of 36 guns, Citizen Le Bee, and retaken by the Boadicea, 38, 
Captain Keates; also a privateer taken on the coast of France. 

3. Wind S. W. Cloudy. 

4. Wind Variable. Cloudy. Arrived the Diamond, 36 guns, from off 
Quimper ; she ran on some rocks, and knocked a hole in her bottom in the attack 
on the forts of Quimper, with the boats of the squadron : she diredly ran up 
Hamoaze, and is to go into dock to repair. She brought the Capuin and 
officers of a gun-brig, of 14 guns, which was run ashore, set on fire, and 
blown up. Came in from a cruise, the Telegraph, of iS guns, Lieutenant Cor-. 
scUisy «Dd th^Havicki i8» Captain Bartholomew. 



i 



86 MoMtHLY ftt&ISTEft OF NATAL CTtNTt* 

5. Wind Varial>Ie. Fair. i\rrtved from the Channel fleet, €be Soperb, 74 
pm9. Captain vSutton, to refit, and the John lugger, EBot. They were left all 
well on Wednesday last, at which period the Britidi troops had embarked from 
Howat and Hedie, and were gone to the southward, though the Got of Gib« 
Ivkar, for Minorca. General Maitland finding the garrison of Palais Citadel, 
in Belleisie, . lopcx) efifedEive men, very prudently avoided risking a deacentt 
with an inferior force, and re^embarked the British arftiy without any loss, ex- 
cept two coitipanies of the Royal Artiikry^ which are left efacainped on the 
lab of Howat, waiting for ordera. 

6. Wind W. Cloady. 

f. Wind S. W. Cloudy, with Showett. 

S. Wind Variable. Arrived from Spithead, with treopi, the Iphigema, %% 
guns ; Experiinent, 44; and the I'hetis, 3A, bound on a secret expedition, whuhr 
^ut back by baf&Ing winds. Also, from the Downs, the Prince of Wades, 9% 
gons. Captain Renou, to refit. She convoyed home the West India fleet« 

9. Wind S. W. Cloudy. Arrived the Amazon, 56 guns, Captain Rloug 
from convoying the outward>bonnd West India fleet, April a6th, which she left 
all well June zst. She brought' in vrith hef L.a Julie, pierced for z6gaDt, 
French letter of marque, from fiourdeaox to Cayenne, captured by the Amasoo, 
44 guns, the 1 6th of June, in lat^ 3a. 30. long. 16.30.; also the Amelia, kt« 
l)0!naldson, from Savannah to London, with rice and cotton, taken l8th nit. by 
JLa Miiierve French privateer, of 20 guns, and retaken the »8th ult. by the 
Amazon. Captain Donaldson and the Boatswain of the Amelia was imfor« 
tunatcly drowned in shifting to the Minerve from the Amelia, by the boat 
swamping alongside. Last evening a most beautiful packet, called the Duke of 
Clarence, Captain Dennis, was launched at Devirs Point, built by Mr. T. 
Dnnstcrville, ship-builder. 

10. Wind Variable. Fair* Sailed the Robnste, 74 guns, Captain Countess, 
to join the fleet off Brest4 she carried out a greit supply of naval stores and 
provisions for those ships that may be in want of them. Sailed the Chapman, 
%4 guns, Captain Keen, with a convoy ; Cambrian, 44 gun^ Honourable Cap- 
tain Legge; Ma^rnificent, 74, Captain Bowater; Havick, iS, Captain Bartho- 
lomew, on a cruise. I'hc Experiment, Thetis, Iphigenia, and Inconstant, also 
on a cruise* The Ranger cutter. Captain Frazer, and Busy cutter^ Captaia 
Bowdcn* 



PtomotionjS anH 9ppoiRtinfnt0. 

CAPTAIN James Wilson is appointed to the command of the Windsor 
Castle ; Lientenant 1 homas Gocffrey is appointed to the comnnad of the 
I'error bomb ; and Lieutenant Street to the command of the Star brig. 

Captain Wright is appointed to the command of his Majesty's diip Wol* 
serene. 

Captain Young, late of the Ethalioa (b)8t on the Saints), is appointed to La 
Pique, of 44 guns flate Pallas). 

Caputn Campbell, of the Dart sloop, has got the rank of post, and is appointed, 
k is said, to the frigate he cm out of Dunkuk. 

Captain John Broughton, late of the Strombolo, is appointed to the Florentia 
frigate, of 36 guDs, now ofi* Malta. 

Mr. A* Thompson, lately First Lieutenant to Admiral Nelson, is appointed 
Captain and Commander of the Strombolo, now on the Mediterranean station. 

Captain Inman, of the Andromeda, is appointed to the command of La 
Desiree ; Captain Mainwarine, of the Babet, to the Andromeda ; Captain 
Campbell, promoted to the rank of Post Captain, and appointed to the Babet ; 
and Captain Devonshire to the Dart. 

Captain Tnman,of the Andromeda frigate, and Captain Campbell, of the Darf 
iloop, engaged in the hazardous enterprise in cutting out the French frigate from' 
Buakirk, were introduced to his Majesty, and graciously received. 



THE RIGHT HONORABLE 






DVlSCOl'KTDrNCAS 



Mat ^(jnAiroii .■ 



STOGHAPfflCAL MilMOIRS 6S 

THB KIGHT HONOUftAttLB 

ADAM DUNCAN, LORD VISCOUNT DUNCAN, 

9CW1CHT or THB IMPERIAL RUSSIAIt ORSBB OF ST. ALt X ANDBft |rBWSKl» 
Alrfi ADMIRAL OF THB BLVB <^#6R«1I. 

See what a grtce wis seated oa thU brow ! 

Hyperion's curlsi the front of Jove liimself; 

An eye like Mars, to threaten or tommatid i * " 

A stadon like the henM Mffcuryy ' ^ .^   v» 

New lighted on a Heavea-kisaing hill; . ^ 

A combination and a form indeed, 

Where every God did seem to set his sealf ^ ' 

To give the world assurance of a Mftn. YTa m L e*r» ' 

npHE family of Lundie, from whence the noble and gallant 
subjeft of the present meaioifs is sprung, and pf which 
/he IS at this time the rcpresentatiTe, is of very high antiquity : 
it was originally styled Duncan of Sea-side, and there is a 
well authenticated heraldic tradition relative to it, which ac- 
counts particularly for its crest^tf dlstifasitd Ship^ now borne 
over the Arms of Camperdown. A person belonging to the 
family, who lived about two hundred years since, being super- 
cargo on board a vessel bound from Norway to his native 
place, Dundee, was overtaken by a tremendous storm, in 
which the Ship was reduced almost to a complete wreck, and 
the crew experienced, in consequence of that misfortune, the 
greatest extremity of hardship and distress. Contrary, how- 
ever, to all human expedation, the crew were providentially 
enabled to navigate their crazy crippled vessel safe into 
port, and the parents of their fortunately rescued son, who^ 
having considered him as lost to them, were in the most dis- 
consolate desponding state, immediately adopted the crest 
alluded to, in commemoration of the dangers which . tlieir 
heir had escaped from, as well as in grateful acknowledge 
ment to that Providence which had preserved him. 

On the establishment of the Presbyterian form of worship 
in Scotland, the family of Lundie immediately attache^ 
themselves, to it, and have ever since that time uniformly ad- 
hered to the same principles ; nor have they shewn less stea- 
diness in th^ir political condui^ than in their jreligionj 



82 BlOGltAFHiCAL MVM0IR8 

During the rebellion which broke out in the year 174S, the 
late Lundie> as the head of the family, according to the custom 
of Scotland} was always called, and his lady distinguished 
themselves exceedingly,^ by their loyalty and attachment to 
the House of Hanover. Although their possessions could 
not be considered more extensive than in proportion ^o the 
rank of a private gentleman, yet the liberality with which 
they on every occasion entertained the officers of the Royal 
Army, and all other adherents to the cause which they 
espoused, appeared better suited to the affluence of a noble, 
than the more narrowed income of a person inferior in rank 
and apparent consequence. As this conduft was the mere 
efflux of private virtue and honest attachment, unalloyed by 
the most distant hopes of honour or remuneration, so was 
the pleasing consciousness of their having supported the just 
cause and interest of their country, the only reward they ever 
did, or ever wished to receive*. 

His Lordship, of whom we have now to speak, was born 
in the month of July, 1731, and received the first rudiments 
of education at Dundee. In his earliest infancy he is said 
most strongly to have displayed that mildness and suavity of 
manners which have marked his life from his first entrance 
into the service, and in times when such qualifications (with- 
out the smallest offence to the service in general be it said) 
were somewhat more remarkable in a naval officer, than they 
are at the present day. So highly was this noble person 
Jbeloved by his infantine associates, some of whom are yet 
living, that they still refleft on those hours of childhood, 
-.which they passed in puerile amusements with him, -as the 
happiest of their lives : a strong, and incontrovertible proof, 



* Height of stature, and dignified appearance, have long hcen the charade- 
rittlcs of this family ; for though Lord Duncan, the «nbjeA of these Memoirt, 
tneasurcd, at eighteen years of age, six feet, four inches, and being perfe&Iy wcU 
prportioned, was copsidered, with great truth, one of the finest figures, as a man, 
in the naval service, his father and grandfather are both of them reported to 
bave exceeded that height, enjoying at the same time every possible natural 
idvantage of symmetry and just proportion. 



OF ADAM DUNCAN, LO&D VISCOVNT DUNCAN« 8^ 

that the seeds of sincere friendship, when sown in a proper 
soil, neither wither nor decay from age; bqt that the plants 
they produce) will flourish with never fading verdure, till 
they have arrived at that period when fate converts them into 
sorrow and heartfelt regret. 

The debut of Lord Duncan, as a naval officer, was made 
either in the year 1746, or the following, when he was put 
under the command of Captain Robert Haldane, who, we 
believe, then commanded the Shoreham frigate, and with 
whom he continued two or three years. After the cessation 
of hostilities, he was entered in 1749 as a Midshipman 
on board the Centurion of 50 guns, a Ship then ordered 
to be equipped to. receive the broad pendant of Commo- 
dore Keppel, who was appointed commander in chief on 
the Mediterranean station, for the customary period of three 
years. Mr. Duncan continued under the command of that 
able ofKcer during the whole time, and, by his very diligent 
attention to his duty in the subordinate station he at that 
time held, attra£ted the early regard of his commander so 
strongly, that the attachment of the latter was quickly suc- 
ceeded by friendship, and friendship by the stridlest inti« 
macy. 

The time necessarily passed by a young man, after his 
entrance into the service in the capacity of a Midshipman, is 
rarely diversified with events peculiarly interesting. Those 
years are the years of probation, in which the naval student 
is to endeavour, by all the means he possesses, to fit himself, 
with a laudable ambition of filling the highest rank of that 
particular line in which his own genius, his particular situ- 
ation, or the wish of his relatives, have placed him; and it 
were an aft of injustice to Mr. Duncan, were we not to de- 
clare his conduft and exertions were such, as though he 
truly considered that to be his condition. He aimed with a 
glorious and laudable ambition at attaining the most elevated 
command, and appeared, without the smallest tinfture qf 
vanity, conscious of his own ability to deserve it. 



i 



84 ilOGKilPHlCAL MEMOIRS 

On the tenth of January, 1755, he was promoted to the 
rank of Lieutenant. This well-deserved advancement was 
occasioned by a determination on the part of the British 
Government to send out General Braddock with a strong 
military force to North America, where the French had 
been guilty of a variety of encroachments. Commodore 
Keppcl, who was chosen to command the Ships of war in* 
tended to convoy the transports, was not forgetful of the 
merits of Mr. Duncan, and accordijigly seized the oppor- 
tunity of recommending him so strongly to the Admiralty 
Board, that he was the first sele£led for promotion. It is 
reported of him, and to speak the truth, with much proba- 
bility, that when passing through Chatham, on his way to 
London, where his qualifications for his new station were 
to be properly examined, the inhabitants were so wonder- 
fully struck with his figure and appearance, that they came 
out of their houses and followed him far as the eye could 
reach, ^as though they beheld some strange or unusual pro- 
digy. 

Mr. Duncan, immediately when he became a Lieutenant, 
was appointed to the Norwich, a foarth rate, commanded by 
Captain Harrington, and intended as one of the squadron 
which was to accompany Mr. Keppcl to America. After 
the arrival of the armament in Virginia, two of the Lieu- 
tenants on board the Commodore's Ship, the Centurion, 
being advanced to the rank of Captains, Mr. Duncan was 
removed into the Centurion, as well that he might be in the 
surer channel of advancement, as that his friend and patron 
jnight the better watch over and cherish those rising abilities 
which he had beheld, with so much pleasure, in their less 
mature state. Mr. Duncan continued on board the Cen- 
turion till that Ship returned to England, and Captain 
Keppel, after having for a short time commanded the Swift- 
sure, being appointed to the Torbay, of 74 guns, procured 
his much esteemed cleve to be appointed second Lieutenant 
of that Ship. After remaining on the home station, and 



» ' 



OP ADAM DllNCASf, lORD VISCOUNT DUMCAIT. ij 

owing to the extreme caQtion of the enemy, very uninterest* 
ingly employed for the space of nearly three years, he pro- 
ceeded on the expedition sent against the French settlement 
of Goree, on the coast of Africa. He was slightly wounded 
at the attack of the fort, and soon afterwards rose to the rank 
of First Lieutenant of the Torbay, in which capacity he re* 
turned to England. 

On the twenty-first of September, subsequent to his arrival^ 
(1759} he was advanced to the rank of Commander, but 
appears not to have been fortunate enough to meet with any 
opportunity in his new station of adding to that reputatioa 
he had already so deservedly acquired.' He did not, however^ 
long continue in so inactive a state; for having been ad- 
vanced to the rank of Post Captain, by commission beai^ing 
date February the twenty-fifth, 1761, appointing him to thfc 
Valiant, of 74 guns, he again became materially connefted, ia 
respeA to service, witli his original friend and patron, Mn 
Keppel* An expedition against the French island of Bel- 
leisie having been determined on in the British Cabinet, Mr. 
Keppel, who was pitched upon to command the naval part of 
the intended enterprize, hoisted his broad piendant on that 
occasion on board the Valiant. The reduAion of the citadel 
of Palais, and the general success which attended the whole of 
tliis spirited undertaking, proved, as it were, ah encourage- 
ment and incentive to the equipment of a more formidable 
armament, not long afterwards sent to attack that most im- 
portant of all Spanish settlements in the West ladies, the 
town of the Havannah. 

Thither also Captain Duncan repaired wit]^ Mr. Keppel, 
and in the same Ship* His friend and patron, who was ap- 
pointed to command a division of the fleet, was ordered to 
cover the disembarkation of the troops ; and, as the post of 
honour belongs on such occasions, as of right, to the Captain 
of the Admiral or Commodore, Captain Duncan was accord* 
ingly invested with the command of the boats : he was after- 
wards very consequentially employed, and highly distinguished 



L 



f^ BIOGRAFHICAL MEMOIKt 

• 

lilmsclf during the siege. When the town itself surrendered, 
lie was dispatched with a proper force to take possession of 
the Spanish Ships which had fallen on that occasion into the 
hands of the viftors. These consisted of the Tyger, the 
Keyna, the Soverano, the Infante, and the Aquilon, of 70 
guns each ; the America, the Conquestadore, the San Genaro, 
and San Anthonio, of 60, and a singular anecdote respeding 
Captain Duncan is confidentially related to have taken place 
at this time. It may still be remembered that much hesitar 
tion appeared on the part of the Spanish commander in chief, 
with respeft to the capitulation, he being extremely averse to 
the surrender of the Ships. 'Thus far is a publicly known 
faft, manifest from the third article* proposed on the part of 
the besieged, but at length, after much negotiation, un- 
avoidably given up, and the answer of the viftors quietly 
acquiesced in. Private report, however, carries the matter 
still farther, and suggests, that independent of the publicly 

• That the marines and the Ships' crews in this harbour, who have served 
•n shore, shall obtain, on their going out, the same honours as the garrison of 
the city, and shall proceed with those hondurs on board the said Ships, that 
they may, together with their commander in chief, Don Gulierret de Hivia 
Marquis del Real Transporter sail in then- Ships as soon as the port is open, with 
all their effeds and money, in order to proceed to some other port belonging to 
the dominions of Spain ; in doing which, they will oblige themselves, that 
during their navigation to their designed port, they shall not attack any squa- 
dron, or single Ship, belonging to his Britannic Majesty, or his allies, nor 
merchant vessels belonging to his subjeds ; and likewise they are not to be 
attacked by any squadron or single Ship belonging to his Britannic Majesty, or 
any of his allies. Likewise liberty shall be given to go on board the said Ships the 
afore mcationed troops and Ships* crews, with their officers and others belonging 
to them, together with the efTeds and monies that are in the city belonging to 
his Catholic Majesty, with the equipages and cfTeds in specie, of gold or silver, 
belonging to the laid Marquis, and others employed in the different marine 
offices, granting them likewise every thing that should be necessary to proteft 
them and their Ships, as well as in the fitting them out from his Catholic Ma- 
jesty's stores ; and whatever more should be wanted, at the current prices of 
the country. 

Anfxjoer. — The Marquh del Real Transpprte, wth bis officers ^sailerSf and marines^ 
mi making part of the garrison y shall he treated in every re pe£l as the Governor and 
regular troops, jilt Ships in the harbour of the Havannah, and all money and efft&s 
vobatever helomgingto Us Cathofit Ma/esty^ shall he delivered up to suek pcnqni ai th^t 
U appointid hy Sir George Pocock and the Earl of Albemarle* 



OP ADAM DUNCAN, LORD VlSCOt^NT DUNCAN. tf 

known faft, the Marquis del Real Transporte laboured ex- 
tremely to save the Ships of the line on the stocks, and tlie 
materials which were ready collefted for the construftion of 
two or three frigates. Captain Duncan, as it is said, being in* 
formed of the objeft of contention, which prevented the 
absolute cessation of arras, privately took a few persons on 
whom he could depend, and put an end to the controversy, 
by setting fire to the^ cause of it. This aft was much ap- 
proved by the besiegers in both departments of the service, 
as being certainly the most expeditious of settling a trou- 
blesome dispute : but the whole affair being, for obvious 
rejisons, kept extremely quiet, it was known only to very 
few confidential persons, by what means this apparent acci- 
dent so fortunately and critically happened. 

After the surrender of the Havannah, he accompanied 
Mr.' Keppel, who was appointed to command on the 
Jamaica station, in the same capacity he had before 
held, and continued with him there till the conclusion of 
the war^ Having then returned to England, the btogra* 
phical page is nearly silent' concerning him, till the recom- 
mencement of the war with France, in 1778, he having 
continued unemployed during the whote of this intervening 
period, which must have passed on most tediously for a 
person possessing so aftive a turn of mind as himself. His 
first appointment was to the Suffolk, of 74 guns ; and after 
a very short continuance in that Ship, without being able to 
meet with any opportunity of distinguishing himself^ he 
removed, before the end of the current year ('778}, into the 
Monarch, of the same rate. 

Attached to no party, influenced by no political persuasion 
or opinion, he sat as member on the different Courts Mar- 
tial held on his friend Admiral Keppel, and his colleague 
the late Sir Hugh Palliser, without subjefting himself to the 
slightest reproach on either occasion. At a time when the 
rage of parties ran so violent as they then did, a man, stand- 
ing like himself, the avowed friend of one party, must have 

2 



i 



SS AKMlRA^HlCAI. iiiBMOjl$ 

been pecttliarly«guarded in 1m€ conduA, to escape- witbotrt 
so9ie species of censure from the otber» which, though it. 
nrigixt be conXemptuousiy passed over, as the impotent emu->.. 
via of an over-heated imagination, yet, certainly to hav^ 
coEppJetely avoided it, at^ridft as no slender proof of the moa^, 
unbia^ded integrity, and the-^oundest judgment. * ., . 

-^During, the suoimer of the year 17799 the Monarch .w^s^^ 
titiiaterruptedly employed in the main, or Channel ileel;^ . 
coa^mamled. by Sir Qharles Hardy. No .encoumqr, ox. 
memorable occurrence took place^ .owingto the British Ad- 
niirai being under the necessity of avoiding an a£tipn, and 
continuing. merely on the defensive, since the alliance between 
tlie FreiKih and. Spaniards, the latjter of which had n^wly 
made tbemsrlves parties in the grand dispute* had raised th^ 
force against which he bad to eentend* so high as nearly to 
double that which he himself commanded. At the condu- 
sion of the same year, the Monarch y^as one of the Ships 
ptit under the.opdejfs of Sir George Bridges Rodney, who 
was instrufled .to force his i«ay to Gibraltar through all ini? 
pediinenta, and .relieve that foc'tress, wlach was then closely 
blockaded by a Spanish Arniy. on the la^d sidei and a flotilla 
by sea, suJficienily' strong to oppose tlie entrance of any 
trivial suQCOittr. Captain Dun^n accordingly hailed, with 
the most heart^k satiafafkion^ the probable opportunity of 
acquiring fiiaaifi ; and Fofftiine was propitious enough not tp 
pecmitliis.expedations and hopes to be disappointed. 

Ob the sixtoenth.of January) 1780, tlie British flecft being 
tl|ea.9ff CapipSC. Vincent, &I1 in with a Spanisli. squadron, 
copEtmanded by Don Juau de X#aogara, who was purposely 
stattoaed thereSo4oteieept Sir George, who, according to^mis** 
information itfcoivod by the Court of Spait^ was supposed to 
be on bis postage towards the besieged fortiess, with a squadron 
consisting of so moxe than four Ships of the line^ having a 
fleet of' viftvflUers and tiao^^rts imder their prote&ion. 
The. MoiMrch. had not the advantage which maa\y other 
£hips in the samearmaoicDt enjoyed^ of being sheathed with 



OF ADAM DinrCAU, UMtD fUCOVIIT DVIICAN* 89 

copper; but notwithttuiding this inconveniaice, addeJ to 
the aMitional circotDstanoe of her being rather fovAy and, 
when in her best trim, by no means wmarkable as a swift 
sailer. Captain Dancan was fortunate enough to get into 
aAion befeve any other Ship in the fleet. The supetiorhyy 
in reaped to nmnbers, which the Britisb possessed over the 
enemy, was such as to render the generaJ event of the aAkm 
by no means singular ; but, diougfa a complete viftory eb- 
tained by nineteen Britisb Ships of the lin^ over eleven Spe* 
ni^ vessels of the same class, may not be any farther matter 
of exultation, than as it regarded the fass a&ually sustained by 
the enemy on such an occasion, it is, nevertheless, not only 
probable, but striftly true, that many instances of exertion 
might take pkoe during such a contest, than which none 
were ever more glorious, or more hcmoiirable to the persons 
concerned* 

In the iirst rank of this heroic class, stood Captain Duncan. 
Notwidistanding those disadvantages under which, it has 
been already stated, the Ship he cominanded labovred, she was 
pressed ahead of the fleet, vnder all the sail thitt could, with 
any degree of propriety, be set upon her; and it is confldently 
reported, that when Captain Duncan was warned, by some 
coppered Ships which hepessed, of the danger he incurred, by 
dashing so hastily amidst diree of the enemy's squadron, which 
were just ahead, without sofli^ support, he rqriied, with the 
utmost coolness, and in no other tanas, then, ** fxmsh u it 
among tbitn.** The strength of tiie wind, the agitation of 
the sea, and tbe swiftness with which tlie Monardi passed 
Through it, united to put an end to any fiutber conversation, 
and Captain Duncan had his vrishes complied wsd^ by speedily 
finding himself well up widiin engaging dtstance of his 
antagonists. In con^Mmity with the infeaaetiQO he had 
just received, he found himself alongside one of tbc Spanish 
Shifs of equal force, though of much larger dimensions, than 
the Monarch, while two others of iim like rase and mafoitude^ 
lay within musquet shot, to the leeward of hifD. 

{QoL IV, K 



90 aiOGJLAPHlGAIi MSWOIftS 

Needless, almost, is it to say, that an aAtpn JHcnnediately 
commenced, and after it bad been rery spiritedly kept up on 
both sides for some time, it was observed that the firt 
from the leeward Ships^ which, during the time it coa* 
tinned^ did very material injury to the Monarch's fore 
rigging, had totally ceased. A similar pause, for a few mo-t* 
ments, on the part of the Monarch, afforded Captain D^n^ 
can an opportunity of observing, that tbo^c antagonists had 
thought proper to make all the sail lihey could^ leaving 
their windward companion to make the best defence io^is 
power* He accordingly di reded his best efforts against 
the exponent that continued near him, and after a short, 
though animated resistance, had the satisfaAhon of seeing 
the colours of San Augustin, of 70 guns, struck. In token of 
her submission to the Monarch*. 

The rigging of the viftor had, by this time, received too 
much damage, to render it possible for Capt. Duncan to hoist 
out a boat forthe purpose of boarding his prize, particularly 
as it then blew so hard, and the whole fleet was on a lee shore: 
he was therefore compelled to resign the honour of taking 
possession of the vanquished enemy, to a fresh Ship, which 
was then coming up astern. The fate of this vessel was sin- 
gular, and must have been extremely mortifying to the con- 
queror. She was found so much disabled, that it was judged 
necessary to take her in tow ; but on colleding the squadron, 
with the prices, prepauUDoy to the entraace of the fleet into 
the Straits of Gibraltar, it was found tliat the only trophy 
of vidory to. Which Captain Duncan, though he bad after- 
wards engaged many other Ships in the fleet, could claim an 
excltssive right, was, through necessity, as it was said, aban- 

• It probably may appear an interesting circumstance to seamen, and it cer- 
tainiy U, without induigidg 1. superstitious prejudice, a yctf singular ooe, that 
three Ships, bearing the flags of as many Admirals in the Dutch service, have, 
at different times, surrendered to this very Ship : — Admiral Curl, in the Mars, 
of 60 guns, in the West Indies, in the month of February, 1781; Admiral 
J«ii(ai8».in-the:.Dortt;pcht> of 64 guna, tak«a in Saldanha Bay, August the 17th, 
1796; anH Admiral Reyntics, in the Jupiter, of 74 guns, on the nth of Oc- 
tober, 1797. 



\ 



OP, ADAM DONCAII9 LOS.D VISeOV-VT DUNCiV. 9I 

Jonedy after taking out the few British ofieers and aeamea 
who had been put on board her. In consequence of thiSt 
the original crew» repossessing thesBaseWes of thdr Ship» 
xestored her to their tcountry ; and haiving nayigated her in 
safety tp Cadiz, she being refitjted tliere, was dispatched on 
the twenty-eighth of April, to the West Indies, as onorof die 
squadron ordered thither under Don Soiano* 

It has been vpry properly and judi^iouoly reiDarked« that 
how great soever the cause and necessity of adopting tho 
in^sure might bc> the disappointment experieticed. 0l>>paili- 
atiye from that necessity^ far as concerned the galbnt tyficer 
who had so spiritedly conduced his Ship intovatt^n^ and 
<;hereby afforded |be crew 'he commanded so g^orioltSfim^p* 
pertunity of placing a laurel on his brow, and adding aa ad* 
ditional pillar to the naval strength of their country, . Many 
other persons, without making any ostentatious display of 
their QWn co{kI^&» or the good success which atteiidod il^ 
would have been not a little prone to seize some opportunity 
of acquaintiEig their countrymen, that so noble a pri&e bad 
a&u9Uly submitted to them,. though, owing to particular cir- 
cumstances, they were precluded, from condu&ing into the 
ports of Britaiifl that incontrovertible proc^ of British 
prowess. .Captain Duncan^ however, thought otherwise, 
and aded in conformity to his thoughts ; he preserved a oon* 
stant silence op tbt subject } he patiently submitted to the 
frowns of fortune, and if not without regret, at least without 
murmur; proving, by his condud,- that his modes^ after « 
battle was in no degree inferior to that gallantry he had 
displayed during the time it raged. 

It would be an a£t of injustice tocbis gentleman, were we to 
omit taking notice of the fate which attended the two other 
Ships which the Monarch had engaged at the same time with 
the San Augustin. l^hat brave and excellent officer, the late 
Captain Pownall, who tlien commanded the Apollo frigate^ 
having observed those vessels, one of which was called the 
Monarca, the other the St. Julian, both of them mounting 



i 



70 guns, tMlLtng sail fmm the Meflkrch» h^ ioifaieclAtfcljr 
deeermSnedi with that ready promptktide of 'decision whicSi 
niark$ the chamfier of a good and intettfgentf officer, t6 
make the bbslriise in Kk^ower of that ad^ntage whicli tbi 
swift salting of ^be frigate he commanded; ^ave him- over a 
more unwkidy adversary. In' ptnrsaanceof this resolVe, lie 
made sail, and having got up with the Moharca, ^ostedhim- 
Self at a convenient and proper distance, on the I:fow of the 
enemvt upon whom he opened a most teasing and galling iirel 
The'effi^A of 'this tneasttre was considerably increased by 
occasionally yawing the frigate, so that' her gtins might ble 
Inrbugbt'tti bear with greater effe£b. The cannonade kept tiff 
by Capc»n Pownall, was not only eictremely injurious to 
his antagonists) but served as( a mark to^ lead Sir George 
Srydges Rodnty himself, th the Sandwich, 'to his assistance^ 
when a single broadside from diaf Ship produced, is a 
Hatond coBsequeilce, the immediitte turrender of the Mb^ 
iima. • • - 

i^With respea to the 8t» Julittt, she'^wti^ followed by the 
Frinee George, to whicih Sftip^he struck, after an' Ithpoteil^ 
9nd absurdly rash resistance, of 'very short continuance ; buf 
was afterwards unfortunately obliged) for 'the sakeof plN9^ 
serving the Eves of the people onboanl, to run into Cidids; 
wbtch^ she reached in distress, a;iid without a single ins^t 
standing. Stioh wa$ the Hit of the three Shipd which Otptam 
Duncan bad the hardiness to engage, contrary to the advice/ 
tt is reported, of some of his companions. Itiscertaiol]^ 
jfot assuming too much, to assert, that the complete diseom<- 
fiture, and aftual capture of all those Ships, was, at kast^ 
primarily, if not prindpally, owing to the exertions made on 
board theMonarch ; and if the success, those exeiticms fairiy 
deserved^ did not ultimately rest with the viftors, it may ix^' 
cite sorrow and compassion, that Fortune was so negle^ful 
or unkind to gallantry, but cannot suffer the higli merit of 
it to be, in the smallest degree, depreciated. To conclude 
the account of this memorable a£tion, to the success of which 



or ADAIf OUMCAlTf LO&O TMCOVIIT DVMCAW. 9| 

Ctptaun Duncsm so libertUy contributed * : of elev.en Ships of 
At line and two frigates* composing the araitsaenfe, four 
viere taiienf , and rfoaaincd in the possession of |be English ^ 
one was blown upt ; three sunaenderodt but afterwanis were 
forttuutfi enough to g^ aw^y much damaged H ; one was ve* 
duced almost to a wxeck^ but coiitrive4to nake hcf escape^ s 
and the two which s)rmainedi. toother with the frigat^^^ed 
at the fint onsets abnost without attempting to mjikc mj 
miitance f • .... 

Captaia Doueaa quitted the comomnd of the-. Monarch 
Qijitlong after his arrival in Engbnd, and did.^oMCce^vpimy 
otb^r commissioa uptil the ^ginning of thc^ ssar . i |9a» 
when he was appointed to .th« Blenheinb of- 901 guiv»r« Slup 
newly come oui of 4ock>. after having nndergooc a conipleio 
repair. He continued in the samccommand during n^^r^th* 
whcfle remainder of the war, constantly emidoyeduyth Aho 
hofBey>or as it was called the Channel fleet, wbioh' wal^ <d«r-» 
ing the greater part of the time, commanded by the late tmA 
Howe. Having accpmpanifd his Lordship in the month of 
September to Gibraltar^ he war smtianod to lead the hueboaiA 
division of the ceuj^e^ or Commander in Chief's squadron^ 
and^was very diBCin^^aisbedly engaged in the encovnterwith 
tbehcombined iieols of Fmnce and Spain» which took place 
off the entrance of the Straits* The fleet of the enemy 
was more than oae*fourth superior to tbatof Britain i ntvorw 
theleas, had not the former enjoyed the advantage of the 
weatber^gage, it was very evident, from the. event of; the 
skirmish which did take place, that if the enccmniier hoflkbeeift 
more serious, the viAory would, in all human probability^ 
have been completely decisive, against them* As it was« 

^ The Monar^li wis verf considerably damaged, having lost her fore top^ 
auc, and had twency^ntne men killed or wmlndcd* 

f The Phoniiz, 80 guns ; Diligente, Princeasa, and Mpnarca, 70. 

i The San Domingo, 70. 

i The San Eugenio^the Ban AogMtin, aad 8k. JtiUaii» 79. 

$ San Justo, 70. 

^ San Gcnaro, and Sail Lorenzo, 7$, with Sanu Gcrtrndi* and Santa RonlxSa 
of 16 guttt each. 



94 B10GRA9RICAL HBMOI&S 

the enemy enjoying the privily of withdrawing themseivd 
fram the ^encounter whenever they thought pro{)er, the coii» 
teU tecminated in what might be called a idrawn battle $ the 
combined flflBthavingsofttained no material loss, and that of 
the Britirii being incapable^ from, its skoation, of driving 
tbem into-one. 

Soon after the fleet arrived in England, Captaiil Dnncati 
removed into the Foudroyant, of 84 guns, one of the most 
favourite Ships in the British Navy at that time, whkb bad^ 
during the whole preceding part of the war, been commanded 
by Sir John Jervis. He continued in tliat Ship no longef 
than tiil the cessation of hoetilities^ an event which, it may 
be well remembered, took place in the ensuing spring, [fe 
then rsmoved into the £(^ar, of 74 guns,. one of the Guard 
Ships i stationed at Fortsmottkh, and continued, as is cns4 
tomaiy in time of peace, in that command during the 
three tuocoeding years. This was the last commission hd 
^ver held as a private Captain » and notwithstanding it mdgifat 
fiaturaUy be supposed that such an appointment could faava 
iflTorded. him little opportunity of being serviceable to his 
(onntry ^»and his private friends, or of displaying, those highly 
Vindable-rthose benevolent qualities no person will d^ny; 
he possesses r his station, though apparently an inadive one/ 
JlfFordod.htm the means of trainkig, at^ bringing fgrwdrd^a 
number pf young genllemeOt who have sio^e disfingti^shed 
themselves very highly, as well in the Royal Navy as the £a^ 
India service; these persons have all been very justly conai^ 
dercdy. in the different lines their genius or conu^e&ions havo 
placed theoQ, an ornament to the stations they severally hoU^ 
« Oil the fourteenth of September, 2789} <paptain Duncan 
was promoted to be Rear Admiral of tlie Blue, as he moreover 
was, to the same rank in tlie White Squadron, on a secood- 
advancement of flag-officers, which took place on the twenty- 
second of September, 1790* He was raised to be Vice Admiral 
of the Blue, on the first of Feb, 1793 ; of the White, on the 
fv^xlfth of April, 1794^ tobe Admiral ofthe Blue, on the first. 



OF ADAic ly^nCAtff L^h t%%€6^nr duncav, pf 

of Jxmcj 1795 ; and, lastly, td -be Ackniral of the Whit^, on 
the 14th of Feb. 1 799. Dwring all these periods, except the two 
last, singular as it may appear to posterity, the High meHt Ad*^ 
miral Doncafn possessed, ooaticMied either unknown, or, to 
pre the treatment he leceived what may perhaps be a more 
proper term, unregarded. Frequently did he solicit a corn** 
mand, and as often did bis request pass uncomplied witbi 
It has even been reported, that this brave man had it once in 
contemplation So retire altogether from the service, on a 
very honourabfo civil appointment, conneded with theNftvy ; 
bat, as this circumstance has no better foundaicion than 
mere rumour, it cannot be given to the world as an anec^ 
dote to be implicitly credited* ' ^ * 

At kngtk, however, his merit bunt through the cloud 
which had. so long obscured it from public view. He re* 
ceived, ia the month of February, 1795, an appointment; 
constituting him Commander in Chief, in what is called the 
North Sfiis, tlie limits of his power extending from 'the 
North Forehnd, even to die Ultima Thtdioi the anoients; 
or as &r beyond, as th« operations of the enemy he was sent 
to encounter, should render necessary. • He accordingly 
hoisted his flag tkk board the Prince George, Of 98 giteis, af 
Chatham ; but t\M Ship being considered too large for the 
particular quarter to which the Admiral was destined to.a£kf 
he removed soon afterwards into the Venerable, of 74 guns; 
and proceeded to carry linto executiooi the very important 
trust which was confided in him. - - . -• 

When the patience anduiwearied constancy witlr which 
this brave officer contifnued to watch a cautious andprudene 
enemy, daring the Wliole time he held the command, a period 
of five years, are considered, it becomes a matter df difficulty to 
decide, whether those invaluable qualities-justtnentioned, ot 
the gallantry, as well as the judgment, he dls'play^d On thd 
only opportunity the enemy afforded him of contesting with 
them the palm of vi&ory, ought most to render kinttlw 
objeift o£ his craotry's love and admiradoik Xhe^depth qf 



f6 SMMtttNTICAL U^ktOmt 

vifitert die tom^esliioiit jEltaeks of n^png wiiidf» tbe ^hiigen 
ftcoltiirly actucbed to a iMtj^fl laidBligaUj nttatamed off 
tbt afaiofik asd lands wtuch^envston ifat crnaH of tbf^ UnilBd 
PffoviAcce^ added to many daA and oaafofdeta ttifbts, all 
ttoitcd to render tbe eitiutioiH eves of the cmhboii seamao^ 
fiecviiarly irksome ; wliat tlMi num have been iheaitMtioa 
of tbe CooBflaander in Chief? Yet^ in the aiidtt of tbcaedii»' 
cottf^ging inconvenienciesi aiitro!iaded,as he saood,on cvtiy 
sidet by perils of the most afavming kiad, he never shnrnk, 
even fer a moment^ fioin hie poitp during the tehole time 
he hdd the very contequential comnnnd allotted to bian 
There doee not appeur to* have beonaaingleaioirthia vjuofe 
he did not thew himself off the hostile ooBt he tnsnkeds 
though lie was, thtong^ necessity, oompeUed to he ooalent 
vnih the aeoeodary oomidefatio&, of hurinf daaad a &e to. 
a oontastt wfaiefa they v«ry wiaely» pradently^ or timidiyt 
shrank ftoofe 

Tbe cffedh, |i«litieally, though difloieatly anpiessed on tb6 
minds of the whole human race, of abit event kaowti by^dio 
name of the French fte«olntiQii»afeftiH loo teoeat to rsfuire 
mnch descr^on* Never will they be foisptteni not. only 
on aoeoimt of their execrahie motives and mtacbieriHis t»^ 
dency, hot the pains» almost amuuutin g to- mcrelibtlity* 
wbi^ bad been taken to disseminate aimilar piineifdes ovcor 
the &ee.of the whofe eotmtif • Hiey had very yostlyTexictted 
the greatest agitation in theminda a€ all men ; ibr those who. 
were tbe friends of peace, were racked by the apprehensive 
te ituit s of aniciety, while snchas were not akbimed to profefs 
a contrary mode of thinking, were on the tiptoe of ezpec* 
talion and hope, that anmcfay woidd annihHate-all good 
and regular government, leaving the needy, the daring, and 
tiie ambitious, to fatten on the spoils of their country, and . 
triumph in its niin» 

In counteraAion of this impending storm, different aUi* 
wcea weiu prudmtly formed by.BuOttn;«nd in -1796, n- 
fissmidahk Russian squadron arrived in tbe Downs, 



OF ADAM 0««ei#^Loii> wmem/asT dvncan^ 9f 

lAitniaionB tkir 4ts. i^nhal riuMld .fiit« iMAstir (OMlf 
iHlcfor the onitt^MF ttiittMttsb GMinuifider iti diicrf;' <ll*tW 
' saioe qnarttfr? To €omhimi 'it hbif of men nrhoit mvintiersy 
frtiose civtDiat, Twhow diitiptiiie 'ii«i totally ttissknilAf tui 
tboieof his oif»fcoflc, mvM^aiiweqmied no eommoii %lftri 
of ' jadpncfiti pcticiicc^' benctrcioiicG^ -Mu cvciy'Othor^ SMoL 
qiaUty that ran ivrm an ingi€didi)t lAtke charsftsr o9 ^hat 
majr be called a pachSt tiuLU $ and .tboflglr Jfte bfnp' flieanf 
^ish'to be sorfakomcim ibe rage.of panegyric, otoattri* 
bote infaUability to Admir^ 6|incaiT,: it most be evident that 
he sftually-pfittesset, m « very enunsnt degree, tfabscs^qiiali^^ 
Mt just alldded to* . So .highly did he ac^ife the^ lofc aiid 
tbeiiesiieft :of']m fineign aaaodatesv that in tfonnq^ence- 
of*^ representation made by ifadr A^ntralto'the' £inpi«str 
Oftlttrme, Ipf- the tatisft&'iati. imbkt in zStm^ • mndtt tta* 
orderaof Mr/Dnnoiai sbeilbmiffa^^iOfd-y'tbCMigb'^Mnoli^ 
cited, to honour him with the Imperial Order of*^ AttUbJMkpr 
Nofrskiv iiecng the ioooftd» Aj^ poiiit of riiM|t,'iiiiM^ifiie 
d^reor of'ibiaian4cBigiMii«HL^ ' <.. . . r . ' • ? * ^c . ' r. 
It were too tedioos a ifctail '«Qiieiia9Pihlo tfacr^ iHihtAiaT^ 
thise- n^smetOM mfnfkKM hett^idtred'hitf coHfltff dtifkif thP 
m6M eaily partoftlliBxdfnaiMd. ;'lY}eywhf«i'aftea^, pfdoft^ 
of 'Us <£iigeaco< riMtglr.tke'i«ferior(foite9dr iM mamy^ 
psises made fayr thb Aifi heosmmaiided*, fn^brretiidei^ 
any *exertita'9f gidlhatry^ort hia^port unneoBtsary;' ' A^iad,' a' 
dreadfvl occairtQca/- hoi»i^ifiirtiith took {^oe^in'tbd* 

Vandcrkm ; the Argo, ot ^2 guntj taken by Qaptaiq H^lstcad, in the Phoenix* 
May, I ^56 r tod^ tJJfe Al4rcIiry,*of '16 gum, a irig Joop oF %at, tjken by ihe"* 
STfiik m 4immw$ti49^ dv Mo» «tf ai9mKt«icl£lC'Gia9tf1r4l^c#o fleofa: 

may zdd a considerable number ot tery valuable trading vessels, as well at 
•tb*«£WM«rante^|lite6e.* ^ "" <• ' . ' *? 

FrMt the Frend^ tht Vldorievte tad Suflbuite BM|M|i'*»i1p(yi4'^C%:^ 
moyfiaa x^ ftaft^juch^ we|« captived in August^ 'TS^tt^oa^o* hepnt to|Qa* 
The ?^do^ a vo^l'^Kdie same force and desctiptibn^'in the month ' of IJe- 
ccaibcr IUI#wkf. Tht JilMOio iofvitti, nMOOting Kg j;ua$j hi fR^lfona'^X 

■"•F» 17#^ - . *. • / *. ;■*••* ^ • f** 

,f'. *' .(■ 4 fit* ... f . « ^. .  t.««4 ♦♦-•• -^ «♦• 



I 



(|9 , 8IOO&APHICAL MlUOltS 

month of May, 1797, called forth dl tbo^c powers ^bich 
had so long Ikin dormant : the urgenqr ^nd .pequliarity of 
the case might be s^id far to exoeed, in difficulty and danger, 
any situation in which an officer could be thrown, who had 
to contend with only the public and avowed enemies of. his 
country. It is almost needless to say we advert to that, 
dreadful mutiny, or commotion among the seamen, which, 
after having raged. some time \s^ith tremendous fury on board 
the Channel fleet at Portsmouth, had spread its deleterious 
contagion through the Ships employed under the orders of 
Admiral Duncan* 

« 

Fain would the historian pass over, in the strictest silence, an 
event, the recital of which brands with shame that charadler, 
which, tin then, stood foremost in the ranks of honour, and 
whose very failii)gs fascinated beholders, till they werealmost 
induced to consider tliem virtues. Fain would we ourselves 
banish the recoUeflton of it from our minds, and consign to 
everlasting oblivion an ad, which, by comparison, raises 
rebellion almost into a venial offence, and effaces from th^ 
tre^ons committed by. our ancestors, the charge even of 
hupropricty. Desperate was the situation of the country -^ 
but the firmness and intrepidity of those noble-minded .per- 
sons who preferred a loyalty, though dangerous to them- 
**selves, to any situation in which appeared a single particje 
of dislK)nour, saved it from the abyss of destruction. No 
one contributed more eminently to effeft this excellent ser- 
vice, than Admural Duncan. The dangers, the difficulties, 
ht had to encounter, were new and unprecedented ; and 
never did the conduft of any man burst forth with more 
conspicuous lustre. Foreign to tl^e present purpose wotild 
b« any attempt at tracing the primary cause of this grand 
convulsion to its fountain-head ; suffice it to say, the seeds 
of sioditioa had been widely and most industriously scattered, 
and on s«ich soils as appeared best appropriated to the suc-^ 
cour and maintenance of the deleterious plant. A Govern- 
mental measure, honestly suggested, and not unwiscl/ 
though perhaps incautiously carried into e^cecutioo, cpn* 



OF AD4M DUKCAN) LORD VllCOVKT DUNCAlT. §^ 

(rlt^ntcd very materiafly to aid the dreadful conspifacy.* 
In aid of those necessities, in Ttspcft to the want of scameny 
which the continuance of the war had, at that time, brought 
on Britain, every parhh or distrift throughout the kingdom 
was, by law, compelled to send, in proportion to their ex- 
tent and population, a certain number of persons to serve t>ii 
board tlic Sect* 

The " consequence liad nearly' proved fatal; among the 
^uora men, as they were called, were a number of persons, 
bankrupts as well in charafter as fortune, who had before 
figured in what was considered an higher sphere of' life, 
having been cither petty merchants orittornies. These men, 
not contented with the iniquities they had been guilty of» 
and the depredations they had dommitted on society, in their 
former occupations, joyfully accepted the prodigious boitnty 
of thirty guineas, or upwards, per man, offered by dif- 
ferent parishes, who were anxious to be rid of a bcisihess 
which they considered as an incumbmnce, and entered into 
the Navy, in the certainty of obtaining a better maintenance 
than they had, many of them, been for some time aecus- 
tomed to. They entertained also the hope that their intro* 
duAion would afford soitie opportunity of disseminating those 
principles, which, if once established in any degree of force> 
would render them an opportunity of becoming more dts* 
solute, abandoned, and mischievous, than even their former 
situations in society had permitted them to be« 

Their views were j in no inconsiderable degree, furthered, by 
the privilege they enjoyed of sending aiid receiving id! their 
letters free of postage ; by these means the conspiracy found 
mean$ to extend itselP unseen ; cherished and encotirs^ed by 
those equally dangerous tharaders whcmi they had left on 
shore, to aft their part ^n a different quarfer, a chain of oor* 
respondence was formed, and the fiame erf rebellion, smoi^inr 
in dangetous concealment, wa$ daily acquiring strength* 
while its source was undiscovered, and its extent unknown. 

The hidden fire received na small encouragement from th^ 
lerious cause of discontent which the enrollment (tf these mis^ 



L 



chieTous cbaratAers, and the circvmstftnces attending it^ was 
supposed to have occasioned among those whp were justly 
#stceflBed British seamen. These valuable pecsons» many of 
whom had favstn compelled to enter into the King's serrice, 
had reoeiTQd no higher bounty Chan five pounds per man, 
^nd..hadbeien obliged^ at the same time, to lelinqnish an 
employment, the pay of which amounted to three or fonr 
pounds .per month, for the King's pay of twenty- two shil- 
lings and six-pence. These hardships» which the situation 
of the .country required should be submitted to with pa* 
tience by.those whose service was required, were eagerly em* 
hlaapned in all the disgusting colours sedition could painty 
through the hopes of acquiring proselytes to her hellish purp> 
pose: but though expeAation was sanguine, and that expec- 
tstioH) in all probabilityi promoted the eagerness with which 
tiie dangcKMis and hellish emissaries just alluded to, engaged 
in a service completely incompatible with their former situ- 
l^feions in life, yet the event jH^ovedy in a great measuie, con* 
trary to their hopes* The thorough bred seamen* notwith* 
aianding the disadvantages under which they laboured, nearly 
9vithout an exception* were steady in their condu&, and 
Yuuform in their loyalty. As it bas been quaintly though 
truly re m%rked» the core «f the mutiny was formed of land 
lubbers, or half and half sailors, who, ia a gale, are almost 
impediments to the honest and $pirite$| exiertipns pf good 
and pra£tical spamen* 

The tumour» however, having burst, it required the most 
consummate skill to prevent its fatal cSeSts from overpower- 
ing and corrupting thp whole body. As an oihcer bearing 
command, no person had ever more endeared himself to 
^Lose whom h^ was appoint<?d to conduit, than Admiral 
Puncan ; for, while benevolence and £ood humour had ac- 
quired him tlie universal love of all who knew him; a regu- 
larity of government or dis(;ipline, unalloyed by severity, 
and unmixed with the smallest portion of that species of 
conduit which too often appears in very humane well-dis- 
jposed men, perpetually reminding tliose over whom they 



or ADAU D«lfCAlf> LQRD TXSCf^UlfT DVNCAK. |^ 

are put in ;iiitii^icy> of tli» gr«at i&fmocity of. theii station^ 
iiad irendered him revered) as well as adoiod. 

Qa the instant tlie baneful infiaenee of tbii4isea$$ mad^itt 
appearaacps he visited every Ship in the fleet; bis presence 
had the teinponiry effbft «f Ithurters spear ; it ooinpeUed the 
daemoa of discord to quit the more pkasing shape which; it 
had taken, and resuoie its natural oii^ disguGtiis;, ioatb<* 
some, and terrific ; its idolatrous wofdiippers hecapie,. for a 
short space^ ashamed of tfadrdettyy and returned to tfaiir 
doty without apparetit reluftance. The disease, howevert 
was only ebeeked, not cared; for when the fleet put to sea» 
it renewed its appearance, attended by all its former Tinileiit 
syjasptomsy the Venerable and Adamant appearing the only 
Ship»tbat were not thoroughiy- tainted wah the. infeftion. 
Qn the evening heforethe Admiral himself iniended to put to 
sea, he made the signal for the Tsent frigate to. yt ooder 
weigh : his commands were npt complied with ; and on 
inquiriog ioto the cause, it was found that the etew peremp* 
torily refused obeying their officers, on pvctence that die 
regulatioo established immediately before, by A£t of Partia* 
ment, in resped. to the weight and measure of provisioiis, had 
not been adopted with respe£t to them. The tk€t really was^ 
the augmentation had so ' very recently passed into a ,hw^ 
that the particulars of it had not been at that tisae ofikially 
notified to the offioers whose particular duty it was to attend 
to it. The fbmentcrs of dissention, eagerly snatdiing at the 
only existing phance of exciting farther tumoli* had set fire 
to the train, by merely suggesting the hardship, and the cof|« 
fiagration spread to the utmost of their wishes* 

The Admiral, on this alarming occasion, ordered all 
hands to be called upon deck j he publicly made known to 
them the delinquency of their companions; be informed 
them of his intention to go alongside the frigate early in the 
ensuing morning, and compel the rebellious crew to return 
to their duty. ** Who is there,'^ said he, «* that on this oc- 
casion will desert nic ?'* The question was immediately an«» 
swered in the neg^^ye ; his people, with one accordi de* 



I 



|M BIOttRAVHieAL MBM0I19 ^ 

daring thehr utmost abhorrenoe of such coAdiiA, and their 
assurance of support, to the utmost of' their power, in th« 
punishment of it. lit the course of tbeeveniflg» howeTer^ 
a 'letter, CMchtd in thefroperest terms possible, was trans^ 
tekled to htm Swm his Ship's company ; th^y offered, -by 
way pf sataafying the d^scontant which peyvaded the crew of 
the Trent, and to shew them tbey fared no worsie than all 
others embarked in the same cause did, to deliver to him 
tbe different weights and ^measures used by the Purser * in 
the allotment of their provisions^ and depend entirely on his 
justtee and candour, faras regarded their own allowances. This 
<Ar convinced the mutineers of the impropriety of their 
<?Qiiduft; the effusion of British blood, and by the hands of 
Britons, was happily prevented; for before the ensuing 
morning, ' the frigate proceeded on the service whither she 
waa ordered by her Commander in Chief. 

Towurdsr the end of May, Admiral Duncan quitted Yar*. 
mouth 'R»ads by order of the Admiralty Board, with instruct 
lions to cruise bff the back of those sands which at some dis* 
tance environ that anchorage, till he should be reinforced. 
The Nassau and Montague, one of 64, the othe^ of 74 guns, 
refused to put to sea> underpretence that they were iuthecourss 
of payment, though there were at that time scarcely ten shil* 
lings due to e£ich man on boards This sad example induced 
thcf rest of the Ships to pursue the same line of condud ; so 
the Venerable and Adamant, Whose crewsi as already observed, 
never relaxed from their duty, were left to proceed by them- 
selves off the Texel, whither the Admiral, unattended as he 
was, immediately repaired* 

Stratagem supplied, o^i this occasion, tbe place of numbers ; 
for the Admiral, by making a variety of signals, as to Ship^ 
in the offing, effefhially duped Admiral De Winter, as he 
himself afterwards confessed, into the belief that the Channel 

of tbe Hetder was blocked up by a force superior to that he 

• • • 

* lAtp Hore, whose honour and cha^a^ter could not posnblj receiTe unx 
greater panegyric than they did, from the unforced and natural condud of the 
Vcncr»blc*8 people on this occasioi^^ 3 



Ot ADAIf DVNCAlly L6Ri> tiSC6UNt DUNCiN, tO§ 

Umself commanded. At this critical period, the onlf eymp^ 
XOVBL of mutiny that ever was observed on board the Venfr|ible» 
made its appearance. It becomes, indeed, rath^ ft roattM^ 
of wonder, considering bow prevaloiu is the fprceof example^ 
that it should have been so tardy, or so languid, as k for« 
tunately proved : a plot, however, was actually on foot, and 
was happily discovered by some truly valuably men belong*, 
lug to the Gunner's crew* The AdmiraU as heh^d before 
been frequently compelled to do, during the critical period' 
alluded to, ;9rdered all hands to be turned ^po|^ deck;. He: 
immediately addressed them in the firmest, and* at the saroe^ 
time, the coolest terms : after a few minutes, six meo, asnongp 
the stoutest in the. Ship, and who were charged it itb beii^ 
the ringleaders of the conspiracy^ . were brought bofoiv binu 
It was, at that time, impossible, to say what height the dis* 
ease had reached ; the moment w^ mopre ibaQ critical ^ it 
was awful i and> while the delay of an instant might have ron-. 
dered it fatal, a strong measure^, too hastily pr .unadvisedly, 
taken, might h^ve been equally injurious to the cause of 
tranquUlitf . . ... 

<* My lads,"' said the Admiral, ** I am not, in the smallest 
degree, apprehensive of any violent measure you 9Uiy have, 
in contemplation; and though I assure you I wouMinifch> 
i^tlier acquire your love than incur your fear, I will, with my » 
own b^nd, put to death the fijrst num who shall presume to dis«*f 
play the slightest symptom of rebellious cond.ufL'' Turn*i 
ing round immediately to one of the mutineers i *^ Do you. 
Sir," said he, ^* want to take the command of this Ship out. 
of my hands?" — *' Yes, Sir," replied the fidlow, with tbcf 
greatest assurance. The Adniiral immediately raised bis 
arm, witii an intent to plunge his sword into the mutineer's^ 
breast: he was prevented by the Chaplain and Secretary, who 
seized his arm, from executing this summary a£t of justice ; 
an a£t rendered, at least, justifiable, if not necessary, by the, 
particular situation in which not only himself, but the greatest. 
part of those whom he commanded, were at that time placed. 

The blow being prevented, the Admiral attempted not to. 



tbf HlOGHAPnxCAt MSMQIRS ^ 

liiafce a second, but immedmtety called to the Ship's company 
with some agitation : ^' Let those who will stand by me^ 
and ray oifficers, pass over immediately to the starboard side 
of the Ship, that we may see who are our friends, and 
who are oar opponents.** In an instant the whok crew, 
excepting the six fomenters of the disturbance, rafn over with 
one accord. The culprits were immediately seized, put in 
irons, and committed to the gun-room ; from whence they 
were afterwards liberated, one by one, after hating shewn 
those signs of real penitence, which induced the Admtraly 
by well-timed ads of lenity, to endear himself, if possible, 
still more to a fiiithful crew, who, in the midst of tumult, 
had stood faithful to their trusti uncorrupted in the very 
focus of seditious sedudion. 

The instance of nnild forbearance and forgiveness just re- 
lated, may not impossibly be thought censurable by the stern 
and rigid disciplinarian; when, however, the existing com« 
plexion of the times, added to the very exemplary condud of 
the remaining part of the crew, are considered, together with 
the little danger that was to be apprehended from any 
disturbance that could be excited by six headstrong per- 
sons, surrounded as they were, by as many hundreds, who 
revered their Commander as a father, and loved him as a 
friend, it certainly was worth making the experiment, 
whether even dissolute morals might not be reclaimed by 
lenity, 'the motive was benevolent, and the cffed happy ; 
fot} except in the slight instance already related, not the 
smallest syinptom of discontent ever appeared on board the 
Venerable. 

Let us now turn our minds from a most disgusting sub* 
je£t, and hasten to the account of one of those events which 
will, to the latest posterity, continue to grace, with the 
utmost splendour, the page of British Naval History— the 
engagement with the Dutch fleet off Cartiperdown. The 
fleet of the enemy had long been in a complete state of equip- 
ment for adual service ; it consisted of fifteen Ships of the 
line, six frigatesi and fitt sloops of war } the wind was fa* 



or ADAM DtfNCAff* £Oftl> VISCOVIVT DVMCAV. fOf 

Vourable for their patting to sea ; and nothing but th^ in^ 
genious artifice already related, in all probability prevented 
it. At length the Admiral, in the hope of annoying them 
very materially, if they attempted to come out, the channel 
being so narrow as not to admit of more than one Ship 
passing at a time, anchored, having the Adamant in com- 
pany, at the outer buoy of the Texel, both Ships having 
springs on their cables. What the event of so unequal a 
contest would have been, is now of little consequence; but 
whatever it might have proved, the measure certainly reflefted 
the highest honour on the man whose gallantry not only 
projeded it, but made every possible preparation in his power 
to carry it into execution in the most advantageous manner 
possible. 

The crew were at their quartets for three days and. three 
nights, almost in momentary expefiation that the ehemy 
would come out. Their Admiral even made the preparative 
signal for sailing ; but a few hours before the time when 
their intention was to have been executed, the wind came 
round to tiie westward, and prevented it. During the eight 
following days, the Admiral and his consort were on the tip- 
toe of expedation, waiting for a reinforcement, when at 
length, to their great joy, they were joined by the SaiisPareil, 
of S4, and the Russel, of 74guns. Other Ships coming in soon 
afterwards, the disparity of numbers so far decreased, as to 
annihilate all anxiety for the event of the expefted contest* 
The Venerable herself kept the sea during eighteen weeks and 
three days, without intermission, in which time many of 
the Ships which had joined the Admiral after the mutiny^ 
had been compelled to make a temporary return into port, 
either on account of a want of provisions, or the damage 
they had received in the gales of 'wind which happened 
about that period. 

Ac length the Commander in Chief, in spite of all the 
tacct and oeconomy he could contrive, fotind himself under a 
necessity of returnikig into port, ta reviftuai and procure a 

-mV IV. F 



I 



/. 



I«5 BIOIS&APHICA& MfiMOlM 

suppljr of storeS} the Venerable being in want of nearljr 
ievery species of necessary requisite to a Ship employed on 
so a£live a service. The Dutch Admiral, who had accurate 
information from small vessels, which were kept out as 
scouts, of all the motions which the British fleet made; 
.wearied by his long confinement in port, iirged by the rc« 
presentations made from his own Executive Government^ 
and stimulated by tht influence of the French tadion in Hol- 
land, ventured at last to put to sea. Though a man inferior 
to no one, perhaps, in personal courage, he knew too well the 
superiority of the British Ships, and the crews wliieli navi- 
gated them, both in respeA to equipment and nautical know- 
ledge, to suppose that the event of an a£kion would be con- 
formable to the wishes or interests of his countrymen, unless 
he outnumbered his antagonists far higher than he could 
expeft or hope. But by putting to sea, he considered that he 
should at least quiet the minds of his countrymen for a time; 
and that calm he hoped to produce, without puttiif^ his arma* 
ment to the risk of a defeat: this he was induced to flatter 
himself with, under the refleftion that the same wind which 
wafted his enemy from the British sbore, would render 
his return into port so easy, that he might avoid an a£lion. 

The activity of Admiral Duncan rendered these expefta:- 
tions futile. Having previously dispatched orders to Yar* 
mouth for the preparation of the different articles he stood 
in need of, so that as little time as possible might be lost, the 
i^eet had no sooner got to an anchor, than the vessels em- 
ployed in vidualling, were alongside. The Commander in 
Chief setting the first example of assiduity, quitted not his 
Ship for a moment; he continued almost constantly on 
deckf encouraging tlie men, and promoting every possible 
exertion, insomuch, that the Venerable herself was ready 
for sea in four days, and the whole of the fleet in less than 
eight. He lost not a moment in getting out to his station, 
having received early intelligence tlut the event he h^d s^ 
long wished fory had adually taken place. 



OP kIBAli OTJltCANt LORD VltCOOlfT DUNCAW* 



t07 



. Fortune propitiously decreed that the zeal and unremitting 
perseverance of the Admiral should not pass without ac« 
firing the reward of viftory, which he had so long and so 
diligently laboured to win* On the eleventh af Odober, at 
nine o'clock in the morning, the headmost Ships of the fleet 
lOade the signal of having discovered the enemy» and after a 
pursuit of three hours, succeeded in the well-judged operation 
of cutting through the enemy's fleet» by which means they 
were cut off from their own ports^ The subsequent events 
of the glorious vi£tory obtained on that occasipn, and the 
minute, though highly interesting particulars with which the 
contest abounded, will be best explained by the annexed ex- 
tract from the log-book of the Venerable ; 



•797- 
Oftobcrii 



llcpc«ccr- 



II 



I 



4 

No. 



Skips. 



I 

s 

3 

4 

7 

• 

lo 

ti Lancaster 

>4 
IS 

16 



tLWMH - 
DircOor- 
Mooucue 
VCKTU - 

Monarch 

rOMTcrftil 
Mo^uuUi 
ACMicourt 
Tfiusnpli 



Adamint 
Isit 



JUlttsh NortiiSca 
rkcc 



Gbiu. 



No. 



I 

a 

3 

4 

S 

6 

7 
i 

9 
to 
II 
II 

«3 
»4 
IS 

16 

»7 

li 

19 
lO 
31 
32 
SJ 

»4 
SS 

*6 



Sbipi. 



vrxbeid • - 
Jnpitcr • . . 

Bninu - . • 

SutM Geaeral 

HvrculcB • . 
Adni.njVriev 
Gkikheid • 
LryJen • . 
Ccrberna - 
Wusouur • 
H«erfcm - 

tm . . 
■ouvia • • 
AiktoMtr « 
Bcschemcr 
Man(ukeo into 

tbe bnc) 
ManikenduB 
HeUia . . 
Ambuscade 
W wltzam iwid 
Minciv4 « 
Galatea - • 
AJax - . 
Akneluce - 
Uspibae • - 
ilahse - - 



Hcnrf TroUopo - 

William Suite • • 

John Knisht - . 

Geo. Creiorjr - • 

rvicc Adm. OnaioMrl 

I Cdw. Obrjta^ Capt } 

wm. 0*Drur)r - - 

JOBM Walker - - 

Jo. WUliaasoa . 

W. N. Es*io(Bl» 

CAdmirat Pwacaa 

|Wm. O. rair^W 

B. K. BartM - 

Sir That, Mfvd 

Joha Wcito - - 

JoHalasUd- - 

Wm. Rothdm • 

Wm. Mitcheil • 



■1 



*4 
74 
64 

74 

74 
•4 
*4 
74 

74 

«4 
74 
«4 
64 
SO 

JO 



Oacch rtea. 
Captains. 



Adm. Da Winter 
Vict Adm.Kcyn ties 
r Rear Adm. Bii«s 
(Van Trtslocis . 
Rear Adm. Stoce/ 



Rrtoottf 
£«BU» - 
Kysch • 
Mas>{uetcin 
JacMMHia 
HoUand* 
WtCKorts 
VeniOQin 
' Suuters - 
Kraffe • 
Kengett 

Kmr- - 



} 




Laocaster 
Oeanoirfl 
Hajrt . 
Vearap * 
eibriadits 
R every - 
Akandoadi 
Plats - 
rrederick 
UarUufied 



Guoa. 



74 
74 

74 

74 

«4 
68 
M 
68 
68 

«4 
69 
S6 
56 
$« 
S6 



44 

a 

3> 
*4 

»4 

16 
16 

16 
16 

6 



Divuiooal Commanders. 



^F^ 



BICHAR0 ONSLOW, Isq. 

vUe Admiral ef tbe ^cd. 



ADAM DUNCAN, Vsq. 

Adolnl at die Blue* Commaadcr U| CUefy 

Ac «cc 4k- 



Commander in Chief 
iwoid in Command 



Tbc first Skip drove out of the line 
i»rhU Majaty 'a Ship Venerable - 



Taken. 
Taken. 

Bscapcdt 



Taken. 

Taken. 

Taken. 

Escaped. 

escaped. 

Taken. 

Taken. 

Takes. 

Escaped* 

Ta..en. 

Escaped. 

Escipet. 

TUen^ 



• .-.... Tsken. 

The Dutch had ten (uns mgrt 
In their Line of Battle tihiae than the British, 
and eiibty^ight suns-besiops in their FrVcatct 
and Briss. Several of their S.ups carried 
£hirtjr-ilx and twenty-fuur pounders on their 

Carer and on their main decks* 
H, B. The British Ship* u^ pirty-two'f 
4 clkhteeM. 



tct 



aiOG&APBlCAL MEM0XR9 



V 



»79t 



Kpurt.) Mill. 



Oftobir iitfT 



9 
9 

9 
9 

9 



9 

9 

.10 
10 
lO 

10 
IQ 

XO 

10 

II 



10 
IX 

II 
II 

II 



II 

II 

XI 
IX 
XI 

p. 

18 

3 
3 

4 



15 

38 



50 

S8 



4 

5 

»i 
14 

33 
38 
45 



1 

8 

II 

17 



29 
30 

SS 
40 

53 

M. 

5 
30 

lO 

10 






Venerable 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 
Ditto 

Ditto 



Ditto 

DitCp 

Ditto 

Venerable 

Ditto 

Ditto 
Ditto 

Venerable 

Ditto 

Ditto 



Ditto 

Ditto 

Venerable 

Ditto 

Ditto 



Ditto 
Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Venerable 

Ditto 

The 

Ihe 

Venerable 

Ditto 



Humber and Sij 



• • 



m 



General lO* Prepare for battle. 
Ciree 47* Colne within haiL 
RuMcl iOi . Close with the Admiral. 
General 4S. Line on itarboard bearing. > 
'Oeneral 17. Altar the ooune to port, aad «ecr 

S> S. £* 
Genera) 4S. With compan nifnalt to form the 
line on atarboardi bciriiq; M. £• 
• " and S. W. 

Glcneral 6p Make more saiL 
lais and '- 67. To make more laiL 
Lancaster 
. Kuascl 16. To steer more to starboard* 

Isis 67. To make more sail. 
General i6« With compast ficnali» the fle«t to 

steer S. 
General 7. "With two ^nna, general chase. 
General 35. To engaee the enemy as arriving 

op with them. 
Beaulieu 67- To make more sail. 
Belliqueux 67. To make more sail. 
Monarch 69. To shorten sail» but hailed down 
and before answered- 

Montague 

Van 7X. Van to shorten sail. . 
General 66. Take in one reef of the topsails. 
General 48* Starboard line of bearing. 
Ditto 81. With preparative, come to the wmd 

on the starboard uck. 
General 95* To take sutions in the line as Ships' 

pendants are thrown out, after 
ninety- five was answered, coun« 
termanded. 
Particular 87. Ships to windward to come down. 
General 36. Each bhip to engage her opponent 

in the enemy's line. 
General 14. Bear up and sail large. 

Van 41. The van to attack the enemy's rear. 
General 34. To pass through the enemy's line» 

and engage them to leeward. 

General 5. With red pendant over, for close 

a^ioo. 
AAion commenced. 
Firing ceased. 

General 101. Close round the Admiral. 
General lo. Prepare for battle. 



2/. £. The wind veering round, and blowing upon the shore, made the 
signal from the Venerable to the Ships of our fleet not disabled, 
to iow off the JFrixtt* 



or ADAM DVMCANy LO&D TISOaUNT DVnCAfim 



199 



REMARKS* 



oa^iuiff9j 



At seven A. M* s%w ^hree large Shipa ta leeward, sUnding 
to the squadron ; on gearing Xhtvx, foun^ they had e^ch a red 
(tag flying ^t the main-top gallant-n^-hei^y being the signal 
fpr an ene^iy. These Ships proved to be Captain, Trollope'J 
«quadro|i» consisting of the Riissely AtiamaQt, 9ioA Beaulieu 
fr!gate« who j^d kept sight of the Dutch fleets an4 watched 
their motions, Hi& Majesty's Ship CircCi likewise one of that 
s<}uadroji> joined, us afterwards. At half past eijght o'clpck 
A. M. saw the Putch fleet io leeward; made the s^nal, 
bore up with the fleet, and stood, towards them. At fifty mi. 
nutes past ninet mad^ the signal for the fleet to make more sail. 
On apprpaQhing the enemy's fleet, saw them forming their line 
of battle on the larboard tack ; th^r force consisting of sixteen 
sail of the Hpe, three stoi\t frigates, and two smaller one^, with 
i|ve brigs, having four flags flying, viz. one blue at the. main, 
one white at the mizen, one blue at the mizen, and one blue at 
the fore-top-gallant -mast-head* Their frigates and brigs drawn 
up to. leeward of their line of battle Ships, and placed opposite 
to the iptervals, which rendered them a great annoyance to our 
Ships, especially while passing through their line, and durii\g 
the greatest part of the adiion. At eleven A. M. made the 
signal for the van to shorten sail, to let the sternmost Ships 
come up, and connedt our line as well as time would permit. 
The enemy at this time in a line of battle on the larboard 
tack, with their main- top-sail yards, square, but keeping them 
shivering, and sometimes full, by which their line was gradually 
advancing towards their own shore, which, at this period, was 
9ot aeven miles distant, 1 he lahd in sight was situated be 
tween the village of Egmont and Camperdown. By the in- 
equality of sailing of several of our Ships, the squadron was 
unavoidably going down towards the enemy in no regular order 
of battle. Brought to for a short time on the starboard tack, 
in order to form them ; but the enemy being still advancing 
towards their own shore, it was determined by our Admiral to 
get between them and their own land, at all events, to prevent 
their escape. The signal for bearing up was therefore made 
before our Ships could possibly get into any regular order of 
battle, ^ad our time been lost in making a regular distiibu 
tion of our Ships, the Dutch fleet must have got so near their 
coast, it would have been impossible to follow them with any 



K.w, 
byN. 



Fresli 



N.W. 

byN. 



Squally 

weather 

with 

Rain. 



[ 



110 



felOGRAPItieAL UtMOI&S 



view of adrantage. At fifty-three minutes past eteren, made 
the signal to pass through the enemy's line, and engage them 
to kewanL Soon after the signal was madf for close adiong 
and r€|>eated by the Monarch and Powerful ; it was kept flying 
on board the Venerable near an hour and a half, when it was 
shot away. About thirty minutes past tweWe, the adioa 
commenced by Vice Admiral Onslow, in the Monarch, who 
broke through the enemy's line, passed under the Dutch Vice 
Admiral's stem, and engaged him to leeward* The Venerable 
intending to engage the Dutch Commander in Chief, was pre* 
vented by the States General, of 76 guns, bearing a blue flag 
at the mizen, diooting dose up with him ; we therefore put 
our helm aport, run under his stem, engaged him close, and 
soon forced htm to run out of the line. The Venerable then 
fell sdongside the Dutch Admiral De Winter, in the Vryheids 
who was for some time well supported, and kept up a very 
heavy fire upon us* At one o'dock, the a£tion was pretty 
general, except by the two or three van Ships of the enemy's 
b'ne, which got off without the smallest apparent injury. 
About half an hour after the commencement of the aAion on 
the part of the* Venerable, who began only h^t minutes later 
than our own Vice Admiral, the Hercules, a Dutch Ship of 
64 guns, caught fire ahead of us ; she wore, and drove very 
near our Ship to leeward^ while we were engaged, and very 
roughly handled, by four Ships of the enemy. A little before 
three o'clock, while passing to leeward of the Putch Admiral 
and Commander in Chiefs on the opposite tack, our starboard 
broadside was fired, which took place principally anx>ng the 
rigging, as all her masts came immediately by the board : soon 
after he struck his colours, all farther opposition being vain and 
fruitless* Admital Duncan dispatched the Rose cutter with ^ 
note to the Secretary of the Admiralty, containing account 
of his having obtained a vi6bry over the Dutch fleet. During 
the greatest part of the a^ion, the weather was variable, with 
showers of rain, till half past two o'clock, when it fell almost 
calm* On its clearing up, we perceived nine Ships of the enemy's 
line, and one stout frigate, had struck. About four o'docl^ 
P. M. Admiral De Winter was brought on board the Vene- 
rable by Mr. Charles Richardson, first Lieutenant of the Circe,, 
in the boat of that frigate, whose signal had been made for thi^ 
purpose. The Venerable wore wth the fleet, turning our heads 
.off dXQrCi which was not then distant above four or five milc^.. 



Ot ADAM J^mCAttf LOIb risCOVXT DUHCAir. tit 

Begim repaiHnp^ the riggiagy which» witii the nSHs^ mastt^ and 
yards, had suffered much in the a&ion. The people likewise 
constantly at the pumps, having received a number of shot^holes 
below our water-line. Made the frigates and undisabled Ships 
ligtials to take possession of prized* During the battle, the 
Venerable was gallantly supported by the Ardent and Triumph^ 
Admiral Duncan's seconds^ and afterwards by bis Majesty's 
Ship Powerful, who had taken her opponent, then run up, and 
rendered effedual assistance to us, while surrounded by ene- 
mies. The Powerful and several others showed by their gal- 
hnt condud, that they perfedly undei stood the signal for dose 
a£iion. Could a doubt remain in the minds of any person in 
the fleet, about the meaniug of any signal or manGeuvre» they 
could not possibly mistake the gaflant example of the two 
English Admirals, and several others, who entered completely 
into the meaning of the signal No. 34, and immediately pushed 
through the enemy's line, as the only method of defeating the 
Dutch fleet in the situation in which they wore* It was per- 
feAly in the power of the whole British fleet* to have put 
sigpial 34 into execution* The enemy was dire£Uy to leeward, | 
and openings to pass through their line in several parts of it ; 
but some of our Ships, it is said, did not put No. 34 into exe* 
cution. Notwithstanding, the i fth of Odober, 1797, will be 
remembered with pleasure by our friends, and regretted by our 
tnemies. 

The foregoing account is so fttll, that it requires no ad- 
dition or remark ; suffice rt, that we briefly state the ad ion 
commenced between twelve and one o'clock in the after* 
noon, and after continuing rather more than three hours 
with unceasing violence, was at last closed by the surrender 
of nine Ships of the line, with two frigates ; the remainder, 
though not wMiout much difficulty, succeeding in effcding 
their escape. 

It has been remarked) and with some truth, that the laconic 
manner in which the gallant Admiral first announced his 
success to the Admiralty Board, in no small degree resem- 
bled the celebrated letter of Captain Walton, written in con- 
sequence of his having attacked, taken, or destroyed» a de* 
uchment of the Spanish fleet off Syracuse, ^ We have 



L 



tit llOGftAFHlCAL UIIIOIIIB 

uken/' said th^ hmrt officer, ** and destroyed lall the Spa-* 
nbh Ships and vesseb that were upon the coa^t ; the number 
as per margin. Yours, &c. G. Walton/' That which wc 
bring into comparison with it^ was to the following purport: 

i*. Af* C^mptrdowm £* 5. J5. e^U miUt. JVmd N. hy £. 
SIK, 

I have the pleasHre to acqitaiDt you, for the information of the 

Lords Commissfonen of the Admtrsdty^ that at nine o'clock this 

norning, I got sight of the Dutch fleet ; at half past twelve I passed 

through their line, and the a£tma comntenctd, which has been very. 

severe* The AdmiraTs Ship is dismasted, and has struck, as have 

several others, and one on fire. I shall send Captain Fairfax with^ 

particulars the moment I can spare hinu — I am^ 

ADAM DUNCAN. 

The Admiral, as a public and proper reward for his ver^ 
brilliant c^nduA on the foregoing occasion, was raised by 
patent bearing daYe Oftobcr the thirtieth, to the dignity of 
a Baron and Viscount of Great Britain, by the titles of 
BaroA Camperdown and Viscount Duncan. The Vene* 
table had received so much damage, and had become so 
leaky3 owing to the number of shot she had received in 
her hull, that she was, with the greatest difficulty, brought 
into port; and being found unfit for further service, with« 
cut previously undergoing a thorough repair, was, of 
course, ordered to be dismantled for that purpose. His 
Lordship, who continued to retain his command, shifted his 
flag ii^to the Kent, a new Ship of 74 guns, then just 
launched. Soon as the Ships destined to remain under his 
orders were refitted, he returned again to his station ; 
tixA by his continued vigilance^ the Dutch trade was 
almost annihilated : their vessels, whenever anv were found 
hardy enough to attempt putting to sea, were captured in 
sight of their own ports ; for the whole coast was so com- 
pletely blockaded, that instances very rarely occurred of 
their being able to elude the extreme vigiUncc of the British 
cruisers. 



OF ADAH PVVCAir^ LOftO TISCOUMT DUKCaII. tij 

A very singular proof of this faft took place about twelve 

months after the Camperdown fights two Dutch frigates^ 

the Furie, of 36, and the Waakzamheid) of 26 guns, had 

Been lying in the Texel many weeks with troops on board. 

Eager to seize the first probable opportunity of escape, in 

order to eflFe£t a desultory descent on some part of the British 

dominions, being at last favoured by a strong eastern gale^ 

which they flattered themselves had blown the English 

cruisers off their coast> they ventured out to sea on the 

twenty-third of Odober, 1798> under cover of a thick fog, 

but were both captured on the following day, by Captain 

King, in the Sirius. His Lordship continued to retain the 

same command till the commencement of the present year, 

but the extreme caution of the enemy prevented him from 

finding any second opportunity of completing the destruftioa 

of the Dutch maritime power ; and the surrender of their 

Ships at the Texel, in the month of August, 1799) has, to a 

certainty, removed to a more remote period, the possibility 

of acquiring in the same quarter similar honours to those 

gained off Camperdown* 

HeraISc Particvlart relative to Lord VUconrnt Dmiean. 

On the sixth of June, 17779 he married Miss Dundas, daughter 
of Robert Duodas, Esq. Lord President of the Court of Session in 
Scotland. 

On the twenty-third of December, I7^7» his eldest son, Mr* 
Henry Duncan, died at Edinburgh. 

All MS.] In the centre of his paternal coat (being Oules, two cioqae foils 10 
chief, and a bogle horn in base, stringed Azure}, pendant bj a ribbon Argent 
and Azure, from a naval crown Or, a gold medal, thereon two figures, the 
emblems of Vidory and Britannia ; ViAory alighting on the prow of an an- 
tique vessel, crowning Britannia with a wrc-vth of laurel; and, below, the word 
^ Camperdown." 

CaasT, A first rate Ship of war, with masts broken, rigging torn and in 
disorder, floating on the sea, all proper \ and over, the motto <' Discc pati.** 

Surf OK TIES ] On the dexter side an Angel, mantle purpure; on the head 

a celestial crown ; the right hand supporting an anchor proper \ in the left a 

palm bianch Or. On the sinister a sailor, habited and armed proper \ his left 

liand supporting a staff, thereon hoisted a flag asure; the Dutch ceknrs 

V wreathed about the pniddle of the staff. 

Motto.] ^ Secnndii dubiisque redus.'* 

«0U IV, 0. 



L 






t it4 1 



ILLUSTRATIONS OP NAVAL TACTICS, 
Drawn from aSud E'uerUs^ and the Success niuhich has oHemieJ fttrtkular 
Manmtvres fraSheJ tn Engagetnents between Two FleeU* From tbt 
RevoJiUion dovm to the present Time. Arranged in Chronabgieai OrdeK 

(Cootinued frond page 47.) 

■SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS 

AFTER the cooclusion of the third Dutch war, no opportunity 
offered itself either to the British fleet, or that belonging to 
any among their different enemies, of carrying the same manoeuvre 
into execution, till the engagement between Mr. Byog and the 
French Admiral Gallisomere. Tlie .Beachy-Head %ht, the naval 
twittles which took place off La Hogue and Malaga, were, of neces* 
•ity, conduced on different principles, which will be explained under 
a different head from the present. 

In the a£iion off Minorca, Mr. Byng had very judiciously con* 
trived to keep the advantage of the wind ; and such was the relative 
posttioa of the two squadrons, that if he had, inunediately after mak* 
ing the signal for his Ships to go about, which consequently brought 
them on the same tack with the enemy, followed it with another for 
the whole fleet to make all the sail they could, without subjeding 
themselves to confusion, and fall upon the van of the enemy, there 
seems but little doubt that Mr. West's division alone would have 
insured the vidory. This unfortunate man, without doubt, com- 
mitted an irremediable suite of erroxs, in ordering the Deptford to quit 
the line ; in bearing away with the Jlamilies for the rear of the enemy ; 
and in making the signal for the rest of the Ships in his division to 
'follow his example* This condu6i, however Ol-judged it might be» 
perfe^Uy eauutcipatcs him from the illiberal charge which his enemies 
laboured so powerfully to fix on him — a want of personal courage ; 
for the hBi is, if he had kept on the same course after the van began 
to eagage, which he held before the adion commenced, the battle 
wopld, in. all prd»bility, have been nearly over, and the enemy de« 
ftatcd, ere he could have got nearer to them than within random shot* 

^ At two,** says this unhappy man, ** I made the signal to engage, 
as I found it was the surest method of ordering every Ship to dbsc 
down on the one that fell to their lot; and here I must express my 
great satisfadlion at the very gallant manner in which the Rear Ad- 
. mind set the van the example, by instantly bearing down on the Ship 
he was to oppose, with his second, and who occasioned one of the 
Jrcftch Ships to begin the engagement, which they did, by raking 
curs as they went down, / bore dovm on the Shif that lay efpostte to 



ULVSTEATlOirS Of HATAL TACTies^ IXj^ 

«r»'' This last 9& gave the fiital check to the vidorf* whidk he 
othenrisc wouU in dl likelihood have obtmoed. ' 

On the sixteenth of March^ X781J the French aquadron employed 
jo Amcrica,^ coropletdy baffled the British aquadron under Mr* Ar- 
bythnq^.by making u«e of this manoeuvre* The enemy^ who were 
teally inferior in point of force» but had the advantage of the wind* 
attacked with all the Ships tltf^jQould,Jaa'iog into a£lion> the Robust 
the Prudent, and the Europe : the former of these was engaged at 
one time by the French Gommodore, in a Ship of 84 gunSf 8upp(Mrted 
by one of 'JJ^, and another of 6^ ; the other Ships l^d the nmainder 
of the enemy^s squadron to contend with ; the consequence was> that 
^ those Ships, but more particufarly the two former, were completely^ 
crippled before their companions could get up to support them 1 add 
the French, perfedly well satisfied with having saved themKlvcs froma 
more serious lossi were enabled to make good ihei» retreat wiikoat 
farther molestation^ 

** At two o'dockf** says Mr. Arbothaot, ^ the van of my squadron 
'Wore in the line, and in a few minutes the Robustj^ which led the fleett 
and afterwards behaved in the most gallant manner, was wamdy en« 
gaged with the van of the euemy^ . The Ships in' the van and centre 
of the line, were aU engaged by half an hour past two, and by three 
the French line was broke ; their Ships began soon afler to wear, and 
to fonn their line again with th^ir heads to the south-east into the 
ocean. 

. •* At twenty minutes after three I wore and stood after them. I 
was 'sorry to see the Robust, Prudent, and Europe, which were the 
headmost Ships, and received the whole of the enemy's fire at their 
rigging as they bore down, so entirely disabled, and 'the London's 
mainttop-sail>yard being carried away, (the two first tUimanageable^ 
* laying with their heads from the enemy) as to be incapable of pursuit^ 
and of rendering the advantage we had gained decisive/' 

The engagement off the Ch^sapeak, on the 5th of September, 1 78 r, 
18 a still corroborating proof of the corrc Aness of this principle : the 
van and centre of the fleet, commanded by Rear Adminds Graves 
and Drake, opposing Ship to Ship with the enemy, fotced them' to 
give way ; while the seven sternmost Ships of the British fleet, under 
Sir Samuel Hood* kept twelve of the enemy^s rear at bay. It may 
- be remembered that there was no small degree of murmur excited 
among the uninformed, because those Ships were not adually en* 
gaged ; but it must be evident to all candid inquirers, now reason has 
aiipplanted the rage of passion, that if the rear had borne away, and 
Closed with its antagonists, as the van did, it might, and most probahl|^ 



I 



A6( illbVtTmATlMS Of V AVAL TACTICM 

H^uid fc«fd bem incliosed betweea tiro firet» throogh -whieh sn ad« 
irantage might have been gitoed wkich would hv99 bcea produdirc ot 
Ac sioit tevioiu cfmicqueiioet to the wbok fleet* 

In shoitf dw pwrticuhr conduA of the fear |>roted the presemrtion 
of the> whok fleet. It will be hereafter neoeasary to speak more fully 
of ihk eocDUDter, ia tieating of the manceuvre lately introduced and 
piadiaed with ao much suooeM, <hat of ** caMlM^ tbrmtgh the tnmf^ 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF NAVAL HISTORY. 



THE fijntiettary io parttcukr, is of the most interesting kind» at 
it tends to pro^e the high injury wantonly inflided by the ragt 
of jKuty on one of the bravest and worthiest men that ever held a 
naval command— -Arthur Herbert, Earl of Torrington. The lumest 
and unsought for testimony borne by a person of Admiral Shoveil'a 
djescription, outweighs the slanderous and envenomed clamour of 
millions. 

Sir CloVDSSLBT Shovell to the Earl ^Torrivgton« "July 31^ 

1690. 

MY LORD, 

I MUST believe you a person so steddy for y^ preservation of theiir 
Maj* and their kingdoms, that the breath of ten thousands of the 
better sor^ of the unthinking mobb cannot shake your loyalty ; and 
for your 'corrage, ware I worthey to be your Lordship's bayle, I durst 
with my life be bound to answer for your default ; though I suppose 
tts not unknown to your Lordship that both your loyalty and corrage 
are questioned. My Lord, I have been so unfortunate as not to have 
had one line from any one of my friends in y* fleet ; nor till within 
this week have I spoke with any one man that was in y* late a6Uon 
with your Lordship ; and now am, as have been all along, well satis* 
fied that your retreat was absolutely necessary, and for the servis of 
<mr country ; but till now knew not the reason of your fighting. 

When your Lordship w^ first in sight of the French, I was then 
of y" Land's End, with 3 fregatts in my company ; and by smaH 
▼cssells that cam from the eastward, 1 had still nottis of your seeing 
l^e French fleet for 5 or 6 days together ; and nothing more rejoiced 
me then that your Lordship declined fighting them ; and, S^, in any 
other country but our's, your declining fighting would have shown 
your Generalship, and been esteemed as it deserved r My Lord, her& 
tre many people in these -parts can very wtU femendber that it wai 



isir optnioii' tint nothing covid be more to yoar Lord8til]»Vlio%» sgi^ 
to ow country's vftfety^ then your kecfMog out of the reach of themt 
and nothing coidd hurt us -but ighdng them; nd one need not-go^ 
fir for a very sobsianttall leasotfy which lt» yoa.wanted about 15 sa3 
of good Ships that were designed for the line of batdei and if it waft 
thboght you could beatt the French widiout this 25 sail, why %»arewa 
at the unnecessary charge of so* laany supemua^ Ships ) My i^ofd^ 
I have not else at pressS bat to assure your Lordship I am, a» e«e% : 

My LoRD» • ' # 

Yoinr Lordship's most faithfuH and obedient San^^ 



t) BAR Slit PEAKciSy DtcemS^r 11^ t6^9 ' 

'I SUPPOSE your West India Voyage goes forward, fend all thi^nga^ 
to you satisfaction. I question not but "you belteVe njxt to mywdf^ 
I wish your weOfairc before any miEin*d: God bles^ the King ; an^ 
upon my word, I am not of the common opinion^ which makes youir 
voyage such a bug beai* ; but, to the contrary^ I expeft your rcturh 
With a great deal of reputation, much to your satisfa^ion, about two 
years hence, or there abouts ; I espe6b so, which pray order your 
buisaness so as to stay no longer; for aftertwo years your Ships will 
be out of order, your stores expended, your men will dye | wad if I 
my csJl it so, course of nature will bring you an account of wai^ 
every day ; but while you are abroad, make me your Solissitor at 
home for your reall wants, and be assured I will heartily deroatt mj^ 
self to your service. I will only caution you in what I am assured 
you can vtry well perform, if you give your mind to it,; that is, lekt 
no frivolous miscarrages give you any manner of < disturbaoos i nei^ 
ther be ditituibed at any unfavburable misfortune* I assure myself of 
your aply cation to your buissness ; and I will once niore icp^t mf 
Opinion, which is^ that I shall se my dear friend S^ Francis return from 
the West indies with (in short) a. great deal of satisfafUon both to 
himself and friends^ amongst which I sidiscribe. myselfe one of .your 
faitbfuUest. C. S^ 

SIR, Ftffary ojf of Beacfyy 26th Fehrtuujt I743» 

1^ Sailed from the Downs the 24^ inst, iu the morning, the wind 
at "W* M. W. upon receiving intelligence that fifteen Ships of the 
Brest squadron were at an andior off of Dlungeness ; and jat two in the 
aftemoou came to an anchor about eight nules abort o{ them, the tida 
of flood then being against us^ and the wind at W« S. W« tbcy heaa« 



iBf froto ui, W. f S. At eight u night the wind shifted to N^-EL 
tod about one iff the womrpig^ a-tiolent storm cMDe.^A, ^th thick. 
duk weather, that soon drove most of .us from, our anchors; i| con* 
timed the greatest past oCihe da^t^ so> Aat .we could ctmj no s^ $ 
hot towarda evening the weather abatcdf and this day (the. 26?). we 
have little wtiad» and variafcde^ I iadoie to you an aeoouotof the 
dbmage that has happened to flueh of our Ships at. I h^ve 4|x4^ mthn 
^nd^hbpe their Lordships willxsrdct an iaunediate supply of' ancbosi 
and oA^les to ua in the JDowntb whither I am returning. It waa 
feftanate we did. not meet wUh thii storm off Dunkirk, or in 
the DownSf in either of which plsces aH our pilots are of opinion the 
whole fleet would have been iniflMnineot danger. The Rqehuckf, 
firom RMlamoBth, joined me tke 04^, vAtu we were in sight of 
th< French. We cannot tell when the French broke .way^ notvith- 
ftanding all the endearonet .1 used to be informed of it ; but the 
Anglesea, whose cable parted t^e 25^b, at seven in the morning, ruix 
4dose by Dungeness^ and viewed both sides of it, and found ihem 
gone. The Duke, Princess Royal, Prince Fredericks and Medway^ 
not being in a condition to go into the Downs, I have ordered Sir 
Charles Hardy with them into ^pithead^ and Ae Gibraltar to attend 
hinu I Wi Sir| 
, Your most humble servant^ 

|No NORRIS. 

Jtn Aeuimt •/ JDamaga tit Ships undfrmadsmif rttdvei tU 2f. Fekf, 1743-^ 

•hips' mamis. accidentia 

TiSory « • • X«08t two ancHort an4 three cables. 
Duke * « . Lost two anchors, four cables, and the dirdtC^ 
St George * • Lost two anchors, four cablet, 
f rinceii Rcjal • Lou three snchonand cablaB» and hrokt htf. tiller* . 

fItPtt two anchsrt, two cables, and the vnsU bower na^ 
aerviccablc; carried away the jibb-boom,.sprit-saiU 
yard, and 16 foot of the knee of the head, and spranz 
the bo^^it. 
^nffblk « « • Lost two anchors and three cables* 
CTaptain • • - » Lost two anchors and three cables. > 

Dreadnought « • Lett one anchor and cable. 

Jersey - •» • Lost one anchor* one cable and halL ^ 

''Worcester - • L^tone anchor and three cables. 
Roebuck • •- Lost her longboat. 

Anglesea « m Lost one anchor, ode cable and haH^ and her 'h>ngb<^t|^ 
Gibraltar • - Lost one anchor and cable. 
MoccH Mary - Lost two anchors and three cables. 
'Jlcdwaf « • Lost three anchors, four ^ab|es, and her longboat^ 
•Deptford ^ " JLmt three anchors and. faiq:c%hlev 



m 

IT it wkhpfotMisre-I oongfttttee yoa cm that vse&l and tcr^ 
valuable worky the Naval Chronicle, which at length hat made itt 
ftppeiifanee m tliit q<Utteri>f the worldf «nd I. can aatorc you, haa 
Biiet with unhrenal lidaih^tiofi by the oflicert is oar nmdac tametf a* 
WeH aa attcteMiet coiiM^bfd witkft, . A aM>rk of thut natsit had long 
been wantady to tecotd the wtmy '^aShM exploits which have iatiaKa 
past> aad oontiaue Co adocn four Nftvy; and with » wcD-groiinded 
teptf -that oux^t aaay imitate, and ever ad ia unity with it, I have trant* 
mttted kr your intertioii> i£ 'af^ovcd of, the Official Letter -and 
Report of the Secretary^ oFthe ^erican Navy, together with the twa 
Officii Lctterg written by that gallaat officer, Commodore TiLOxtviri 
' " * *I am, Skf 

M^dm^ It^riB Ami^f 'Jtun at » ttoe. T. 

Lour md Report of the Stcrtiary of the Navy* 

Naiy Department^ 20th March, IkSoo. 

IN obedience to the order of the House of Representatives of the 
United States^ of the eighteenth inst. the Secretary of .the Navy haa 
the honour to lay before the House, a copy of Captain Trustun't 
letter of the third of February, together with a copy of the extraft 
Trom his jonmsd, referred to in the said letter, detailing the particulart 
of the engagement between the Constellation under his commandf 
and an heavy French Ship, mounting, as he supposed, 54 guns*. 

The Secretary has received a number of letters, too voluminous to 
trouble the House with, of dates both prior and subsequent to the 
aClion, which leave no doubt on his mind that the French Ship, so 
gaDantly defended against the bravery and superior AIU of Captain 
Truxtun, is the same that arritrcd at Goiadaloupe from France, in 
the month of December latt, called La Vengeance, mounting 50 gum 
«r upwards. 

In confirmation of this opinion, the Secretary takes the liberty oF 
stating the substance of letters received from Captain Baker, of the 
SeUiware sloop of war, from B. H. Phillips, Esq. American Consul 
at Curracoa, and from D. M« Clarkson> £^« Navy Agent at St« 
£itt8. 

Captain Bdcer, in a letter ^ated Curracoa, eighth of Fabniary, 
mentions that a French Ship, called La Vehgeance, of 54 guns, hitd 
left Guadaloupe on her return to France, ad)gut the first of February | 



I 



9»m |&l.0$T*ATieMi OF NAf AI* mSTORV* 

had a very tevere aftion with the ConflteDation the following oigfat^ 
aod arrived at Corracoa en the eikth, » a most Ottered condition $ 
that he understood the had lost one hundred and forty asea in the 
aai«n» and wh«a ahe cKaped from the ConfteUation^ had eight feet 
water in her hold. 

. Mr. Philltpe, in a letter dated Curracoa, ninth of Febmaryt to the 
Secretary of Sute» announces the arrival there of the French Ship, 
La Vengeance, of 5^ guns» bound from Cftadaloupe to France^ with 
a valuable cargo, and a large Mim of specie, in a very distressed situ* 
ation, having lost one hundred and sixty men* lulled and wounded* 
and her masts and rigging nearly all bhot away in an engagement of 
five hours, within pistol shot, with the O>nstellatiott. 

Mr. Clarksott) at St. Kitts, in a letter dated sixteenth of Febmary, 
states, ** We aie certain Captain Truxtun's gallant adion was fought 
with La Vengeance, a Fjrench man of war of {4 guns, and five hun* 
dred picked men, from Guadaloupe to France." 

As to the condud of any particular officer, or other person on 
hoard the Constellation, the Secretary has no information, except 
what' is to be found in the communications from 04>tam Tmxtun, 
by which, but still more by the result of this heroic a^on, it appears 
that all the officers and men on board the Constellation must have 
nobly performed their duty. 

The praise of having pursued, for many hours, a Ship known to be 
of force so greatly superior to his own, to bring her to a&ion, and 
of condu6ling that adlion with so much skill as to compensate for hit 
great inferiority of force, belongs exclusively to their gallant com« 
mander. 

It cannot be necessary for the Secretary to add to the euloglum 
bestowed by Captain Truxtun on the brave young Midshipman* 
James Janris, who gloriously prefened certain death, to an abandon- 
ment ol his post» 

All which is respe^ully submitted, 

BENJAMIN STODDERTr 
ITBe ffotwirM the 8/HMJter 0/ Secretary of the Navy- 

iii Hms€ 9fRt^rtuntativet •Jiht UnUtd Staitt. 

Copy of a Letter from Captain Thomas Truxtun, to the Secretary 

of the Nazy. 

Unite J States' Ship Comtellatimh 
8ia, at Sea, FA* 3, 1800. ' 

I HAD the honour to address you the day after my arrival at 
.St* Ghristopher'fi the twenty .first uit« as per copy ainnezedi after 



iLLtftTflATlOirS W NATAL HlfrTOX^T. I«I 

wliich I made erery exertion in my power to get the squadron, as 
weU as my own Ship to sea* in the shortest time possible ; and gave 
.]] the comouinderB of the different vessels orders, to cruise separately, 
in cerUun.sitiiations» agrfseably to the copies inclosed. 

On the thirtieth, I left St. Christopher's with the Constejlation in 
cxccUtnt trim for ti^iling, and stood to windward, in order to occupy 
the station I had allotted for myself, before the road of the enemy, at 
Guadaloupe, where I was iufiormed a very large and heavy frigate, Qf 
up««raids.of 50 guns, was then laying ; and early on the next day I fell 
in with L'lasurgent, Qiptain Murray, and the prize brig, Conquest 
pf .Italy ». that had been fitted out to cruise with him in those seas. 
After a short interview with Cappiin Murray, I requested him to pro- 
ceed to $t. Ckristophsr'i. without loss of time, and call on our agent 
tberCf Mr« Clackson^ for letters that I had lodged for him, which 
pointed out Jhis further destin^tipn. On c«ur parting, he inunediately 
made sail to leeward, and I continued plying to windward. At half 
pasi^.sevcn A. M. of the following day, I discovered a sail to the S« £• 
to which I gave chace ; and for the further particulars of that chase, 
and ^e adion after it, I must beg leave to refer you to the extracts 
from my. journal, which is also inclosed, as being the best mode of ex- 
hibiting a just, fair, an4 candid account of all our transat^ons in the 
late business, which has ended in the complete dismantlement of the 
Coiist^llation, though, I trust, to thj; high reputation of the American 
flag. 

I have just fell in with the Enterprize, Lieutenant Shaw, returning 

^ from Curracoa, who I send off to you with my dispatches, and I shall 

be obliged, by your sending him again to me at Port Royal, Jamaica, 

as early as possible^ as I shall Be impatient to^iear from you, especially 

as we are now in want of every thing, being a mere wreck. 

If I had met Captain Morris, of the Adams, I should have taken 
the command of that Ship, and kept the station to windward, leaving 
him in charge of the ConsteUation, to be refitted at Jamaica; but I 
have not been so fortunate. 

I have the honour to be. 

With great respeft and esteem. 

Your very obedient humble servant, 

(Signed) THOMAS TRUXTUH*- 
n« SomnraBlg Benj^mm Stoddertt Esq. 

mi IV. » 



L 



tt2 XLLVSTRATIOirS OF NATAL HISTOllT. 

ji Circumstantial jiecoutU of the Engagement between the United StaM 
Frigate Constellation, of 38 Gimsj and a French Natioaal Frigate, 
of S^ GunSf on the 1st Febraary-9 z8oo; taien from Commodore 
Tr vzrVK^s journal, viz . 

Saturdajf ut FAnsary% 1800. 

AT half past seven A. M. the road of Basseterre, GuadaloupCt 
bearing east 9 five leagues distance, saw a sail in the S. £• standing to 
the westward, which from her situation, I at first took' for a large 
Ship from Mardnico, and hoisted English colours, on giving chace, 
by way of inducement for her to come down and speak me, which 
would have saved a long chace to leeward of my intended cruising 
ground ; but finding she did not attempt to alter her course, I ex- 
amined her more attentively as we approached Ker, and discovered her 
to be a heavy French frigate, mounting at least 54 guns ; I imme- 
diately gave orders for the yards to be slung ^th chans, top-saH 
sheets, &c. stoppered, and the Ship cleared ready for a^ion, and 
hauled down the English colours. At noon the wind became light, 
and I observed the chace that we had before been gaining fast on, 
held way with us ; but I was determined to continue the pursuit, 
though the running to leeward, I was convinced, would be attended 
,with many serious disadvantages, especiaUy if theobjeft of my wishes 
was not gratified, 

Sunday J 2d February. At one P. M. the wind being somewhat 
frer.her than the noon preceding, and an appearance of its continuance, 
our pTospeft of bringing the enemy to a6lion began to brighten, as I 
perceived we were coming up with the chace fast, and every inch of 
canvas being set that could be of service, except the bag reefs, which 
I kept in the top sails, in case of the enemy finding an escape from 
bur thunder impradicable, should haul on a wind, and give us fair 
battle ; but this did not prove to be her commander's intention : I 
however got within hail of him, at eight P. M. hoisted our ensign, 
and had the candles in the battle lanthorns all lighted, and was in the 
lee gangway ready to speak him, and to demand the surrender of his 
Ship to the United States of America, when at that instant he com- 
menced a fire from his stem and quarter guns, diredied at our rigging 
and spars* No parley being then necessary, I sent my principal Aid* 
de-camp, Mr. Vandyke, to the different officers commanding divisiont 
on the main battery, to repeat striftly my orders before given, not to 
throw away a single charge of powder and shot, but to take good aim, 
and to fire dire£^ly into the hull of the enemy, and load principally 
with two round shot, and now and then with a round shot and a 



ILLVST&ATIttVS OF NAVAL HISTORr. 125 

ftand of grape* &;c. to encourage the men at their quartersi and to 
caiue» or suffer no noise or concision whatever, but to load and fire 
as fast as possible, when it could be done with certain efie^. 

These orders being given* in a few moments I gained a position on 
his weather quarter* that enabled us to return effedually his salute ; 
and thus as c;lo8e, and as sharp an adion as ever was fought between 
two frigates* commenced* and continued until within a few minutes 
of one A* M« when the enemy's fire was compjecely silenced* and he 
wtu again sheering off. It was at this moment that I considered him 
as my prize* and was trimming in the best manner I could* my much 
shattered sails* when I found the main -mast was totally unsupported 
with rigging, every shrouds being shot away* and some of them in 
many places so as to render stoppers useless* which in fad could not 
be applied with effed ; I then gave orders for all the men to be sent 
up from the gun deck to endeavour to secure the mast* in order that 
we might get alongside of the enemy again as soon as possible ; but 
every effort was in vain* for it went over the , side in a few minutes 
after* and^ carried with it the topmen* among whom was an amiable 
young gentleman* who commanded the main top, Mr. James Jarvis*' 
son of James Jarvis, Esq. of New York* This young gentleman, it 
seems, was apprized of his danger by an old seaipan, but he had already 
so much the principle of an officer ingrafted on his mind* not to leave 
his quarters* that he replied* if the mast went, they must go with it, 
which was the case, and only one of them were saved. I regret much 
his loss, as a promising young oiHcer, and amiable young man* as well 
as on account of a long intimacy that has subsisted between his father 
and myself, but have great satis£a6tion in finding, that I have lost no 
other* and only two or three were slightly wounded, out of thirty -nine 
of the crew, killed and wounded, fourteen of the former, and twenty* 
five of the latter* As soon as the main mast went, every effort was 
made to dear the wreck from the Ship as soon as possible, which was 
effeded in about an hour ; and as her s>:curity viras then the great ob- 
jed, it being impossible to pursue the enemy, I immediately bore away 
for Jamaica* for repairs, &c finding it impradicable to reach a 
friendly port iu any of the islands to windward. 

I should be wanting in common justice, was I to omit here to 
journalize the steady attention to order, and the great exertion and 
bravery shewn by all my officers, seamen, and marines in this adion* 
many of whom I had sufficiently tried before on a similar occasion 
(the capture of the Insurgente), and all their names are recorded in 
the muster-roll I sent to the Secretary of the Navy, dated the nine- 
teenth of December hist* signed by myself. 

(Signed) THOMAS TRUXTUN* 



L 



t "4 ] 

BIOGRAPHICAL ANMCD0TE8 OF 
NAVAL OFFICERS 

WHO HAVI HITHERTO TAS9ZD NXARLY VNMOTXCtD BY IfXtTORI A'Ni; 

— — I I r 

The following' Account of Lord Cli NTOK, some ilnu Lord High Admiral 
of England^ it taken from the elegant ColleSton of Slographkal Tra8t 
written ^j^ Edmund Lodge^ Esq. Lancaster Herald^ and F. Sm A* 
and illustrated by Bartolozzi's exquisite Imitations of Portrmts by 
HoLBEiNf in his Majesty's ColleSion. We may probably hereafter pre» 
sent our readers with some more extraSs relati<ue to Na'val Biogra" 
graphyy from that superb pubRcation, as the very high price of it must 
always render it, in a certain measure^ scarce* 

EDWARDy Lord Clinton, was the only son oF Tlionii8» tlie 
eighth Baron of his family^ hy Mary, a natural daughter to Sir 
Edward Poynings^ Knight of the Garter. He was bom in 15 12^ 
and, at the death of his father, within live years after, fell in wardship 
to the crown. Educated in the court, his youth was passed in those 
miagmficent and romantic amusements which distinguished the be- 
ginning of Henry's reign \ nor was it till 1544 that he appeared in a 
ptiblic ckara£^er : in that year he attended the Eari of Hertford, and 
Dudley* Lord Lisle, in their expedition to Scotland* and is said to 
have then entered into the naval service, in consequence of his inti- 
macy with the latter, who at that time commanded the fleet : with 
these noblemen he scoured the coasts of Scotland, and afterwards 
landed at Boulogne, which was then besieged by the King in person. 
At the commencement a^ the following reign, he was appointed 
Admiral of the fleet which aided the Duke of Somerset's great irrnp* 
tion into Scotland ; and, owing to a singfular circumstance* is said to 
have had a considerable share in the vidory at Musselburgh, without 
quitting his Ships ; for the van of the English Army having changed 
its situation, the Scots imagined it was flying to the fleet* and there- 
upon forsook the high ground on which they had been advan* 
tageously posted, and following the English to the sea-side, were 
received with a furious discharge of cannon from the Shipping, which 
threw thtm at once into irrecoverable disorder. Soon after this pe- 
riod. Lord Clinton was constituted Governor of Boulogne ; and at his 
return from thence, after the peace of 1550, was appointed of the 
King's Privy Chamber, Lord Admiral of England for life, and a 
Knight of the Garter : to these dignities were added grants of estates 
to {I very considerable value. In 15 ji he represented his royal master 



ANECOOTIS OP NAVAL OFFICERS* 12$ 

at Paris, as godfather to the third son of Francei afterward Henry III* 
He negotiated at the same time the treaty o£ marriage intended 
between Edward VI. and Elizabeth, daughter of Henry II. of France, 
and brought home with him the instrument of its ratification* 

Edward died soon after the commencement of this emliassy ; and 
Lord Clinton, having recommended himself to the favour of that 
Prince's successor, by his early expressions of attachment to her title, 
was sent in l5J4f with some others of the loyal nobility, against Sir 
Thomas Wyat* In the autumn of the next year he carried the Order 
of the Garter to Emmanuel, Duke of Saxony; and in 1^57, had a 
principal command in the English Army at the siege of St* Quinton. 
On the thirteenth of February, 1558, O. S. his patent of Lord Ad- 
miral was renewed ; and on the twelfth of April following, he waa 
appointed Commander in Chief, both by sea and land, of the forees 
then sent against France and Scotland. Elizabeth continued him ia 
the post of Admiral, chose him of her Privy Council, appointed him 
a commissioner to examine Murray's charges against the Queen of 
S<x>ts, and joined him to the Earl of Warwick in the command of 
the Army seat in 1569 against the rebellious Earls of Northumberland 
and Westmoreland. On the fourth of May, 1572, he was advanced 
to the title of Earl of Lincoln ; in the next year was a commissioner 
for the trial of the Duke of Norfolk ; and in 1574, went Ambassador 
to France, to ratify the treaty of filois* His last public service waa 
in the kiefl^ual negotiation for a marriage between Elizabeth and 
the Duke of Anjou* He died on the sixteenth of January, 1584, 
0. S. and was buried in St. George's Chapel, Windsor, under a 
superb monument of alabaster and porphyry, which has lately been 
repaired with great nicety, by order of his descendant, the present 
Duke of Newcastle^ 

He was three rimes married : first, to Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
John Blount, and widow to Gilbert, Lord Palboys, By this lady, 
who had formerly admitted the caresses of Henry VIII. he had three 
daughters ; Bridget, married to Robert Dymock, of Scrivelsby, in 
Lincolnshire ; Catherine, to William Lord Borough ; and Margaret, 
to Charles Lord Wifloughby, of Parkara. By his second Wife, 
Ursula, daughter to Edw^d Lord Stourton^ he had three sons; 
Henry, who succeeded him ; Edward and Thomas ; and two daugh** 
ters ; Anne, wife of William Ayscough, of Kelsay, in Lincolnshire ; 
and Frances, of Giles Burges, Lord Chandos. He married^ thirdly, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Gerald Fitzgerald, Eari of Kildarc, who dic4 
without issue* 



I 

L 



£ «6 ] 



NAVAL LITERATURE. 



An Essay on Fevers^ wherein their Theoretic Genera^ Species^ and 'various 
Denominations^ are ^ from Ohiemjation and Experience for Thirty Tears 
in Europe^ Africa^ and America^ and on the intermediate Seas, reduced 
under their charaderistic Genus, Febrile InfeSlon ; and the Cure esta* 
hftshed hy Philosophical Induffion* By Koht rt Rob£ r tson, M . 2>, 
Physician to the Royal Hospital, Greenwich. OSavOm 286 Pages, 
51. 1790* G. G. J. and ]. Robinson. 

(Concluded from page 60.) 

IN the course of the work the ingenious author describes at some 
lengthy the means of detedking febrile iafe^ionj and distinguish- 
ing it ^om other diseases. 

I. When one, or more (says tlie DoAor) in a fionilyi or in any 
large society, whether school, coUege> univenity, religious seminary, re- 
giment, on board of Ship, or dsewhere, complain of fever-«-and whe- 
ther the symptoms are less or more severe — preclude .not the necessity 
of inquiring, with all possible stridness, if they have been seeing, or 
in company wit*b sigk, or in any part where sick have been ; or with 
people who have been visiting or attending sick ; or if they have worn 
sick people's clothes ; or if they have lain in bed dothct or beds 
which the «ck lay in? Should the answer be in the affirmative there 
will be no reason to doubt of their being infefted ; and suitable 
methods to render it as mild as possible, and to prevent it from spread- 
ing, cannot be too speedily adopted. . Should the answer be in the 
negative^ the circumstances previous to their being taken ill, both at 
to temperance and exercise, season and climate, &c. are to be dili- 
gently inquired into, and the symptoms about the sick attentively 
considered, as well as the patient's constitution, 

3. To the experieuced and discerning praditioner, the state of the 
countenance exhibits the most certain diagnostic and invariable pa- 
thognomonic symptom of the degree of vinJence of the infedtion, 
which becomes almost hourly more and more obvious ; and the more 
obviously it is diseased, the greater danger the patient is in. There- 
is a jc ne saiquoi in It, expressing more disease than the patient ge- 
nerally complains of, or can be conveyed i« words. To say the 
countenance is either greatly dejeded or depreissed, is not enough ; 
much, more is discernible to a person who reads it carefully ; much 
more at least is obvious to a person who i| well acquainted with febrile 
infedlio^i. 



MATAL LITBRATUILB* tzj 

3* S.igour89 or chillinessi succeeded by heat^ in a less or greater 
degree, and for a short' or longer duration, are generally the harbin* 
gcrs of fever. 

4« The head is affedled almost invariably with some degree of pain, 
^heaviness, or confusion* 

5* Retching, less or more, or sickness at stomach, seldom fiuls to 
accompany the cliilliness. 

6. Universal pains, or as the sick express themselves, fains aO over 
tiemf or wandering poms 9 or fains in all their bones ^ or in their joints ^ hut 
especially in the small of their hacif are very early concomitants of febrile 
infe^ion* 

7. Debility and lassitude are less or more complained of from the 
moment they arc first seized* 

These are the symptoms chiefly complained of at first by the sick ; 
and according to their mildness or vehemence, shew the degree of viru- 
lence of the infedion ; and therefore I term them diagnostic, or psf- 
thogrnomonic. It is tru6, many other symptoms often accompany 
fever from its commencement ; bat as they are rather exceptions from 
the primitive symptoms, I omit them here, and beg- leave to repeat, 

That whenever men on board of a Sliip, or in a regiment, or in any 
society or family» fall down, and complain of being seized with rigours^ 
or chiUiae^Sy or idtemate chills or heats^ head*achs> heaviness or con* 
fiisioo of tbe head, sickness at stomach, or retching, universe pains, or 
as the oick express themselves, fains all o^ver thenty or f(Ans itfaU their 
hotusi'orjointsy especially in their loins and backs^ and with less or more 
debility ; and if their countenance is at the same time obviously dis« 
eased, whatever the other symptoms accompanying these are, I can, from 
experience, assuit the reader that a most virulent infe6lion is preedrnt. 

If it is further observed in the course of the fever, that they who 
attend, or have communication with the sick, are seized with similar 
symptoms ; and if the sick, after arriving at a convalescent state, arc 
not only very long in recovering perfe^ly, but are found liable, from 
the slightest cause, to relapse, they must have very little discernment, 
who doubt of there being a most virulent infediun present. 

To this succeeds a synoptical view of the Dodlor's own observations 
made in the course of thirty years pradice on Shipbdardi from the 
year 1759, to the year 1789. A series of very judicious remarks on 
the remote causes of febrile infe^on ; the general, as well as particular 
afre6Uons attendant on the disease ; a statement of symptoms tchoi- 
nating £alsely; prognostics, &;c* After all which is added instrac* 
tions for the proper mode of treatment and cure. 

Sick or well (says the Dodor)» our very existence depends on 
air ; unlessi therefore, the greatest attention is paid to it, the most 



judiciottB prafkicCy ia other respefb* is rendered not only iiieffe£bal> 
]}Qt the health, and even the lives of the medical professors, are greatly 
endangered. All possible means ought to be constantly used to render 
it as pure and si^utary as the situation and circumstances of ^c sick 
will admit. Various are the means which authors have recommended 
ijir'thlspurposey either to be burnt, fumtgatedy or evaporated^ in the 
chambers or apartments of the sicki in wards of hospitals, and in the 
*sick births on board of Ships ; ail of which may be more or less use- 
ful ; but as I have already mentioned them on board of idiffierent Ships^ 
I shall refer the reader to the Observations on Jaily Ho^iitalf and 
Ship Fever. 

The sick are to be got up every day^ at least onde, if possible, and 
to be kept out of bed as long as prudence will admitf to aliow time 
to air their beds and bedding, either in the snn, iH-at fires* When 
they ar« so weak that they cannot 'set upj they should be removed 
either into another bed, or upon a ooudi of some sort, thattheir beds 
and bedding may be aired. I not only have had (he beds ancHtedding 
aired as often as possible, but I have had two sets of* some- patients* 
beds and bedding destroyed before they recovered. Provided proper 
care is taken in doing it, and when the circumstancea of the sick mU. 
admit, neither the chambers, the beds and beddbg, nor the lintn of 
the sick, can be too often aired or changed* 

When the lives of valuable subjects are in danger, expences or troubk 
bear no competition with the, consideration of preserving them* 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATfi XXXIX. 

THE encounter between the Dutch fleet, under the orders of 
Admiral De Winter, and that of Great Britain, commanded 
by Adam, now Lord Viscount Duncan, which took place oS Cam- 
perdown on the eleventh of Oftober, 1 797. The particular period 
which it represents of the a£Hon, is about four o'clock in the after* 
noon, not long before the contest ceased. The flag Ship of Admiral 
De Winter, which was the last of the enemy that surrendered, is seen 
nearly in the centre, returning the fire of the Venerable very feebly 5 
while the Hercules, a Dutch Ship of 64 guns, on fire abaft, is drift- 
ing across the bows of both those Ships* On the right hand al^ 
seen, in the back-ground, some of the enemy's Ships which had then 
surrendered ; and on the left is the Monarch, together with her prize 
the Jupiter. 

The British fleet consisted of sixteen Ships of the line ; the ene- 
my's of the same number; the fetter were superior in the number of 
guns, the former in men. Nine Ships of the b'ne and two fngatea 
belonging to the enemy surrendered* 



\ 



I 9 



[ 1*9 1 



iMtxd^oitr?* 



ELEGr , 

TO THS MBllOJtY OF 

GEORGE W. A. COURTENAY, ESQ^ 

CAPTAIN OP HIS majesty's SHIP THE BOtTONy 
WHO FB^L AT SEA IN AN ENGAGEMENT WITH THE FRENCB IHIp 

▲ MBUSCAOEy AUGUST I, I79J. 

WHEN daring valour meets an early bier. 
Who can refuse the tribute of a tear ? 
When gentle virtues grace the young and bravcj 
We melt with pity o'er th' untimely grave. 
Midst all the praises honour could attain, 
Courtenay, for you I pour the plaintive strain : 
Too soon, alas ! you feU in manhood's bloom. 
And British sailors bend around your tomb ; 
With you their ardour fled, their hopes expir'd. 
Your kindness won them, and your courage fir'd ^ : 
No servile press disgraced your gallant crew ; 
Frcdy they came, to fight, to bleed with you : 
Around you throng 'd a firm intrepid corps. 
The native guard of Albion's sea-girt shore* 

When Rodney's genius^ forc'd the Gallic line^ 

In Vi^i'ry's van he saw you early shine ; 

When haughty France, leagu'd with imperious Spain^ 

Struck to his flag, arid own'd Britannia's reign, 

He fondly mark'd you with a father's eyes. 

And saw in you hb noble spirit rise ; 

While Glory's path he pointed to your view, 

That brilliant path you saw himself pursue : 

This proud incentive, to your latest breath, 

Kin<Ued the flame that brightly gleam'd in death* 

* *' Ahovt an hoar and a half after the adion commenced, a fifteen pound 
•hot from the enemy struck one of the Boatswain's hammock stantions^ and 
hroke a piece off ; the shot passed through the Marine officer's (Mr. Butler) 
breast, and the piece of iron st^ntion struck Captain Courtenay between the 
shoulders : they Doth fell at the same' instant. At the moment they were 
•truck, they were singing * Rule Britannia' to the Ship's company. After this 
fatal accident, it was with much difficuhy that they could be kept to their 
quarters. The first Lieutenant was obliged to come on deck, wounded as he 
was, and fight the Ship."-^*/rrf« of a Letter fiffm an Offar of the SostQn,. 



I 



tjO NAVAL Llt£RATUtE* 

Alas! what words^ what numbers can impart^ 
A bahn to sooth a widow'd mothef 's h^rt ? 
While dark Despair on her pak cheek appears. 
And grief itself the mem'ry endears : 
No more she hopesi in smiled of welcome drest. 
To clasp a husband to her faithful breast ; 
No more, array 'd in Beauty's winning charms^ 
. To speak her joy, and fold him in her arms ; 
And bid her anxious throbbing fears to ceastf. 
Blest in his love and sweet domestic peace. 
Delusive Fancy still the scene pursues, 
Tho* still the scene your piercing grief renews, 
While sad Rememb'rance paints the blissful time, 
When first you met in India's flow'ry dime * ; 
When the warm Lover, in the glow of youth, 
Breath'd the soft sigh, and vow'd eternal truth : 
For you his passion still increas'd thro' life-— 
The beauteous maid was blended in the wife. 
Ev'n when his orphans meet your fond embrace. 
You see his image in each blooming iace« 
How gladsome once on his return you flew. 
To point the semblant feature to his view. 
As round his knees they clung, and sweetly strove 
To lisp their joy in half-form 'd words of love ! 
They smile, unconscious of the fatal blow. 
Or only weep to see your sorrows flow. 
Your heart-felt plaints a gen'rous Nation hears. 
Adopts your Babes with sympathetic tears : 
Their Fathered deeds her Naval Trophies grace. 
And throw a splendour round his infant race ; 
With tearful pride in future days they'll tell 
How in his country's cause he greatly fell; 
And pleas'd they'll say, the Bard who chants his praise 
From friendship, kindred, pour'd these plaintive lays. 

A Parent's woe new streams of grief supplies +, 
While hopeless sorrow dims her aching eyes; 
Dear to her soul, she weeps a gallant son. 
Too soon, alas ! his course of glory run ; 

« 

* Ctfptain Courtenay married a daughter of the late General Ogle% at 
Madras, in the year 1786. 

f X.a^f Jane Ccurtesayf tiiter to the late Earl of Sate. 



KAVAL LITBRATUIti^ t^ 

. Tho«e aged orbs her darling view no niorc» 

And the last chann of ebbing life is o'er : 

His sire rever'dy now sunk to endless rest. 

No longer shares the pangs that rend her breast : 

'< O spare her sighs!" with fauk'ring voice he cry*d» 

When gen'rons Love one parting look deny'd *• 

Can melting strains a lenient balm impart, 

Tq ease the anguish of a bleeding heart? 

Can flovnng verse a poignant grief erase^ 

Or chase th^ gloom that clouds a mother's fac^ ? 

Vainly thf ifpse her soothing art employs; 

With flow'rs she oqly strews our faded joys, 

Tho' your brave Sons expired in manl^ood's bbooit 

In Britain's cause they met an envy'd doom ; 

With pnde you saw them emulous of faiqe* ' 

To prove their title to a splendid name ; 
< That shines, Uke your's, reiiown'd thro' many an ag^ 

Deriving lustre from t|\' historic ps^^? 

Fair valoi^r's mce4 your Conway toiVd to gainf | \ 

His distant tomb adorns St, Lucca's plain : 

Round th^r Iqy'd chief the hardy veterans mourni 

Aiid scatter laurels o'er his sacred uro. 

For you Religion yields consoling peace. 
And points to realms, where all afflidions cease ; 
The good no more at prosperous vice repine» 
And kisdred spirits meet in bliss divine : 
There, faith celestial bid^ her mansion psci 
And souls immortal claim congenial skies. 
Yet for your latest hope the tear will flow. 
Who fell, when conquest hovtr'd o*er his prow i 
Dearer each day his social merits rose, 
And spread the charm that sympathy bestows \ 

* Alluding to a particiiUr c^rcmnstance in which Mr- Conrtenay tkewe^ 
great fortitude and tendetiiess at the moment of his death. 

f Captain Conway Courtcnay, of the fifteenth regiinent, served duribg the 
whole American war, in the brunt of every adion, and distinguished hilnself 
by his spirit and abilities. He was esteemed and beloved both by the oiBcera 
and privates of the corps. He was present at the attack of St. Lucia, and was 
afterwards sent on a particular service, with a flag of tmpe to Martiaico^by 
general (now Sir Williai^) Meadows. Captain Cbi^tenay died soon after* 
wards, on his return to &t. Lucia, universally regr^ted. He had t^e honouvof 
Sir William Mead6ws*s friciid;ihip and estecn\— nonigher eulogium can be 
him.  ' 



I 



f3» KATAL LITERATUHB. 

For he was TcnM in every pleasing art. 
That native sweetness lends th' untutorM heart J 
From him, distress still drew the pitying tear. 
And friendship found him zealous and sincere : 
With innate virtues rich from Nature's mine, 

« 

The vivid stamp confess'd her hand divine. 

Oft have I seen the master passion rise. 

Light up his frame, and sparkle in his eyes, 

As round him Honour threw her brightest beam, 

When Albion's triumphs were the glorious, theme ; 

Her foes alone provokM his generous ire. 

Then sudden butst the patriotic fire ; 

Through his bold crew th* eleAric fervour darts. 

Shoots thro' each breast, and warms their dauntless hearts* 

Firm at his side with ardent hope they glow, 

And safety scorn, when commerce dreads a foe : 

Hence with exulting glance and proud disdain* 

He crouds each sail, and tempts the western main ; 

Heroic skill to Gallia's sons displays, 

Who hail his name, and crown his full with praise ; 

* Ev'n to the last his gallant band he fires, 

£iult8 in England's glory, and expires f. 

• VARIATION. 

For England's glory every danger braves. 

And his last word»— " Britannia rales the waves.*' 

f Exira& nf a LeUer from bh ExeelUnryt Mr, HammMiy bis Afajesiy^s Mii^er 
Plenipotentiary tt tbe United States •/ America, to C. S, Comrtenayj JSsf, 

*' I cannot content myself with merely transmitting to you an cstnA of a 
letter I have received from Mr. Bdwards, (first Lieutenant of the Boston) 
which contains an account of your brother's death, because l<onceive it incum- 
bent on me further to add my testimony of the zeal for the service of his country 
which Captain Courtcnay manifeiced in this last a^ion of his life. Being 
on the Newfoundland station, and learning that a French frigate (the Ambus- 
cade, of 36 gunf>) had for some time greatly harrasscd the commerce of his Ma- 
jesty's tubjeds in those seas, Captain Courtenay immediately determined 
(though it was not within the strid line of his duty) to proceed to the American 
coasts, engage the French frigate, and repress her depredations. In the per- 
formance of this duty he lost his life: but his exertions, though unsuccessful, 
have been such, as to merit the gratitude of every British subjed interested in 
the protedion of the commerce of his fellow citizens, or the gloiy of his coun* 
irj* It may perhaps be some consolation to' you, Sir, to learn that the ability 
and gallantry whicn your late brother displayed during the occasion, have bcei) 
acknowledged by the enemy.** 



i: »33 ] 

PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS, 
AND USEFUL NAVAL PROJECTS. 



rO TBM SDirOS OF rSS KAFAI, CfiftOmCLi' 



K 



IIK.. EDITOR^ 

S a constant reader of your Naval Cbronide^ and ail 

admirer of the plan on which it is .condu6ledy I cannot 

^ but express mj satis&dtion at the sentiments of approbatiim 

V9i\h which I hare heard it spoken of bj those whose expe« 

rienced judgment in matters which rekte to naval subjcd^ 

; invests them with the right of criticising, and the ability to 

render it of weight and influence with others. 

Should the publication of the inclosed scheme for improving 
the MAVAL SIGNAL BALLS prove ' beneficial, you will enjoj 
the satisia6lion of aiding the service^ added to that of obliging 
a correspondent.— -I remain^ &c. * 

f^ondoHy July II.' J. E. C. 

IT frequently happens that improvements of use and importanoft 
.are but 'carelessly adopted, and soon intirely disregarded, owing to the 
imperfedl state in which the original idea is first introduced into 
public notice, and afterwards reduced to pra6^ice. 

The external regularity and good management of our fleets^ are 
strongly conneded with the exercise of the present naval signals | 
ihey are the only organs by which our most skilful Commanders caa 
communicate to their Ships such movements as the various prevailing 
circumstances are continually rendering necessary, or advants^eous. 
The national concern therefore* evidently attaching to any useful in- 
ivention of this nature, should a6i as a powerful stimulus* and' a con- 
tinual incentive, towards carrying it zealously, and as far as possible* 
.ciFedkually jnto execution. 

Much admiration is due to the excellent order and perspicuity 
/displayed in our present code of signals, which does credit to the pro- 
fessional abilities of its authors ; yet the recent contrivance of balls* 
to be used in hazy weather as a substitute for the usual numerary 
flags, appears to be open to an improvement which will obviate the 
strongest pbje^ion against them— an improvement easy to be adopted 
}pj rendering them more portable, and of less weight* 

Should this be effeded without diminishing their strength, it is 
probable that they will come into more constant use, and establish a 
69urce of communication during that hazy channe) weather^ whicU 



I 



134 >BIL0^0FRICAI, PA^BRS. 

obscures and renders the colours of our ordinary signals very Ii 
and often unintclljgibley at a small distance. 

It is with a yiew to establish this benefit more fipnly, that I take 
the liberty of making public a simple contn?ance of this nature^ 
which} as the materials are neither expensive, nor difficult to be 'pro- 
<;ured» will be considered^ I presume, at least worthy of the experiment* 

In the first place, if these balls are very large, there will be a danger 
of the hawlyards giving way, owing to their weight, and the increased 
power of the vfind on their surfaces ; yet they should be pf a sise to 
be sufficiently conspicuous at a distance ; «n(| a diameter of ^boat four 
feet is approv^(} ^ the most eligible medium. 

In purjjuance of this, I would provide seven qr eight piecea of com« 
mon thin rattan, each six feet in length, also an iron ring about two 
inches in diameter, round which seven or eight small rings should be 
strung, having attached to each a kind of ferrule, or cap, to admit one 
«nd of every piece of rattan, whose other ends are to turn in the samQ 
planner upon another large ring similar to the first« 

But the ferrules should be so fixed to the smaller rings* that when 
the two large rings are drawn towards each other by qptean^ qf a line 
of communication, the rattans may be forced outwards, and gradually 
iweHed into the form of a globe. 

The two rings should be crossed each by a little tongue or bar^ 
and the standing part of the communicating-line being fastened to one 
of them, should lead up through the middle of the machine, over the 
opposite bar, and retur'n back to its former place ; so that by pulling 
on this leading part, the ball will be iformed ; and when sufficiently 
distended*, a becket spliced into it should be hooked to a catch nrndc 
in the bar, which will retain the frame in its spherical position. 

In this distended state it should be covered with tlie lightest kin^ - 
ef canvaiis, painted black ; and when dry, it is ready tor use. If not 
wanted, by relaxing the line of communication, the canes become 
atraightened, and the canvass folds up like the skin of an umbrella. 
The bars of the rings at each end should be provided with spring 
hooks or becketSi to bend the hav«^lyards to. 

Five or six of these balls, when in their relaxed state, might be 
stopped up snugly to the beams under the half deck, in the manner 
it is usual to do worms and sponges, '^here they would be at hand on 
any emergency ; and a Quarter Master could cany a couple on deck 
at a time, and extend them with quickness and ease. 

The weight pf the balls will be found to be very inconslderabk, 
especially when compared with those which are constru6ted according 
to the common method, by fixing several large yrooden hoops together| 



piflLOSOPHICAL PAPSkl. ' 1$$ 

th irintvcwe difcftions, and croasing them in different places with 
twine. I once had the curiosity to weigh a middling aized ball o£* 
tkis descriptiony and found it to be twenty, two pounds and a half. 
Now the small weight of cane, added to the very trifling quantity of 
koD which is required to be used in these (and which in a model I 
cauaed to be madet did not weigh above nine ounces avoirdupois) , wiU* 
justify what I advanced concerning'' their lightness. 

A nanow canvass band might be bound round them in a horizontal 
dire^on, and would tend veiy much to their strength^ should it be 
thought necessary ; but there is no o<:ca8ion for thisi unkss the 4o» 
▼Cling is cither old or rotten. 

NEW INVENTED DIVING MACHINE. 
AN experiment was lately tried at Rouen^ upon a new invented 
X)iving Machine, called Baieau-Poisson, or Fifh-boat. This boat 
sunk of itself seven or eight times, and then rose of it^f. The longest 
time it remained under water was eight minutes. The descent into 
the inside of this machine, is by an opening made in the form of a 
tunnel, which is about a demi>metre above the surface of the water. 
When those who conduced the experiment wished to descend altog^ 
dier into the river, and disappear, they let down this openings sunk 
entirely under the water, and lost all communication with the external 
air* The inventors of this ingenious machine are Americans, the 
principal of whom is called Fulton. Three of them went into the boat 
and remained daring the experiment. The Prefedly and a vast con* 
course of spedators were present. ^ 

THE TRANSIT. 

IN page 50, an account was given of the advantages, which, accord* 
tog to the opinion of the ingenious Inventor, this vessel possessed : 
since then, we have been favoured with his reasons for giving the 
Transit her peculiar form, which we are happy to state have been 
▼erified by the vessel itself. 

** A Theory,'' says Admiral Chapman, in nis elaborate Treatise 
concerning the true Method of finding the proper Area of the Sails 
for Ships of the Line, ^* which does not agree with pradice, does 
not deserve the name of a Theory." A cha^e of this kind Captaia 
Gower appears by no means likely to incur. 

ArgumtUs tetuSng to iHustrate what ought to he the proper Shape of a 

Veuel Intended to tail nmth celerity, 

TO me (says our author) the grand question appears to be. What 
shape ought a certain capacity to have, that it may meet with the least 
ICSUtaoce in its progress through the water, at a given velocity ? 



»i6 Philosophical pavebI, 

It will he necessary first to prove that the deeper a movmg bodj be 
immersed in the water, the greater resistance wUI it meet in propoi- 
tioa to the depth. This I think wiU appear clear from the following 
Gotuideiatioos : 

Let A, B, fig. I, be « tube 
open at each end, and imntennl 
perpeBdicuhr in w«er, the upper 
edge A, bang onthesarboe) and 
let C, be a ulid cylindric body, 
(made nicely to fit the tube, itut 
water may not pass its sides) ^ 
equal weight with its bulk of 
water : to this body let a fine Hoc 
be attached, to move it upwank^ 
by weiglits hung on at E. Let uft 
presume the bodj' is immersed in 
the tube, its bottom being even 
with the division 16, and that 
the weight of water contained be< 
tween each divJBion of the tube is 
naAly one pound, then the whole 
weight in the tube, aboTc the bot- 
tom of the body, will be i6pounds| 
of course, before it can he moved 
upwards, a weight, or power, of 
gomeching more than 16 pounds 
must be applied to thf line. How- 
ever, foi the sake of avoiding frac- 
tioTiB, we will admit that i6pounds 
would be suffici«it : then, if the 
body has moved upwards one divi- 
sion, one pound of water will be 
delivered at the top of the tube, 
leavingbut 15 pounds weight upoa 
the line ; when it has moved up- 
wards another division, 1 4 pounds 
only wiU rest upon the line j and 
■o on, the weight of water to be removed will gradually lessen in 
proportion as the body rises towards the sutface. Again, did the body 
move hoiizootallyi the weight of water to be removed will ftJU be in 
proportion to the depth. Toexphin which, admit that the tubes, Fand 
G,be fixed reAanguIaily to the perpendicular tube, at thedivisionB g and 
16; then, were bodies moved horizontally in these tubts, the weight of 
water above them, to be removed, would remain the same throughout 



thdr motion ; tKc body in the tube F^ would be contiauaHy displacing 
9 pounds of water, which is proportional to its depth ; and the body 
an the tube G* l6 pounds of water, which also b proportional to its 
depth. Admitting that the substance of the tubes is suffered to 
Ywiah, leaving only the idea of their fhape, still the argument will 
bold good, io^ the circumambient water will surely perform the duty 
of the solid tubesi neither admitting the water displaced to go down* 
wards, not, laterally 1 Evidently then the body in naotion, muit give 
matiam to a icofaune of water to the very surface ; and as power and 
rrmstmioe are equal, whik a body moves uniformly, it follows — ^tfaat 
the deeper a moving body be situated, the greater resistance will it 
meet in proportion to its depth. 

Hiit bek)g admitted, let the certun capacity have, in the first 

ioataoce, the form of a double cube, as Fig. 2, and let it have nearly 

the specific gravity of water, so that when immersed, and drawn 

e«^. horizontally* its upper side, A B, nuiy 

j^ Q float even with the surface : with 4. 

given velocity, admit that the resistance 
on the upper half of the /rMr/ be const« 
dered as three, (then since resistance .is in 
proportion to the depth immersed) that 



E 




H;--: J:} 



on the lower half will be six, making the total resistance on thc/rgtu 
equal to nine. 

It now remains to give the capacity of Fig. 2. such a shapes 
that it may meet with less resistance while, moving at the same velocity^ 
Suppose that it be cut through the dotted line E C, and that the pitfcei 
be phced end to end> forming the shape of Fig. 5 ; if this be drawn 

through the water with 
^'£* 3- the same velocity as Fig. 

2, then the resistance on 

Its/rout will be but three } 

one on the u|^r half^ 

and two upon the lower. Again : divide Fig. 3. in the diredion of 

the dotted line, and place the pieces end to end, forming the shape 

Fig. 4 ; then, with the same velocity, the resucance on its/romt will 

I ! ^1 ' 

be but one ; and by thus continuing to spread tte capacity le* gthwise 
on the sur&ce of the water, the resistance on fthe /ro^might nearly 
be done away. * ., . • /^' 

A rensunce wiQ aim ante {torn the aJbeti^/6i the water to the 
tides of the body, which* with the same tAo&tj, will increaK with 

tBoUIV. T 



thecxtcnabnof tlMfinrbce. Inthe diiee figiamhitgmnftltfMHk* 
ingsarfiMe u corapoiedof lUtlictidesiaroept tbeopperoM $aad if w^ 
admit that Fig. a* be two cubic hti^ thea its aorftnc which too^ea die 
iRpatar,wi]lbe8lieet} Fig.j^ wfllbe9ftet$ andFig.4.t(Abei2|ftct« 
Knoe then the M^t/rcsiatanee on the body ariaea ittim two cauaca 
(tiie meet powcifal of which ia4irrrtfiaiy in the tayid mtto of 9> i* I } 
#hik the olher, trifling in itadfy particnbiiy if cht aurftce be even 
and g]3>» is mfmmg only in the much slower ratk> of •» g, is| ;) k 
foUowa, that however tmall the original re aipta noe of nd&am, and 
however alow the iM^roM of it be from the augmentation of the anr* 
face, yetf as the reaistance on the front decreaaes, in daae their 
powera muat be equal* Thia period then moat limit the eatcnaiott of 
the capacity; for was it atffl contnraed to be inoNaaed, the teaiatance 
ariaii^ firoan a^ch'mi wooldpsepondoale^ aadcQoaeqncatly the Me/»» 
aiataace on the body be hunmmigt to the detriment of ita vdodty* . 
As velocity doea not mcreati proportionally with the decr§ase of re« 
aistance* let us examiney by way of removing any falae impressionB diat 
might ariacy what velocity Fig* 4. will move with, if dravm by the aame 
power as F^. i. It moat be coaaidered that power and resistance ale 
alike, while a body aMM«B mu&mly } therefore, (nej^edkig the reaiat- 
ance arising from adhcston) me snd mm are the powert which main* 
tain theae two bodiea At the aame velocity \ m»* a velocity of two* 
Now, were the power mm applied to die body* Fig. 4, it would 
move with a velocity of 6 ; for the vdodty will increaae as the square* 
toot of the increaaed power ; and the aquare*root'of the firat power, 
OP i»iatotheaquare-rootoftheincrtaaedpov»er,o#3iaithefifit¥dOb 
oity, a» is to the acquired valoeityi 6« 

Notwithataading tha eztenrion of the capacity of a veaael length* 
wiae^ at the sm&ce of the water, is ao material to fast sailing, yet 
ft muft not be overdone : it most be kept within such limitations, as 
ahsdlbe consistent with the neceasary strength required, and celerity of 
maniettvriag, fsa voaadt wiU stay and veer dower in proportion to their 

length* I have thought 

proper to confine the 

f# limits ivithin five breadtha 

i»»M*#««a««..«^^ to one length of the ked, 

^^H I ^^ giving the hull a midship 

^ I /^ fnimc* resembling Fi^ J, 

V I / which continues Uie aamf 

^^^ I ^jr fiillhalfthclength. Such a 

^^^ Xi ^^^ midship form, continuing 

^kT^r so great apart of the length 

' llf of the vessel, will produce 

considerable sUtMlIty, aa the sp^ce C is aufident to hold the iroo 



PHttOtDVBICAL FAPtai* Ij^ 

UUit» vUdi bciag placed bdov the priocipal floati«|r OffKAej cf 

the tessel^ moit^ i» cftA» give the tamestiffiMes that would ariae from 

ka having a deep iron kccL The depth of the under water shape» 

C» will naturally caose the veaael to he weatherly» and wiU prevent 

her from roBiiig with Wolence. To such a midship form is attached a 

'howji wdl ffilfiAitcd to divide the w»lcr» and pirvent the vessel from 

Avifgi together with a stem sulEdcntljr fine to admit of qoida 
steerage. 



mm 



FRENCH MARINE. 
TT appears aufficientiy obvious that the Government of France 
^ has lately bcstowtd mudi eaergetk attention to the im* 
provement and encovragenent of their Marine. A variety of 
new regulations have been recently adopted, and the minds, as 
well as penSy of many ingenious individuals employed to 
promote the extension of the same grand principle. All 
these efforts we consider it our duty to lay before the public^ 
in Older that our countrymen in geaeral^ and our oflkersas 
well as seamen in par^ukir, may view those proceedings. 
Which, however ridiculous and futile they may be considered 
in many ]nstances> have as their avowed obje£l the humilla- 
tiou of our National bulwark. The First Consul has pub- 
lished a new list of Admirals, Inspedors of Marine, Coom* 
missarieSt Chiefs of Administration^ &c. &c. in the dif« 
Ibrent ports of France* ; while the Minister of Marine has 

* Tbe Caotalt of the Rcpablic, won the re|Nirt of the Miaifter oC Marine and 
•f the ColoDiet, aad the Council ot State having deliberated on the subjediy dc-^ 
eree at fbUowt >— 

Title I. There thai) be SMuntained for the serncQofthoVavj, thenwitosf 
ISS4 officert, agreeable to the law of the 3d Bmmaire, Year 4. 
Title H. The number of ofiicen ihall bo fixed as folows : 
'8 Vice* Admiralty x8o Captain»of Frigatet 

j6 Rear-Admirals. 400 LieoteoantA de Vaisteanx 

ICO Captains de Vaiaseavz* ships 600 £iiseij{|;nei de Yaisscaux^ 

oltholifi« I 

Promotioa shaU take plsce by sesioKlty, or by apppintmene» in the feUowing 

proportion \ 

The superior officers (Admirals) ihall be in the chdice of the Chief CcnsuL 

The Captains of Ships (of the Une) shall be appomtsd one-fourth bf seniority, 
aad three-fonrthsby the choice of the Chief Consul. 

Captains of frigates one-half by seniority, one half by choice* 

I,ie«teiiattt8three*iburthshy seniority, one-feorth by choice. 

Midshipmen sevcnreighths by seniority » one-eighth by choice. 

No person can be promoted a step without being two years in the preceding. 

No \ idshipman to be appointed without having been four years in naval ea>« 
ployment ; or two years entirelf aAive sendee by sea.^ 

Diitingiiiabed adioniare not subjcd to these sondUionsy &c. hx» 



140 VKSNCR MARIVB. 

issued regulations res]f>e£ting the use of the great guns, the' 

exercise of the small arms, and the manceuvres of the fleet. 
The following State Paper appeared July Z4. 

THS CONSULS TO THE MINISTER OP MARINS* 

€t THE Consuls cannot perceive without concern^ Citizen Ministers 
that several vessels of the Brest Fleet have been disarmed ; and t^at 
at a moment in which more than ever it^was essential to complete the 
organization of our Fleet, we have suffered ourselves to be discouraged 
by the first difficulties wnich have presented themselves. 

" It is at a moment in which the Continental "War absorbs the princi- 
pal resources of the Nation, and the principal attention of Government, 
that the Ministers of the Marine, the Admirals, and the Adminfstrators, 
ought to redouble their coarage and to sumount^vcry obetack* 

<' Cause an inquiry to be made into the condu6l of those adnii* 
nistrators, or officers, who have ordered the disarming of the four 
vessels which have quitted the road, and gone into the harbour^ and of 
those who would have authorised the dismissal of the sailors. Such 
operations could not be legal without the special order of Government. 

^* Take measures that Sailors may be raised at the same time on 
all our Coasts, and that also our Ships may be equipped) and stored 
with every thing necessary for their navigation* The French peoglc 
wish for a marine. It eagerly wishes for it. It will make all the 
necessary sacrifices, that its wish may be gratified. 

** Keep a just, but strift, eye upon all our officers, and upon the 
different branches of the Administration. It is time that dilapida- 
lions should bt put an end to. Dismiss those persons who have long 
been too clearly pointed out by public opinion, as participating ia 
fraudulent transactions. Since the law cannot reach them, let us de- 
prive them at least of the power of doing injury. In the course of 
Fruftidor, if circumstances permit it, the First Consul will go to 
visit the Fleet at Brest. 

** Rewards shall be adjudged to the Ship which shall be best con* 
duAed, and the crew of which shall be best disciplined. 

•* Order the Commander of the Squadron at Brest, as w^ell as all the 

other Commanders and Captains of Ships, to remain constantly on 

board, to sleep in their vessels, and to exercise their crews with in- 

crensed a^ivity. Kstabli^h prizes for the yovmg Seamen vlho 
9hall most distingfuish themeelvcs by their exertions, and for the Gun* 

ners who shall fire most correcElly. Let not a day pass without their 

exercising themselves at firing at marks on the coast and in the 

open sea, •« BONAPARTE, First Consul. 

(Signed) •* H. B. MARET, Secretary of Sttte.** 



VKBMCR MA&IMB* ^1^ 

» 
• • • 

IN consequence of the preceding State Paper the followuig 
Orjdb&s of the Minister of Marine were issued:-— * 

7 
OS THB EXBRCISB OP MUSt^BTBY. 

 I* THE exercise of musquetry shall take place three times each 
decade on hoard all ihe vessels of the Rqpublic^ both bj the soldicTi 
and the sailors 

2. All those who are sufficiently instruAed in the exercise of anna- 
shall be allowed to fire at a tai]g;et. This shall be always done on 
bo..rd; and if the position of the vessel will not permit it| the officer 
commanding in the road shall point out another Tcssd for that 
purpose. 

3. A doable ration shall be given to aU those who shall fait the 

THB BXBRCISB OP THB CANNON. 

1. The exercise shall be divided into the great and small exercise, r 
^ 2. The small exercise shall take place six times every decade on 
hoard of each vessel ; it shall be performed by the whole crew upoa 
four guns of every calibre. 

3. The grand exercise shall take place three times every decade** 
It shall be general, and every man shall occupy his post, as if in a6Uon. 

4. Besides the great and small exercise, they shall exercise firing 
«nder sail, in squadrons and divisions. 

5. A strong corvette shall be ordered to manoeuvre in the road> so 
that they may fire at greater or less distances. 

6. This exercise is to take place every day in the morning and 
evening* The commander in the roads will point out the vessels 
which are to furnish detachments proportionable to the nymber of 
their crews. 

7. Once every decade during the summer, and once a month during 
the winter, there shall be in the corvette of instrudfcion an extraordi* 
nary exercise. 

8. Every vessel in the road shall send on board the corvette the 
number of men sufficient to manoeuvre a cannon* 

9. When the exercise Is over« two prizes shall be given to the two 
who shall fire best. 

10. The first prize is to' be ten francs, and the second five. They 
are to be decreed by a chief officer, appointed by the commanding 
officer of the road. 

XI. The vessel to whom the best cannoneer shall belong shall bo 
decorated with fla^ the whole day. 



KANCBVVKI90 BXERCISI* 

t* Thew rfal be performed id every vtml everj day t]ie nnoceomt 
a c ccwuy in time of a£Bon. 

2. The comroandfp of the PoadfthaH dirc& the aaapoenfBo which arc 

^ ^ The coflviandir]^ officer AsH, hj a siigna]* point cut the vessel. 
which shall manceuvre best» which vessel shdt have the signal flay %«^ 
igg ill da J at the mmt head. 

4, The 0ipt|ja gt that vessel shaS cause ta be {^vea ta the UroOf 
1M» who pa^riBjed the best a doubk raticnu 

5« The ccuwpuwdet of ih« road dull^ the easuijig day^ publish bk 
gCDCtal orders the names of the vessels, according to the icgtcc of skill 
with wbi^ they «haU have maad^uued. 

EXBRCISB OF SWIMMIHO* 

J. Thec on mn m der of the road shaB give orders &r the exercise ot 
awianuagt and siastfaur oideia shall be given by the Mantine FrtbAt, 
. s* This exereiae shaB take fdace wheia ciscomstaficca shall penmt 
ft ^ aod precaueioQi shall be tafcea for the safety of the swiiMMw. 

3. During the summer months there shaU be a geaeiiai exercise o( 
SwiaDBingy and prtaes shaU he distnhttted. 

4» Whoever chaHewimfanhest in agiveotiflse»sh4i receive 10 ]iw«a« 

5. The same prise shaH be given to the man who dWea bes^ and 
Bafls a plank to a part of a vessel under water. 

6* A chief officer. ahaH have the distribuftioa of tl^K pria^. 
7, The cahin-boya shaft be exercised eveiy dsqf. 

(Signed) FORF AIT, Minirter of Marine. 



FRBNCM NAVAL TACTICS. 

A STIMULATION of spirit among the people in France 
^^ to a new otsudiAti^n of their Marine, to attain which 
ends, the most vigovous and cnevgetic naeasvires are resorted 
to by Ae Conaalate^ appean to- engage the pens of individuale. 
These, however, are probably in the pay of gOTemmcnt, as 
they have chosen the official paper, (the Monitenr)^ in that 
country, for a discussion on the subjcft. The first Essay, 
the writer of which flatters himself that he has disco- 
vercd-^-*' What is the cause of the Nanral sufcrtority of 
the £ngliah over the French," is here presented: 



f fttliGH ITATAfc TACTlCtt I4J 

tSSAY t 

REDItCING the possible Causes of this Excdlence to Three, ha 

contiden th^ in the two first of them, the taperior architeftore of the' 

Aip« and the superior theoretic skill q! the officers, the advantage it 

en the side of the French. In the third, the diredion of the artiHcrf 

on board ship, he considers the whole superiority of the British N^lty 

to consist. 

«* The French/* he observes, «' direft their guns at the riggings 

which is above all the body of the vessel. Hiree-lburths of the space 

thus aimed at, form a void, so that three>fouTths of the balls thus fired 

lose themselves in the air. Frdm the uncertain elevation which is 

given to the guns when they are difeded l^inst the rigging, the balte 

which strike the masts, must necesMuily strike them one above the 

other ; and experience proves, that fifty strokes of this kind against 

a mast do not break it, for though they may make the mast useless 

for the future, they do not dismast the vessel during the combat.-^ 

The Yards are still less exposed than the masts on account of the 

oblique manner in which they present themselves to the enemy. The 

damage done to th^ cordage is not difficult to be repaired, especially 

A the enemy must commonly be in a line from which they cannot 

depart, in order to profit of this momentary advantage. Notwkh-' 

standing the great nuttkber of batts which pass through the sails, they 

generally serve tiD the end of the engagement. 

<* Thus it appears, from the dBfed of direding the cannon in this' 

manner, that it cannot secure the dismasting of the vessels, and that 

the damage which it does to the yards, the cordage , and the sails, is 

not of great consequence* And thus also it is evident, that when the 

guns are pointed principally against the rigging, the hulk of the Ship 

cannot be struck, the guns cannot be dismounted, nor any considerable 

number of men killed or wounded : from which it follows, that the 

crew of the enemy being so little injured, his valour, his force, and 

consequently the briskness of his fire, cannot be much enfcefaled*- 

** The English direA their shot always against the hull of the ves« 

ad. It is thus that they succeed in striking between wind and water, 

in dismoonting guns, and in killing such a number of the crew. In 

the first case they force their enemy to take away a number of men 

from the management of the guas for the. service of the pumps, 

and nothing is so fatiguing or dispiriting as this. When a fear of 

sinking is induced, men are not much disposed to contend for riflory. 

The dismounted guns cannot then be replaced. The carnage which 

k produced among 'the cnew diminishes its number, and spreads ter. 

ifor and darm among the survivors to such a degree, that their courage, 

their force, and C^nseqiKBtly the bris^Miess of thdr BrCf must abate* 



i^4 ^tLttHCH tf Af At 'rAOTlCi# ' 

'* When the cannon are direded against the hull of the vessels, th^ 
Balls which pass above must pass almost at the same heigh tf so that 
those which strike the masts hit them nearly at the sanle points and it 
is this which injures the mast precisely in the manner which can bring 
it by the board. 

" It appears to followy from the above rejlsonings, that the manner 
m which the English direA their guns must produce a much greater' 
cffed^ than that employed by the French, and that the superiority of 
the English Marine in battle consists in the better employment of its 
artillery, that is to say, in the better dire6ling of it. The fa£ls which 
have taken place in the principal combats of this war support' 
these reasonings* On the 1st of June* 1794, the English had two 
vessels dismasted, the French had eleven. In the battle of the Nile the 
former had one, the latter had six. The English dismasted vessels 
were those which lost the greatest number of men. — Other similar 
fa£U might be added, bat they are so well known that it is unneces* 
•ary to enter into so wide details. 

** In order to make the truth of the preceding reasonings, and the 
utility of their application more full, let us examine into the condudt 
of the English Admirals in battle^ with a view of seeing whether 
they have sought by fineness of manoeuvring, the advantages of posi- 
tion, &c» or if they have depended upon the manner of di reding their 
artillery. On the ist of June, 17944 Admiral Howe, being to wind- 
ward of the French, who expeded him, made the signal to his fleet, 
that each ship should manoeuvre in such a manner as to attack his ad- 
versary in the enemy's line. Thinking himself secure of vidory, he 
only added to this signal another, which instruded them to get to lee- 
ward of the French, with a view of rendering tlieir retreat, after de- 
feat, more diiEcult. Admiral Duncan, in the battle of the Texel* 
aded precisely in the same manner with Howe, believing himself, like 
him, sure of success, he passed to leeward of the Dutch, in order to 
prevent them, after the battle, from retreating into their ports, which ^ 
were to leeward. When the advantage of the wind is in possession, as in 
the two preceding cases, and when, instead of profiting of the advan- 
tage which this position affords, it is only sought to oppose ship to 
thip> it Is to be presumed that great confidence is placed in the manner 
of diredling the guns. 

'' Adnund Nelson did not attack the whole French line — ^but whf 
did he not do it i It was because hit enemy being at anchor^ allowed 
him to employ all his vessels against a part of theirs, and because the 
French rear-guard, from Its position and the state of the wind, coukl 
only be a spe£Utor of tbt destru^on of the stflvanced guard and of the 
centre. 4 



ft 

<cTbeGOii4ttd^fAdiiund;Rodiieyon the iithof Apnl» 1782* and 
of Howe oa the 29th oi May, .1 794, may be opposed to the ordinaiy 
ta&ics of the Englkh } but it ougUt to be examined why they a£ied 11^ 
this manoer. Oo the J2tb Q^ Aprils 1 7819 the French had the advan- 
tage of the wind, and saiUng better than the English^ could keep them- 
aehrcs at a distance, which was not poimteot with the English ta£tlc8« 
Rodney found himaelf obliged to break thdr linei in order to fight 
them nearer. The oondu6l of the French enabled him to^succeed. On 
the 29th of May, 1 7941 the French had also the advantage of the wind 
over the English, and as they did not shew themselves disposed to come 
jvfficiently near, to engage in a decisive afiair. Admiral Howe, in or^ 
/dcr to force them to it, endeavoured to break their line. This man- 
ceuvre did not succeed. It is known in what confusion his fleet then 
.vas» and what the French Adnviral had in hk power to do. It may be 
auppoaed} firom the condu£^ of the French in the battle> that their iiK 
tention was only to get dear of the English ves;sels| so as to avoid a 
decisive affair, and they have so much this habiti that in the battle of 
the Nile, in which almost all the vessels were at anchor, they nearly 
gained it. The headmost vessel of the English line, to which a French 
vessel surrendered, and which, on the following morning, set sail to 
prevent the flight of the two French ships and of the two frigates 
which escaped, and whose fire she received in passing, had only one 
man killed and a few wounded. — ^The second vessel a-head of the 
English line had only two men killed, though a French vessel surren- 
dered to her alone. Other similar examples might be adduced. 

'* To convince one's self of the superior utility of killing as inany 
as possible of the enemy, rather than of injuring their Ships, it is only 
necessary to read the official account of the English Captains who have 
been taken, to shew that it is always the greatest loss of men whieh 
has forced them to surrender. If the snpetiority of the English Marine 
does not depend on the manner of their dire^ing their artillery, upcin 
what does it depend } Why are the continual defeats which thdr 
enemies experience never interrupted by the chances of war ? The 
French have reduced naval tadics to a system.' The English nev^er 
Study it ; they have not even a school for the Marine. The facility 
with which they triumph over their enemies, has made them negleft 
the study of a theory surely necessary for the perfeA knowledge t)f 
the pradice which it teaches. 

** It may be said; perhaps, that the English vessels are manned with 
better sailors, and a greater number of them, than the French — ^but. In, 
a battle, there is only a certain number chosen to perform the mah« 
oeuvres, the remainder attend to the guns, and a sailor is not better 
for this, than another man. The French have camioaeers ;«->the 

©•I. IV, u 



t^a VHBIICH Vltkt TACTlOt* 

English hAVt none. Are the English ssilort more brave than the French f 
They should be, if bravery consists in a great meaauxe in the oonfii- 
dence which one has in the means ofdttplayitfg k, and in theamaUness 
of the danger which a person beUeves that he runs. The habit of 
conquering also makes them engage in battle with an enthusiasm and 
courage, which men accustomed to de^ts and severe losses canoot 
)iave. Do the English soldiers resemble their sailors ?— -No ; the 
French troops are to them, in this respeft, ^vhat the English sailon 
are to the French sailors, and for the same reasons. 
' ** It appears, from these new observations, that the soperioHty of 
the English Marine consists in the manner of their dire^ng thetr gims^ 
knd that the excellence of its officers and saSors in the day of battle^ 
is only the natural consequence of this. 

«* If its own means of viAory were employed against this Marine^ 
it would not long continue to be the principal support of a Govern- 
ment which is the greatest obstacle to the Triumph of the Cause of 
Liberty.'* 

ESSAY n. 
In answer to tht preceding^ by a French AutboTm 

<' TO THB BDlTOa OF THE MONITBUR, 

*< IN conformity with your invitation, I intreat you to have the 
goodness to insert the following reply to the memoir upon the 
Marine which lately appeared in your Journal. 

« The English Marine was defeated by the French Marine under 
I^ouis the XIV. It has been defeated in our times by Suffrein, and 
De Esuing— since the Revolution, by RIchery, Lejoiaille, Richer^ 
and Sirie. 

«' The Author of the Memoir has forgotten to mention among the 
qualities necessary to form a good Marine, ist. Presence of mind, for 
improving every favourable circumstance, and remedying any un- 
£ivouj:able one, in the officer who commands, 2d. Pradice in those 
who execute orders. 3dly» and lastly. The military spirit in botd, 
without wiiich all other qualities become of no use. 

" The French vessels are better than the English ; but every Captain 
in England, along with his crew, sees to the Etting out, the rigging, 
and the stowing of his Ship. This is not the case in France. 

<< Though the best books 00 taclics have been written by officers of 
the French Marine, it does not follow that the a£Ung Naval officers 
^ are the best tadliciaus. Unfortunately those who have pra6lice, are 
unacquainted with theory ; and those who are acquainted with theory, 
ha^e not hitherto attained pradice. This remark applies to all, from 
commanders in chief to the lowest who aspire to this dignity, but 
there must, be excepted from it| a tman niimber of officers of merits 



FMirCCt . NATAL TACTIQ&» I4.} 

la dffierent ntihsi who could fom an cxcdknt squadroQ, were they to 
employ themselves in sea affairs. 

'* The French sailon are composed of conacripts and requisitioDariefl^ 
who are novices in the art of sailing. The largest number and 
the best part of the old French sailors, disgusted with the little at- 
tention paid to the Marine* and the kind of contempt in which it 
has been hitherto held^ have passed into foreig;n service, and arc 
ttniTeraally much esteemed wherever they are employed. And in op- 
position to the opinion of tlie author of the Memoiry I am persuaded 
that the skill of private Individuals has great influence on the success 
of. a Naval eogagement, though less than on that of a land adioo* 

*^ The success of a sea-fight depends on the talent of the commander 
in chief, for making arrangements; on that of the Captains for exe* 
outing orders, and supplying, by their own intelligence, what is vvanting 
in them • and on that of the crew for managing and manoeuvring the 
▼essel, and dire£Ung the artillery, 

** There is no order in the Marine for direAing the fire rather in one 

way than another. The exercise teaches to fire a-head, in stem or ka 

broadside, to dismast, at the hull or at the rigging* and to sink. In 

' an engagement the guns are pointed in one or other of these manners, 

according to circumstances, 

** There is no instance, as has been alledged by the author of the 
memoir, of a-mast having received fifty ^ots without £dling. A 
single shot is sufBci^pt for the purpose. 

*< I shall pow explain why so few cannon shots have eflPedk at sea > - 

^ In the month of Frinuure, year 7th, the small division armed at 
Toulon to carry ammunition to Bonaparte, was lying in the Road 
when orders were received from the Minister to prove the ppwder of 
a magaaine. The commander of that division. Citizen Hubert, 
having at that time observed the bad quality of the powder of his 
division, demanded that it should be proved. I assisted at that proof, 
and the most fevourable trials did not carry the balls so as to have 
eire6^ above seventy-five toises, whereas they ought to have been car- 
ried one hundred and fifteen toises. But a Commissary of Marino 
was employed to receive the powder, and a oontradtor had mann* 
fadnred it. 

•* The powder of our division yn» the same with that of the fleet of 
Aboukir. Thus you perceive that it is not necessary to suppose a 
defsft in the manner of pointing the carinoti at sea« The balls of the 
enemy strike on board ; ours fall half \vay. ' 

<' The English have no Maritime Prefects, nor Si^erintendants, nor 
even Commissaries. 

. ** They have no Marine ArtiHery-men, betause their sailors knowi 
the OAnagcment of the guns, and if they did not reamit by pressingi 



14^ TftlNCH NATAL TACTICS. 

thqr wouM Iiaye no naval troops. The conmiandm take care of tlM 

arming of their fleets and Ships ; and except the Treasiireri they have 

tio administration either at sea or in port. They have not attained 

the highest point of perfe6tion9 btit at least they have not sacrificed the 

leading, to secondary pointji. They have thought, with reason, diat 

he whose head is responsible for the success of an operation, ought 

iJone to be trusted with the choice of the materials, and the execution 
chP the movements which are to conduce to that success. 

• ^ Though- these Reflc6lions are rather long, they are neeesssiry tA 

rep}y to the Memoir which you have inserted ; and though yon do not 

know me, I hope the subjed is interesting enough to procnre them a 

speedy uisertion .-^Health and respefi, 

" RIVORJE, a Sailpt." 

MX.. BDITOR^ 

UNDER the head of « American Marine/* in ^hc «« Monthly 
Register of Naval Evoits,'' page 76, there is an error in the 

calculation* The statement is as follows :•— 

2>clh. Cts» 

Amount of labour, loaterials, freight, and fixtures,! ^^ .^ .^ 

ofthe frigate Constitution , . - • J ao7075 ^ 

\ Ditto of the United States .... z 78460 07 

Ditto of the Constellation - - '- « ^2151395 

Toul amount of the three frigmtea 607041^ 18 
You say, ** being for the three frigates about 670001*" Now» Sr, 
you will find it to be for the three frigates, nearer 1 365861. is, 3|4« 
aterling, than 67oool««-^viz* 

Constitution • • 207075 a6 - • 46591 i^ 8 Sterlings 
United States - - 178460 07 - • 40153 10 3) 
Constcilatioo - • SSX513 85 - - 499¥> la 4 . 

Dollan 607049 18 •- - 136586 I al 

lOQ 

I do not know wher^ you had the statement of the amount of cost 
of each Ship individually $ it may be corrcd for any thing I know to 
the contrary* It is to be observed, however, that the three Ships 
carry 124 guns ; they consequently cost the United States abofve 
I loiL sterling per gun* I conceive they must have cost a great deal 
^ more, when I consider that many of their materials are imported from 
Europe^ viz« dieathing copper, canvass, spikes, bolts, cordage, &c» 
* together with the high price of labour. They manufadure cordage 
in Aimericaj and canvass \ but they a^ .present give the preference to 
English manufafture.— From these conjedtires I think they cannot 
oost the United States less than i20ol. per gun, and then be at 
least Jto per cent, worse than English Ships, when unseasoned timber, 
&C 5cc. is con8idered.-*YourS| 



« 

ADMlRALTT-prrjCB, JULY 43« 

^^ y ^ LiHer fr^m Admiral Sir Hyde Parier^ Commander in Chufof his Mf^ 
Jesiy's Ship* and F'euels at Jamaica, to Mvam Nepean^ Esq. dated en hoard iht 
^^, M Pori-Rayal Hariwr, the iZih rf Mcpfm 

81 «, 
J HAVE the iMAAor to tnusmit you copiea of two letters, one from Captain 
Baker, of his Alaj^y's sloop Calypso, and the other from Capt. Lorlng, of 
the Lark, which, in justice to the gallantry and good condud of the officers 
and boats' cflews therein mentioned, I am to reqoesc you will be pleased to ii^ 
before my JLorda Comdaiiaoners of the AdmiijJty. 

1 am^ Sk, &c. H. PARKER. 

SIB, Calypso^ Port Heyaly AfrU at . 

I have the honour to inform you, that on the lath inst. at ni^t. Cape 
Tiberon bearing S. by £. distance four or fsit leagues, I dispatched Mr.«WilUiun 
JBocily, MasQir of nU Majesty^t sloop niide# my codimaad^ in tf la-oarcd 
cutter, with ten men, properly armed and providal, and a awivel in her how, 
to cruize for two days under the Cape, with a view to intercept some of the 
•tball crsift, which navigate in general within a mile of the akora. 

In pursuance of this intention, on die iith, at eleven P. M. they jpe^eiied a 
Ichooner bccahised under the land, and pulled immedialely towards neif; as the 
boat approached within hail she was desired to keep off, and upon th<iir not 
complying a <&charge of musquetry commenced upon them, under w]|ich they 
boarded, and after a thort, but very smart conflla upon the schooner's deck» 
the gallantry of the attempt was rewarded, by galoing complete possession of 
her. bhe proved to be i.a Diligente French Armed Schooner, of about 70 
tons, mounting six carriage guns, ^0 stand of ariQS, and laden with coffee, hav- 
ing on board, when she was captured, 39 men. *^ 

Of the boat's crew, one man only was wounded, and seven dangerously on the 
side of the enemy. 

The great disparity of numbers and force in this little enterprise places the 
very spirited condud of Mr. Buckly ia so strone; a lights that it has left me no* 
thing to say, but to express my hope, iir, that it will recommend him to your 
notice I feel much pleasure in adding, that by his report he was BX>8t gallantly 
seconded by the few brave men under his orders. 

\ have the honour to be, Sir, ^« 

j. BAKER. 
Jdmiral Sir Sjde Parker^ Knt, t^e, 

SI a. Hie Ma/esty's Sh^ Lark, ff St. 7^ de Cuhay Mareh aO. 

On the 14th instant, observing a privateer in shore, I sent the boats, under 
the command of LieateaaBe JLaoc, to bring her out* The enemy had taken an 
9dvantageous position of two heights forming the entrance of the bay, where 
the schooner was lying, and notwithstanding the gallant attack oiP liieut. 
Lane and his people, the boats were repulsed and returned, he himself being 
^ot throi^h the heart. The service in him has lost a brave and good officer. 

Mr. Pasley, the Junior Lieutenant, was landed with a pirty of men in a bay, 
at 10 miles distance, to march round and attack the eneviy In tie fear, whilst 1 
•went myself in the boats to repeat tbe attack in their front. On my arrival^ 
Mr. Pasley had executed his orders with such expedition and jodgment, that he 
left me no other employment than that of bein}r a satisfied ^spedUtorto the 
steady and good conduA of himself and his people. The vessel mounts two 
carriage guns, a great quantity of small arms, and is one of those which has so 
long in felled the coaft of Jamaica. I have destroyed her, that die may not 
agam fall into the hands of Uie enemy. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 3^. 
^Mral Sir Byde Parker, Kain J- W. LORING^ 



[Then follows % list of yesscTs taken wd destrayed between March ^ and 
9oth| by Capt. Loring, being six in nninber. 

ADMiaAtTr-OPFICE, JOLT tt» 



C^ •/ tu94btr Lftttr frwm JUmirai Sir Hyde Farhr^ t§ £wm JVi^mm, £ff. 

daiad May ao. 

. 8TK, 

I have the honour to transmit yon herewith, for the information of the Lords 
Commiuioners of the Admiralty, an account of armed and other vessels that 
hare been captured, sunk, or destroyed by his Majesty's ships and vettcU un- 
der mr command, since the last return by the Greyhouod. 

1 have the honour to be, Sir, dec. 

H. PARKER. 
[Here follows a list of the vessels captured, detained, or destroyed by the 
squadron under the command of Sir Hyde Parker, since Feb. 28, x8oo, being 
lijiDnnmber.J 

ADMIRALTT-orrXCI, JULY 2%^ 

Ctfj0f it Later Jrom Admirai tie Emrief Sa Fbuemt, X. R. U Mr. NepttH^ 
dated om beard the FUU. de JParisy at Sta, Z4<6 July, 
•la, 
I herewith transmit, lor the information of the Lords Commissioners of the 
Adfniralty, a letter, with its several indosures, which I have received from Rear 
Admiral Sir Tohn Borlase Warren, giWng an account of an attack made by 
tba boats of bis Majesty'ashipa under hia orders on a convoy, near the island 
of Koirmoutier , of which 1 nighlf approve, und of thoapirited coadud ahewa. 
«& the whole occasion.-^! am, bir, &c 

ST. VINCENT. 

ur LOan„ Xenevntf Bouftuuf'Bay^ July a. 

T bcfi^ leave to inform your Lordship, that, having received information that a 
ship oi war, with a Urge convoy of the enemy, were lying within the island of 
Noirmouticr, which had assembled there from Sable D'Olonne destined for 
Brest, I judged the destrudion thereof might be of great consequence to hib 
Aiajcsty's service : f anchored therefore with his Majesty's ships named in the 
margin, * on the istinst. in the bay of Bourneuf^ and directed the boats of the 
squadron to foljow Capt. Martin's orders for their further proceedings ; and I 
tJckethe liberty of referring your Lordship to the inclosed letter Cor a particolar 
account of the transadlioiis on the ist and ad inst. 

Although owing to an accident a part of the men have been made prisoners, 
and four wounded in their retreat upon this occasion; yet, from the loss the 
enemy has sustained, T hope the enterprise will meet your Lordship's approba- 
tion, as well at the gallantry and presence of mind displayed by Lievt. Burke 
upon the above critical service, with the zeal and bravery of the several oficera 
and men employed under him, and I trust will recommend them to yt>ar Lord* 
ship's notice and prottAion.— 1 have the bononr to remain, &c. 

J. B. WARREN. 

tJJt, Fisgardy at AneBar, in Beurneuf'Bay^ Juhf l« 

1 beg to inform yon, the boats of the ships named in the margin,'* wcr^ 
formed JntA thrte divisions yesterday evening, under the diredions of Lieut. 
Burke, to attack the armed vessels aud convoy lying within the Sands, in Bour- 
neuf-JBay, moored in a strong position of defence, and under the protcdion of 
six heavy batteries at the South east part of Noirmouticr, besides flanking guna 
on every proje^ng point. At twelve o*cIock, after much reustance and con- 
siderable loss on the part of the enemy, we had possession of La Tercse, four 
armed vessels, and 15 sail of Merchantmen, the whole of which were burn^ 
•n finding it impossible to bring them out ; and this essential service would have 

* Renown, Fisgard, and Defence* 

1 



hcen tccompUthed In the moit utiifii^dty manner, if the boats in retnrniaf , 
could have found a pana^ oyer the Sand Banks ; but unfortunately thej took 
the ground, and in leu tlun ten minntea were perfedly dry, at the same time 
caponed to a continual fire from the forts, and 40O French soldiers formed in the 
rear : but in opposition to this they determined to attack other Tessels of the 
enemy, and secure one sufficiently laree to receive all the party, which they 
did ; and with great intrepidity, exertion, and strength, drew her upwards of 
two miles over the sands, until they were up to their necks in water before she 
would float; but I am horry to add, that four officers and 88 of the valuable 
men employed in this glorious enterpriseare prisoners, though from every report 
diere are only a few wounded. 

1 sincerely congratulate you on having succeeded w:th so little loss in this im« 
portant service, aH the vessels being laden with com and valuable cargoes, much 
wanted for the fleets in Brest ; and I am sure you M(jM be highly gratified with 
the gallantry and uncommon perseverance manifested by the officers and men 
upon this occasion.— I have the honour to be, &c. 

T. B. MARTIN. 

A Lisi 9/ Vegeis taktu ami hrrht hy the Bomls tfbii Mmjesfj*t Ships JUtnnmi, Fiagmrd^ 
amd Defence^ the tji of Julj% 1800, xtiUh the mnmhir rf Officer t and men employed oa 
thai serviee laukr tbe orders of Cafiain Aiarthu 

Armed yejfeh. 

Ship La Tercse, 20 gum; a lugger of is guns; two schooner gun boats of six 
guBseach \ one cutter of six guns.— Total, 50 guns. 

Mertbaat FesteU, 

Fifteen tail, all laden (as well as the armed vessels) with flour, com, proTtsIoaa, 
bale goods, and ship timber, for the fleet at Brest. 

Nmmber of Mm employed, 
^/«ioT('ii.-— Three officers, four petty officers, 37 seamen, and ao marines. 
^sgard. ^Two officers, two petty officers, 31 seamen, and 13 marines. 
Defenee.'^T'Wo officers, five petty officers, 45 seamen, and 18 marines. 
Total. — Seven officers, 11 petty officers, 113 seamen, and6t marines. 

Number of Mea vtboforud a Melreat. 
'Reooiwii—ftS. Fiigard — 46. l>e fence— a6. I'otal— zoa 

Nttmher of Sden taken Frtfonert* 

i^^sMvjc.— One officer, one petty officer, 21 seamen, and xj marmes.— Total, 36. 
Siigard. — ^Two seamen. — Total, a. 

/)</<w«f.— Three petty officers, 30 seamen, and 21 marines.— Total, 54. 
Totai«-One officer, four petty officers, 53 seamen, and 34 marines. 

OfjUere aamet employed. 

JSiMStni^— LtenteDants Bsrke, Thompson, and BalliughaU, marines (wounded 
and prisoners.) 
^upmtf.*-* Lieutenants Dean and Gcrrard, marines. 
D^jitf.— Lieutenaota Qarrett and Hatton, marities. 

T. B. MARTIN. 

AnMiftAX.TT*opricx, jnxr 26. 

Cofy of m tetter from flefAdmiral Lord KeHk, iSommamder inChkfof hie Ma- 
jesty's Ships and feuelt in the MedUerroneam^ ta £900 Hepeaa^ Esf. dated omUard 
the MimOaur, at Sea^ tbe a/^h of Jane. 

SIR, 

I have the honour of indosiar, for their l^onkhip's infemmtion, a list of vean 
sets captured by his Majesty's sEipa employed under my command, between- the 
1st of April and the i^ of June, except those df which recnrna have already 
been transmitted.— -I have the honour to be,fiir, &c. 

KEITH. : 

[Here follows a list of the veswls captured by the ships under the command 
of Lord Kehh, from the lit of April M the 14th of Junpi being 96 m number.] 



15^ MAETTS AJiaETStt. 



ADMIRALTY*OrriCt, AUG. %, 

C^fy^m Later fnm Csftmim CnUmn,, ^ hit Mafttiy*s ^i> Zm Jlgii-iw, iLMmt 
the TmgiUj Ue %^ rf Jmmt^ U Svm N^pm^ Efy, 

I have the honour to enclose, for their Lordchips' informatioo, the co|9yvof a 
letter I haTe received from Capt. Middleton, of the Flora, and which 1 hvve 
this day transmitted to Lord Keith.— 1 have the honour to be. Sir, &c. 

G. CO(^ KBURN". 



SIR, Hk Mytsty's^Up Fhrm^ at &«, Jmu aj. 

1 have the pjestfore to mfem yo«, that last sight I f«U in wiih^nd captiimd 
the Spanish ship packet Cortet, belongiog 'to the Kiag^ of Spain, commanded 
hy Don Joseph Suaros Qoiros, pierced for 14 mms^ with only foar moiint6d» 
and 44 men, is coppet^-ihictomed, from Rio de la Plata 98 days, hoand ta 
Corumia, with a cargo of cocoa, hidca, tallow, Su* and some specie : she threw 
her mail oyerhoard upon our haiUng her. 

She in of Mich -value that I thought it necessary to see her safe off the bar of 
Lisbon, but will lose no time in putting your fartlrsr orders in exacntion. 

J have tba honour to be, ttir, 4cc. 
Ce9rg» Cctihmniy Efq Captain of bis Majuly* 

• Ship La Minervt, ROB. MIDDLETOI^. 

ADUXaALTT>-OrPICV, AtrOi %• 

C«py of a Lifter from Mr, Jtsbua Hoequari^ Commander •f the Jffazard Private 
Ship of tVary to Evan Nepean, JBfy^ dated at Jerjey thellthof July, 

5ia, 
T beg' leave tt> acquaint you, for the tnformatioR of my Lords Oo mmiffita wf a 
of the Adniira.hy, that on my return from a cruise in the cutter Hasard, pti- 
^vate letter of Manjuc, from Jersey, under my command^ on the 4th inst. ac 
half past tliree A. M. the Westwardmost point of Guernsey bearing S. £. by £. 
four or five miles, we fell in with, and after a ehace of an hour, captured tha 
Ajax French lug'ger privateer from St. Maloes, mounting four carriage hrasa 
guns, and 23 men ; sailed the night before from Bocfaa, and had not taken any 
thing.— I have the honour to be, Sir, Ac 

JOS. HOCQIJAaJ)^ 

AUMiaALTT-orrtci* avo. a. 

Copy of a LetUr from Capt. Ferrij, of hit Majerty't Ship Jiahyt t§ Emm JUS^M^i 

J^. dated off the Start, July 30. 

I beg leave to accpialnt you, for tlie information of their Lordships, that being 
on my passage from Sl Helena to England, at five A. M. on Sunday the ijtn 
inst. in latitude 45 deg. N. and longitude 19 deg. W. I observed a strange sail 
to windward, which, by .her motions, appeared to be an enemy *s cnifser$<l 
therefore thought it right to mahe all possible sail to reconnoitre her. 

Night coming on buore I could wett discover what she was, I shortened sa9 
for the convoy ; and at day ligiU, in the morning of the 14th (it havinf been calm 
during the greatest part of the night) I saw the same ship about three miles 
a-he«dy who, upon my maUng' sail in chace, and firing several shot, showed 
national colours. 

Light winds having prevailed enuring the whole of the day, she was enabfed, 
by her sweeps, to keep just with«iut gua-shot; but towards evening a brreze 
apringing up in our favour, I gaiijctd on her fast, and at one A. M. on Tuesday 
the 15th, took poasessioD of her. 

She proves to be La Fortune privat eer, of Bourdeaux, a very fine d>ip, mount* 
ing 16 eight pounders, four long tw&Ives, and two thirty-six pound carronades, 
alj bras^; her complement 102 men ; but had on board, when taken, only iSi, 
the re«t having bevi sent on board the Fame brig from Sierra Leone, bound to 
London, the only capture the bad ma^c ii^ a cruj^ of one month from Bour- 
deaux* * ' 



9AZBTTI LBTTfRt. IJ} 

t beg lette to add, that she appears to ine to be a ship well calculated for hit 
Majesty'ft aeryice, beioj; remarkably strong built, coppered, and copper-faitened» 
and a very escellent sailer : the present is only the secand cruise once sbe^waa 
biiUt.— 1 am, &c. 

SOL. FfiRRIS. 

ADMIX ALT r*OmCt, AVG. 9. 

Ctff ^ m LtHtr/rcm Sari St. Fincetit, K. B. Admiral of tie Whiti^ \^e. U Evan 
Iftpian^ Efq, dated m k^ardhie Majesty s Ship Rcjal George^ at Sea^ the A/tb imst. 

sia, 
I did not think the entefprhe of 8ir Bdward Hamilton or of Capt, Campbell 
conld ha^e been rtvalled, until I read the enclosed letter irom Sir Edward Pel- 
lew, relating the desperate ser^e ^rformed^by Aifting^Lieut. CoghlaD, of the 
Viper cotter, on the 39th July, which has filial me with pride and admiration s 
and, ahhough dse circumstance of hit not ha^g completed his time 10 hie 
Majesty's Nayy operates at prefent against hia receiving the reward he is most 
ambitious of obtaming, f am persnaoed the Lords Commissioners of the Ad^ 
miraky will do all in their power to console him under his severe wound^ 
and grant him promotion the aoment he iasn capacity to receive it. 

I am, Sir, &c. ST. VINCENT. 

MT LORD, JmMueux^ Patau Road, la Av^, 

I have true pleasure in stating to your Lordship the ^ood con dud of Lieut. 
Jeremiah Co^nlan, to whom, for former gallant behaviour, you had given an 
adiD^ commission to command the Viper cutter, from tht» ^ip. 

This gallant young man, when vratcning Port Louis, thought he could suc- 
ceed in boarding some of the cutters or gun^vessels which have been moving 
about the entrance of that harbour, and for thss purpose he entreated a ten- 
onred cotter from me, with la volunteers; and on Tuesday night theagth inst. 
he tpok this boat, with Mr. Sifau H. Faddon. Midshipman, and six of his men, 
making, with himself, ao, and accompanied by his own boat and one from the 
Amechyit, he determined upon boardmg a gun-brig, mounting three long 24 
poondertand four six-ponaders, full of mea.'moored with springs on her cables, in 
a naval port of difficult access, within pistol-shot of three batteries, surrounded by 
several armed craft, and not a mile from a seventy four and two frigatei» bear* 
ingan admiral's flag. Undismayed by such formidable appearances, the early 
discovery of his approach (for they were at quarters), and the lost aid of the 
two other boats, he bravely determined to attack aione, and boarded her on the 
ttiarter ; but unhappily, in the darki jumping into a trawl-net, hung up to dry, 
he vras pierced through the thigh by a pike, and several of his men hurt, and 
all knocked back into the boat. 

Unchecked in ardour, they hauled the boat further a-head, and again board* 
cd, and maintained against 87 men, i6 of whom were soldiers, an obstinate 
conflid, killing six and wounding twenty, among whom was every officer be- 
longing to her. His own loss, one killed and eignt wounded ; himself in two 
places; Mr. Paddon in six. I feel particularly happy in the ezpe^ed safety of 
all the wounded. He speaks in the highest terms of Mr. Paddon, and the whole 
of his party, many of whom were knocked overboard,andtwicebeat into the boat, 
but retomed to the charge with unabated courage. 1 trust I shall stand excused by* 
yoor Lordship for so minute a description, produced by my admiration of that 
coara|ne whidi, hand to hand, gave vxdorv to a hah<ttfui of brave fellows over 
fenr tunes their nnmber ; and ol that skill which formed, condoled, and efidted 
ao daring an enterprise. 

Lc Cerb^e, commanded by Lieutenant de Vaissean, and towed out under 
a ¥97 heavy ^^* u nven op as a prise by the squadron, to mark their admira- 
tion, and Will not, I know, be the only reward of such bravery ; they will re- 
ceive that proteAion your Lordship so hberally accords to ail the young men in 
the service who happuy distinguish themselves nnder your command. 

1 cndote iJevt GoghUa's leuer, and have the honour, &c. 

(Signed) EDWARD PELLEW. 



154 '•i%ttT« LBTTIM, 

flSr Mimjesiy** CtOter P^r^ Tmeti^ MUmkgf M^ 0*CMU 

I -have ancoeeded in hnngiog ovt ifce pmhrig V .e CeiMM, «C Ifiree fims (ft4» 
pounders) and four siz-pounden, and 87 mcn« comraitided by « l.ieo t e nMH ic 
VaisMau. Pray forgive me when I tay from under the batteries of Port Louis, 
and after a most desperate resistance being made, first by her, and af^erwarda by 
the batteries at both sides, and a fire from some small yesscls which lay ronad 
her; bnt nothing that ! could eipeA from a vessel lying in that ina^Hvc sitna- 
' tion.'was equal to the few^raTc men behnghigto vonr iSiip, whom 1 to joktly 
confided in, jassisted by six men from the cutter, and Mr. Paddon, Mid4ii|»man; 
who, I am sorry to say, wm wtoonded in aeverd ftacea, tiiovgh f hope iu>t 
mortally, f am sorry to state the h»s of one man belongiofr to the cutter, who 
Was shot through the head, and fetir aft your brawe men, wMi mywlf, wounded 
in different parts of the body ; the principal one I tvceived was widi a ^ke, 
tt^hich penetrated my left thigh. Mr. Fnteshall, in the cutter's small boat, 
assisted with two midshtpmen irom the Ammkyat In ane of their boats* Tim 
U>6s o^the enemy is not yet ascertained, owing to the G«rfneta«. 

I remain, Itc. J. COOHLAK. 

N. B. TheR are five kitted, and m w«>iitid«d{ some inery Imdly. 

Ji Heturn of £iUed and WwunJ^d in a Ttn-^and Cutter Mmiging t9 bis Mt^gstyt 
&b%p ImpetuiUKy wider ^e Command of Lieut. Jeremiah Cogh/an^ on the nirbi of 
the a.gtb July J in boarding tbe National ffin-^^ Le Cerbert^ nrntnandtdiy item* 
de Vm^seau Manage. 

Viper Cutter.^Onc seaman killed; Lieut. Jeremiah CoghUxi* Jifr. Silas H. 
I^addon, Midslupmajiy tsiu> Mamen wounded. 
.. /M;^»i^».— 'Four seataea wounded. 
Totai.**Oiie killed, eight wounded. 

ADMiaAtTY-orriCE, AUG 16. 

C^ ^al^dhr/rmlhe Snri^ St. Fintmt^ JT. B. Admiral 9/ the IVbUe^ tsTa. f 
JSivm Nefem, Mfq. dtUd om board bis Majesty's Sbip Royal Gaorge^ at Sea^ Hm 

axu, 
I enclose, fsr Che infermatieo of ll>e LordaCommissionecaof the Admiralty^ 
a letter which 1 have received from Capt. Towry,of hia Majesty's ship Uranie, 
transmitting th€ copy of one which he had sent to Captain Keats of the Boa- 
dicea, giving an account of the capture of La Revanche French Schooner 
Privateer.— I am, Sir, &c. 

ST. VINCENT. 

MT loan, Uranie, at Sea, July 28. 

I have the honour to enclose you a copy of my letter of this date to Captain 
Keats, and am, my Lord, &c. 
^Tba £ari ff Sti Finttta^ K. JB. l^c. G. H. TOWR Y. 

tTR, ^ Uranie, at Sea, July a8» 

Cruising acoarding to your histmdione in hii Majesty's ship under my co«>« 
tnand, I beg leave to acquaint you of my having captured this day La Revanche 
Brench Schooner Privateer, mounting i4a»»pounders, with So men, belongm; 
to Bayonne ; had been out from thence about four months, bat last from Vigo 
(19 days), into whkh poR the had carried three prisea, an Eagliih brigeaUid 
the Marcus, a Portuguese ship, and a Spanish brig, prize to the Minisnie* 

I have the honour to be, &e. Q. H. TO WRY. 

JH. C. Keats, £sf. Gaptmm •/ bit Majesty* s Ship Stadieea, 

APifi«AL7T-orricE, AUG. 93. 

£xtraa 9fa ZHtirJrdm Ae Earl of St. rincant^ X. £. AAUrala/ ibe ffrbHe^ CsQ^ 
/9 Evats Nepean, £jf . dahd on board bk MajmtyU Skip Royal Coarse, ai Sea, iba 
i^bhtOm 

\ have this instant received the indoied lettcn by hsa Majeicj'i ihip Unicomi 
from Captain Keatiof the fioadiceaii 

4 



CAZBTTE MTHBRS, l^g 

The Fisgard, which had been stadened cosfermable to yoor Lordahipli 
4irediooi> rejoined the squadron this day with the prises and recapciiret, as 
stated in Captain Maftin*a accompanying letter. 

' I have the hononr t6 ^e^ &c* 
7ht Emrl 9/ St. FUe/mi^ K. B. Uft. R. G. KEATS. 



sx R« Fiigard^ at 8§a^ i4'Afig* 

I have to infiirm too, that Kts Majesty's ship under my command haaeajtfwfi 
the following TesaeW sisee thftaetb ol ImC Month.; 

St. John Baptiste, 8p«Bislx lagger (btimt). 

1^» Giron^e, 16 gunsi J 41 men, French privateer. 

li'Akrte, I4giuia^ 84 nicn» Fiench privateer. 

The Jesephk •» Snglish 8o«tii-4c» ship* pnse to-fthe Minerve Rpeneh pa2«nteer. 

It wiJl» I am sure, give you particular satisfadkion to find I*a Gironde one of 
thm amahvi asslle haatsog htfenan aA»ve and sneee s rf nl criuscv afainst the 
eonsmeree of qui: eenptryt and was now retiming 10 port witli 53 Eogliah pci^ 
sontfa taken in the veaseU hereafter specified. L'Aiote is only six <£iys firom 
Boswdeanz, aad was fitted pvposely to- cnute §or the honefwvdpbotincl Wem 
India eonvoy* 

I have the hononr to he, &c. 

T. B. MARTIN. 

liistff F'tsuit (M^turtd by La Gironde SrtnA prhhtieer hrig* 

Swnn sloop, Andrew Miller, Master, from Oporto laden with wine. 
Conntess of Lauderdale, Thomas Bennett) hiaster, from Demcrary, laden with 
fttgar and cotton. 
A^ve Brig, Benjamin Tucker^ Master, from Bermuda, laden with sngar 



• YMinjg IJl^liam, Chirin Ihcod, Matter, from the Sovch'^eaa, ladea naih 

AnMlKALTT-OPriCX^ AUG. SJ. 

««r«tf, * £wm Neptatt^ JT/y. dkUJai Si, Mtrem^ «ft* 1^ iMst, 

I beg you will he pleased to inform v my Lords Commissioners of the Ad* 
mirakyt that this morning, having been informed by Captain Price, that some 
part of the enemy's convoy, consisting of too large sloops, were attempting to 
make their escape from' the mouth of the river Isigny, and proceeding along>8hore 
to Uie eastward, I lost no time in giving chace, having in coihpany the Sparkler 
and Force gun-brigs. The enemy finding themselves so hard pressed, and no 
prel>ability of escape, run themselves on shore in the bay of Grand Canrn, com* 
mandedon both sides of the entrance by heavy batteries, which 1 attacked for 
near an hour, and was ably assisted bjr Lieut* Stej^ens, of the SpaxUerf and 
Lieut. Tokeley, of the Force, covermg Lieut^ Gregory, of the Wolveren^ 
with the cutter and jolly-boat with a party of- Marines, who gallan^y boarded 
the largest vessel under the fire of three field piecesi and near 200 mejji with 
mnsquetry, within half pistol-shot of the shore» and set her on fire and other- 
wise disabled her.<— The other was so completely shot through asto^slc^ hef 
further proceedings. 

1 am nappy to have it in my power to inform their L«rdship9> that neither 
the vessels, or men suffered any thing, excepting three of the Wolverene's, who 
were a eood deal burnt on board the sloop by an el|>leision of gunpowder. The 
<ll«my Mt foor mco kiUcd on the beach. *vl 

lMiSiri&€*  » .^*,.- 



j^absl Cotnt« mtM. 



F0»T8M0UTB, JULY ja 

THIS day a Court Martial was held on board his Majesty's ship GlaJiaUr la 
this Harbbur, for the trial of Baktbolomew PoeteR} a seaman belonging to 
the Sf/Bie, for desertion. 

President, Rear-Admiral Jobn HotLOWAT, 

The charges not being proved the prisoner was acquitted. 

Aa TBUR HvGBEs, another seaman belonging to the StpbU^ was also tried the 
samc^ay for desertion, and being found gwlty, was senteiiced to receWe ^oo 
lashes. 

Thomas Mblsoii , a superaumerary seaman belonging to the lUyai JFsWami 
was also tried the same day for having, on the 14th alt. used reproacfalol and 
vrovokine speeches to a man who had given evidence before a Court Martial 
Aeldibr the trial of one of the Mutineers of the Hermiene. The prisoner be* 
ing found guilty, he was sentenced to be Imprisoned two years in the Marshalscau 

MUTINEERS. 

31. A Court Martial was held on board the same ship, for the trial of Jon if 
Watsun aud Tames Allen^ two seamen late belonging to the Hermione,for 
being concerned in the mutiny on hoard the said ship, and in carrying he^ into 
La Guira. The charges being proved against the prisoners, they were sentenced 
to suffer death, by being hanged by the neck, on board such ship or ships astho 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty should diredt. The prisoner, Jotai 
Watson, appeared to be near 60 years of age, and, previous to the mutiny, had 
pretended to be affli<ded by blindness, on which account he had been excused 
dotng duty alo£t ; but he took a very tfdive pan in th» Mutiny. The prisoner, 
James Allen, had been servant to the second Lieute^iant previous to the mutiny* 
and was then about 14 years of age; but. it appeared, he had also been verj; 
aAtve in the mutiny, and had even assisted in the murder of his own master. 

The principal witness against Allen was Parrot, late butcher on board tba 
Hermione, who desposed, that on the night the mutiny took place he was seated, 
on a chest in the gun-room. He then observed*a band of murderers dragging 
the Second Ueutenant across the <leclu who rqieatedlv stretdied out his nanda 
crying, <' Mercy! Mercy!*' He was drawn up the ladder by the hair of hit 
head, after receiving many wounds. Parrot declared that at this moment he 
saw the Second Lieutenant's servant, James Allen, with a tomahawk or hatcheC 
in his hand, and that he exclaimed, ^* let me have a cut at him ;" on saying which^ 
he dreadfully wounded his own master. On receiving this deposition from Parfoe,' 
a general ^roan of horror was heard in Court. Every thing, however, that 
naval justice could devise was exercised on behalf of the prisoner ; but the very 
witnesses called by him ultimately proved of disadvantage to himself! Both 
. Alien and Watson came home^to England in the Prince of Wales, but were not 
rccogoixed till their arrival. Alien, to the last, denied having struck his master. 
As to the particulars of the murder of Captain Pigot, of the Hermione, it ap- 
peared, that hcariog a noise upon deck, he immediately ran out of his cabin, 
when being badly and repeatedly wounded, he was at length oblij^edto return. 
He had reached bis cabin, and was sitting on a couch, faint with the loss of 
blood, wlien four «ien entered with bayonets fixed. Crawley headed them. 
Captain Pi got, weak as he was, held out his dirk, and kept them off- They 
»c«nicd for a moment appalled at the sight of their Commander, when Crawlcv 
exclaimed, '* What, four against one, and yet afraid? Here goes then,** and 
buried liU bayonet in the body of Captain PicoT. He was followed by the 
others, who, with their bayonets, thrust him through the port, and he was heard 
to speak as he went a-flcm. 



w 



MONTHLY REGISTER 

(?ROM JULY 14 TO AUGUST 49.) 

DANISH AND SWEDISH CONVOYS. 

£ live in such an eventful period, that occurrences which 1a 

ufual times could not hit to produce the most lively senta- 

ticms, now pass with little observation. It will, however, be won* 

r deredat in future times, if the circumstances we are about to relate* 

and the events which appear so evidently conne&ed with them* excite 

no attention. 

On the 25th olt. about 6 P. M. off Osteod, his Majesty's ships the Iftmeus^ 
C^Pt* Baker, Terfftdnrt^ La Prewfant^ the ArrvWy of 40 guns, and JViAr lugger* 
Itil in with the Freya, a Dani^ frigate, having under convoy two ships, two 
brigs, and two galliots. The Nemesis hailed her, and said she would send her 
boat on board the convoy. The Danish Commander replied, that if he attempted 
it he would fire into the boat. The Nemesis's boat was then lowered down, 
with fout men and a midshipman in her, ready to go on board the convoy ; tho 
Danish frigate immediately fired several shot, which missing the boat, stmck the 
•Nemesis, and killed one man. The Nemesis, immediately gave the Dane a 
broadside, when a most spirited a6hion took place, which lasted for about twenty* 
£ve minutes, at the end of which time the Qanish frigate, being much cripplc4 
in her masts, rigging, and hull, struck her colour^ 

The Danish frigate and convoy were brought into the Downs 00 the 6th insc* 

"By the condu^ of the Danish Commander it appeared to be the in« 
tention of the Court of Denmark, in conjun&ion with that of Sweden t 
to try the question of the right of British ships of war to examine 
Neutral vessels, which opinion is strongly strengthened by the follow* 
9&g extract of a letter we have received from Gik>raltar« 

** A Swedish frigate, of 44 guns, having some vessels under convoy, was meC 
by the Leviathan, co^unanded by Admiral Duckwoutit, who hailed the 
jianish irtgate, desiring to know what were the ships that were under convoy. 
tkA xeeeiving a satisfadory answer. Admiral Duckworth said he should send • 
boat 00 bovd. The Danish Captain replied,' he would fire hito any boat 
t)ia( should attempt tp do so ; which threat ne carried into effedfc, and killed one 
of our seamen in the Leviathan's boat. Upon this, Admiral Duckworth order* 
ed his ship to be laid alongside the Dane, infocmed the Captain that he had bom<* 
mitted murder on a firiti£ snbjed, and that it would onlv be doing him justice 
to open the lower deck ports of die Leviathan, and give him a broadside. He 
insisted, however, that the Danish Captain should follow him into Gibraltar^ 
and there explain his condnd. The result is not known.*' 

To form a decisive opinion of the cause which aftuated the above 
Powers in refusing to permit English cruisers to search their con« 
▼oys is impossible. In consequence of this and other circum- 
stances, the Baltic fleets which was on the eve of sailing, received 
orders to remain in port ; this detention was, however, on the 1 3tli 
relinquished, and the fleet sailed from Yarmouth under convoy of the 
dliark and Lynx sloops of war. From this latter event it may rea- 
sonably be hoped that some satisfactory information has been received 
\^Y Cjovernment, which will put an end to this luipleasant business^ 



L 



I5S ilOMTHLY RBGI8TBR 

FORC£. OF THB NORTHERN POWERS. 

Wn. BDITOR, 

AT the present critical situation of this country, with respedl to the 
arming cf the Powers of the filbrth> and'the dispute at present existing 
with Denmark and Sweden, relating to theii* convoys, being taken ana 
detained, &c. the force of their Navy (as near as can be know^n) 
seems to be anxiously wished for : under I send you a correct statement 
of their naval force ia tlifi beglaiung of the yeai' 1799, and which i 
believe has not been much augmented since that time, as also an esti* 
mate of the whole force that can be brought against England, supi- 

gosing Rossia^ DtBrnark*. and bwedsn,. were to join ia alliance with 
er present eaemtcs^ 

Statement of the Feree of the M^rry of Rvsris, Denmark, and Sweden, In the 
feegiaoin^ ol ths year 1 79^. 

Rutria.— Fifty Ships of the line, 50 frigates, and a number of galleys. 
Dcsmark.--Thirty-eighi skips of the linc,Ao&igates, and 60 chebscsattd'Cvt" 
ters. The total oomber of seamen lapoo, of guns 300a 
S'wedcn.^-Twenty- seven ships of the Uae, is frigates, and 40 armed gallies* 
Mounting in all 3c 00 gnns, and manned by 18,000 seamev. 

Svppoung RufsiSf Denmark, and Sweden, therefore, .Co join in alliance against 
England, I estimate the whole naval force that can be brooght agaiutt her, by 
sit her enemies (and which number, I think, is the very utmost they can bringj^ 
wouid be as fsUows : 

1^ France, Spain, and Holland, about €0 Sail of the line-, 

Rossis • . . 40 Do« 

3Denmark • - ' - 30 Do. 

Sweden - * - - ic Do. 

Total i^ 



In oppotitioa t6 this great fyrct 1 concdine Bttglandalmie (without the 
assistance of any foreign power) can bring, in the channels oftfy^ 100 sail 
of the line« (if it should be necessary) which will be equal to cope witir 
her enemies, without recalling home any of her ships from the West 
Indies, Mediterranean, or any foreign station. 

In my oypinioa there is nothing to fear from th« armed Neutrality^ 
the whilst we have such ai g0o4 sttpply o£ tke Wooden.- Walls on our 
i^de* and awh brwo offiocraand fteaoBen to command them. 

If yoAi dttnx this wqith^ of a place in your Chronicle, it will a^d t9 
the obligations airea^ eonfctrea on, 

Mr. Editor, 
Your constant Reader, ^ 

And very humble Servant, 
95«fi Angiut^ rSooii J. R« 



DENMARK. 



Th^ following Articles of the Treaty of Commerce, between Grear 
Sntain and Denmaf k» relate to the present snbjeA supposed to be in 
dispute t«-* 

Art. Tn. The undersigned Sovereigns engage mutually for themselvesr^ their 
heirs, and successors, not to furnish their respcdive enemies, if they shall be ag-. 
gf^Asori, vrith any assistance in war, such as soldiers, arms, cannons, ships, oit 
other Sftieles necessary to the carrying on of war. If thesnbjcds of eithsr 
of the undersigned Sovereigns shall ad in contravention with the pre** 
tent artide, the King, whose subjeds shall SQ adj shall he bovnd to prcKced 



i^tmt them with the greateft nererity, tnd to treat Aem as seditions penoait 
and persons guilty of an mfraAion of the alliance. 

Art. XX. And in order to prevent the freedom of nasifraHon, and the free 
-patsagne^f either «My and his sul^edb from becoming prqvdicial to the other, m 
fcaseof war on the part of one of the undersigned SoTeretgns against any nthtf 
power by sea or land ; and in order to prevent any goods and merchandtsts the 
ftoperty of the enemy, from being fradulently CMicealed «nder pretence of vHt- 
ance : and, finally, in order to prevent all fraud, and to remove aU suspicion, ilia 
thought fit that the ships, merchandise, and subje^s, belongiag totheoths 
confederate, shall be accompanied by passports and certificates in the foUowtng 
form, Sec. &c« 

It ss hardly necessary to observe, tint the requiititioii of these paasbortt wnl, 
certificates includes a right to search for tlienv, if such right were aoc fmJy reo^g* 
suzed to be part of the general law of natioDs. 

CENERAL OBSERVATIONS •■ At tmiua rfibr NORTHERN POWER??* 

The British Nav^ in the zenith of its power, with nearly its full 
force, ready for action, has little to apprehend from a 'jcoafedexacyy 
merely now beginning to arm j and kt it be remembered, that for 
neai'Iy half the year, the very elements themselves sus^ad Uie a6lioa 
of these dreadful antagonises i the ice is, for many months, an wn- 

feneti*able blockade ^ and for the remainder, it is more easy^ after 
avittg laid Copenhagen in ashes, to block up the ^ouW, (a strait of on^ 
ly iavLV miles broad, with convenient anchorage,) and stiut them up to 
quarrel^ witih each other, than it is at pnesent to guard the entrance of 
Hrett harbour, or was heretofore to coop in the Dutch. Not all the 
Ghottf in the Cattle of Elwuur^ would, we believe, prevent this proje^ 
b«ing executed by less than twenty sail of the line. 



SECRET EXPEDITIONS- 



THE two Naval Expeditions, which have been so long xn pmparMion, 
have at length put to sea. 7 he first, with the troops which had been encamped, 
mt IfoQthampton, aad those aasembled at Portsmouth and the Isle of Wight, 
sailed from St. Helens on the 8th instant, and was to proceed to Plymouth for 
the purpose of receiving additional forces, making in the whole 17,000 men. 
The fleet employed on the second eqiedition apjacared off Yarmouth on the 
oth, when, a frigate bearing signals haticg fired four guns, it wasspeedHy joined 
py the wh»le of the sqnadfion, under the command of Admiral Dickson^ then 
in that harbour, and immediately made sail to the ca8twar4L 

No official information has hitherto transpired rcspcdiag the destm^on or 
success of either of these fleets. The troops they cany censiat chiefly of the 
'Putch regiments, under the command of the Jheredltary Prince of Orasge. 



Vi%NDIEM£N'S.LAND, DtSGOVSRSD TO BR AN ISLAND. 

GOVERNOR HUNTER, who continues indefatigable in his exertions for 
the improvement of Botany-Bay, having entertained a conjtfture that the land 
called Vao-Diemen'e-Land was not a part of the coast of New KoUand^ but 

Srobably a groups of islands separated from its southern extremity by « strait, 
tted out a two-decked boat of 15 tons burden, built at Norfolk island, and sent 
her to the southward, under the direAion of the second Licurcoanc and 
burgeon of the Reliance man of war. The boat passed through a wide and cx^ 
tttttsive strait, and conrrpletcly circumnavigated Vaa-Diemcn's-Land, entered 
Ifwo of its rivers, and went many miles up the country '1 he south extremity 
4f this country lic^ in latitude 39,00 cta^Iy , and the strait is, in some places, 
more than a degree and a half wide \ but studded with a few icatterod stccj^ 
--*'~^- X duut flf this diKovery is preparing to he sent home* 



i 



t& M91VTKLY K&GfSTBlt 

It is witK particular satisfaftion we insert the following communica-* 
tion — as it contains a most interesting testimony of that meritorious 
condu£^ which distin^iishes the chanifler of the British ' Navy » for 
their budable hamauty towards those whom the chance of war sub- 
nuts to their power. 
Ml. £i>iroa, 

As the friend of Captain WALLis^who some time since experienced such 
tunrdsbtps in the Proserpine, 1 am anzions that the foDowing testimony, to the 
honour of his professional charaifter, should be recorded in yonr useful Work : — 

Captain Was. lis left the Decade»a frigate of 36 guns, which he commanded 
on the Jamaica station, and having, on account of his health, exchanged for the 
Brunswick, brought home with him two French prisoners of rank» Gen. La 
VcAUZ, a General of Division, who had been commander in chief of St. Do- 
mingo, and latterly of Guadaloupe with kis«oa,and Aide-de-Camp 0«makcim; 
who having obtained permission to return to France on their parole, they sent a 
compliuAentary letter to Captain Wall is, of which the fdlkrarmg Is a traaski^ 
tion:-* 

** jP w timtn Ui t m har^iif Brunrwtck^ Awg, f , tSoo. 

^ SU^hem La VtauXy General of Dtvukm, to Captain Wattts^ Commander of tl0 

Mrnntwiei* 

"CAFTAIif ? 

** Gratitude is a debt incumbent on all to render : receive then that which 
ny son, which Orm ancin, and myself, wish to offer with a sensibility equal t9. 
what we feel, for all the obligations wc lie under to you.— The delicacy (k your> 
conduA so much alleviated our situation, as, at times, to make us forget that we 
were your prisoners. ' You are a fiither and a husband f and therefore' ftel 
already the joy I have in view, to behold again a Wife and two beloved 
daughters. It shall be in the union of this dear family, that wc will repeat alf 
we owe to you for such happiness. 

" We will incessantly recal your humanity, your adlions, your Tirtaes,-and the 
love which yon possess for your countrf. Like you, vre regard our own i and 
you haTe had the generosity to allow us to speak of it before fou. Nations ma^ 
declare war ; but wise and virtuous men vriU always esteem each other. 

«* Receive, Cart Aiy» ' the sentiments with which we three have (he honeur 

tOICBMHIly 

«* at. LA YBAUZy 

*< OaMANCIW. 

** LA VSAUZ riLS." 



B a US sax. s, Aoo. S.<— We hear from Rotterdam, that two ships of the line, the 
Chatham, of 80 guns, and the Peter Paul, of 74, newly launched from the dock. 

erds of that port, will soon be completely armed and equipped. A vessel of 
guns, built at Amsterdam, will be equally soon ready for sea. It has been 
vemarked, that the mrvy of Holland never hadshijps canyinr more than 74 gtms, 
k b not long aiaee tvro of greuter force were built. On the other side, there 
has sailed from the Meuse a division of small ships and sloops of war, to r^air^ 
to the Western Scheldt, for the de£ence<sf the island of Zealand. 



It appears that the unfortunate survivors of die trew of his Majesty's shij^ 
Xeiistanee, after being taken by the Malay pirates, were carried to Peoobsng* 
and there sold to different Rajahs, in the common market-place. Tiomas Stottg 
a seaman, sold for 3 $ rix dollars, and unexpe<ftedly met with a kind master s 
lamenting his fate at bdng parted from the few of his countrymen who survived 
the explosion of the Jtetrstartce, the Rajah encouraged him, by the a&snrance that 
whenever he fSeeitJ should be able to pay him hack the amount of his purchase, 
he would immediately release him. On the neat day, to his unspeakable jofv 
he found the Sultan had become his ransomer from the Macassar Raiah, who 
had, in like manner, procured the release of his other companions. Wc nave the 
pleasure to learn, that the Sultan has received from our Government the re- 
ward due to his humanity .«-»A circumstantial narrative of Uic -blowing up of 
this ship in our next. 



naVal BT&icTi. iif^ 



PLYMOtJTH R£?ORTi 

fftOIC fVX.i It tb AII60tt i|; 



^ !^«4r i i • WINB y triable. Fair.. AiriVed the boll/ ciitler fr«m d< |eei i 
im them all well .jMterday. ^aUed on a cntiie» the. Tcleennhy of ig g«M« 
^ ^tduy t C«taelhf^ Atrived from k arulK, the ChiideK ^ to gnd^ Captaid 

12. Wind Viriabte. Fiir. Arrived witH dSt»tdict for Aei^ Adiiilrat 
^^tshetd, the Unicom, .3 1 gtins» Captain WUkioson: she sailed *g^ thii 
cVenlog for the fleet Letters received t'rom the £lephaDt| 74 ghos. Captaia 
Foley, state the Heet was all well the tcth iiist. Hit sailed that tta/ vi job tht 
^uadx-on Oiider Rear Admiral Sir J^ B. Warren, offQiitberoii. 

15. Wind Variable. Fair. Arrived the Ci^tiyaUur West Iniiamiii, Smitlu 
Master, from Demerftril atld Isiequibd» with a car^o Hlued it l~,oO.J. tapturea 
'hf i FwDoh p^ivatcei'i aoii re^apcnrcd hf the lodemtigable, 4^ nni. Honourably 
Captain Curzon; ahd Boidicea, 3S guns, Capuin Keats, cToM in with the 
ftehch coast. Sailed tb jdin the fleet, tAe Temeraire, fi gsns. Rear Admiral 
Whitshead; and the Marlborough, 74, Captain Sotheby. ArHted from thift 
Downs, the Pljfmotith Itiggcri Lieutenant Elliot, t^th a conVbjr. 

14. Wind 8. W. Rain. Arrived from a cmise oiFlsle Bis, the fipltflre, 14 
i;ttns, Captilin Sevmottr. Arrived the ^Qona brig. Dean, Master, tram Gap 
wav to Lbodonderrv, With a cargo df kel^ oats; oreid, herritlgs, hides, roslh, 
%ad flannel, Captbred b^ La Ruse Ftehch ptivateet, 6f t4 ^ns, ind f$ medj 
and retaken by the Dons, 44 gons, Captain Lord Ranelasrh, Also Lk Favorie» 
of sti guns, and 4;c meo, froih Caytane tb Bohrdeauz, with a valuable cargo ox 
tottdn; lodigb, and camphor; prize to thb Sli'jus, 36 giiiis^ Caj/tain King. 

15* wind £.14.$. $9ir. This auMoiiB^ presoucd a fine grati^nir nght^ 
by die appeanmee oif the Sound of another boniewar^bouiMl Jamaica iest, of 
84 saii, ncbly laden, valued at near » million and a half, convoyed by thb 
Bruniwich, 74 gons, Cipuin W^UHi and fhc RetalhtioOi 36 gutis, Captain 
Foitter. Arrived tig C«iHr» S4 gttns» Sit J. Saumitrex, front the fleets 

16. Wind £. S. B. uid S. £. Fair. Airiired from sea, the Aiert, from Gidis 
io Boscony detained by the Anson, 44 guns| Capt. P, C Durham, which wai 
i^one on to Gitendtiff, all well, the ftth inw. 

17* Wind Variable; Fair. Orders came down this day for the flotilla ot 
^ttli-boatt to get into the Sound, under the command of Captain j. Hawker* 
Simed on a cruise, the Lady Charlbttei 14 guns. 

ig. Wind Variabki Faift * ' 

If. Wind k . W« Fak. . Cftme in from off Boest^ 1^ Priocek 98 guuH Rea» 
Admiral Cotton; the Defencot 74* Captam.iaord H* P«wkU} Aaceilcot, 74, 
(iomNiraUe CiMain Stopford. i»iulcd the Amaww, 38 gUB^ Captain Riou, wiUi 
her fwopriscsi mr Spithcad. 

aa Wind N. W. Fairi Letieio from th» Triton, }6 g«M, Captain 6ore« 
^attdmmnim ^ Brest* the iM instaBt, maxs^ (hat the gallant Captain had 
peifcAy recovered from violent blow he re<;eived in his head some time sincei 
\ff dbe £ail bf ^Itlodi; he rctaana the cooiihand of the in-shore, or fly ins 
squodroft, which communicatirs by tignal to Earl St. Vincent the movements of 
the eomhined fleets^ as this squadron occasionally anchors. Rear Admiral 
BeiUliy;^ m die Mars, 74 gimsi eommaads a flying detachment off shore. 

%u WindN. W. Fair. Aitited from Q^iberoh, the Shahnon, 44 guiie, 
Captam Peters; she brings nothing new. Sailed the ImmoTtalite, 44 gufis, 
Captain Hothalii, on a cruise. Arrived the Bluisei, 74 guns, Captain tawysr^ 
from the Channel Bcet| to reit and vidnaL 

aoUlVs y . 



1% nONTKLY ttbifttlt 

ai. Wind M. "Ur. Fair. 

23. Wind S. E. Fair. Arrived the Harriet, Atkins, of Boston, from Isle de- 
France, last from Boston, with a Valuable cargo for Rotterdam; detained and 
•ent in by 'the Suffisante« 14 guns, Captain Whitman. .Sailed to join the ChaD- 
nel fleet, the Cssar, 84 guns, Captain Sir J. Saiunarez, Bart. .Arrived the 
loho lugger, Elliot, from £arl St. Vincent, with dispatches. She left the fleet 
Sn well on Saturday last. On Sunday, at four P. M. she spoke the Dido, 44 
•guns, armed en flute, Captain Calby, from Minorca, with three sail uoder 
Convoy. On Monday, at eleven, she spoke the Sheerness, 44 gons, Captjub- 
Cardcn, from the Straits; she had recaptured a valuable ship, called the Peuvoh 
of Xon'don, which had been in possession of the French ten days. 

25* Wind £. S. £• Fair. /Arrived the Megura fire-ship, the Excellent, j\ 
guns, and Triumph, 74, from the Channel fleet. 

%6. Wuid S. £. Fair. 

27. Wind S, £• Fair. Arrived the M'^indsor Castle, 98 guns, Honourable 
Captain Bertie, from the Channel fleet, to refit. Also the Bourdehis, 48 guns^ 
Captain Manby, from the westward Islands. Off Coninna she captured the 
Phcenix, a Danish stbooner, from St. Thomas for Altoija, but evidently boimd 
to Bourdeaux, having a French pilot on board. She is laUen with coffee, lugaTy 
Indigo, &o. &C. ' 

28. Wind S, E. Fair. Arrived the Glory, 98 guns. Captain T. Wells, mj) 
Keptune, 98, from the fleet off Brest, to refit. By an officer of .the Bonrdejais, 
38 gunf, just arrived from a cruise off the western islands, is learnt that she 
^looked into Coninna and Ferrol the 12th and 14th ult. 1 inFerrol Harbour 
Captain N^anby saw six sail of the line and five frigates, with topsail yards 
across. On the 2<th ult. fell in with the Boadicea, 35 guns, Captain Keats ; 
Indefatigable, 44, Honourable Captain Curzon ; and Sirius, 36, Captain King, 
the advanced squadron of frigates of Earl St. Vincent's fleet : aSth ult. fell m 
with the Straits convoy, homeward-bound, under care of the Endjmion, 44 
cuns. Captain Sir T. Williams, Knt. in lat. 48. 10. N. long. 7. ao. W. going 
urge, with a fresh breeze. 

29. Wind N. £• Fair. This morning arrived from the Straits, the Cul- 
ioden, 74 £uns, Commodore Sir T. Trowbridge, Bart. This gallant oflicer was 
received ny his townsmen with great resped on his landing. In puf« 
suance of orders from Earl St. Vincent, Rear Admiral Cqtton shifted his flae- 
from the Prince, 98 guns, (she not befnz ready to join the fleet) to the Russet^ 
74, Captain H. Sawyer, and sailed dtreSly to join the.fieet. 

30. Wind Variable, Fair, and Sultry. Sailed the Dasher, 1 8 guns, Capuio 
Tobin, on a cruise. Passed the Sound, to join the Channel fleet, that beautifel 
new ship, the Courageux, 74 guns. 

31. Wind Variable, Fair, and Sultry. Passed up. La Loire, 48 guns,- Capt. 
Newman^ with the Lisbon and Oporto fleets, ail weli; also the valuable Straits- 
fleet, with several rich tilk ships from Smyrna. 

August I. Wind Variable. Extreme Heat in the Sun. Arrived the Royal 
Sovereign, no guns, Admiral Sir Alan Gardner, Bart. Captain TrBedfonA; 
and the Pompef, 84, Captain Stirling, from the fleet. 

2.' Wind Variable. Fair and Sultry. Sailed die Windsor Castle, 98 gvdts^ 
Honourable Captain Bertie, to join the fleet. Arrived a very fine schocmer 
privateer, of 16 guny, prize to La Lt>ire, 48, Captain Netrnun,' taken on her 
passage home with the Lisbon fleet. * - 

3. Win4 W. Fair and Sultry. Arrived from the Channel fleet, the Mars, 
74 gvns. Rear Admiral Berkeley ; and the Cuniberlaud, 74, Captain T. Gravity 
to refit. This day orders came down for three line of battle ships, and a fin- 
gate, to proceed to the Downs dircdUy. Admiral Sir T. Paislev, in conseqnesee 
of the above, Issfied orders for the following ships to sail direSly to the Downi^ 
▼iz. Resolution, 74 gniis. Captain Gardner; Pompe£, 84, Captain SctrKag; 
Defiance, 74,'Captain T. Shivers; and Bourdclaxs, zi^ Captain Manby. 



OF IfATAL fTtNTI* l6$ 

4* X^'ind Variabie. Arrived the Three Friends amaj^i^Unr lugger, -with 
one hundred aud fifty . aakcrs of spirits, captured by the Spitfire* 24 gun*. 
Captain Seymour; she had landed part of her cat go at Paipemo | but several 
boats were taken in endeavouring to esgapd s^nd oue smuggler was nnfortonateiy 
killed. The Spitfire spoke in the Channel, the Ruhy, 64 guns. Captain Ferris, 
with three £as( Indiamen uhdcr convoy from Bengal; last from the Cape of 
Good Hope, ^he had captured on her passage, La Fortunie French privateer, 
of 16 gims, and one hundred and sixty men, belonging to Bourdeauz. 

5. Wind N. Fair, with light Breezes. Arrived the Ajax, 84 guns, Ciptain 
Cochrane, from the fleet. Sailed the Bourdelais, 28 guns. Captain Manby-, for 
t^ Downs. Came in i*a Revanche French schooner privateer, df 10 guns, •n4 
If vcBty-five men, (formerly the La Hawke privateer, of this port) captured hf 
the yranie, 44, Captain Towry. Arrived from the fleet, the 1 erribie, 74 guns. 
Captain Sir K. Bickerton. Passed by for the Downs, the 6py, 18 guuk^ with a 
large convoy from Milford and Falmouth. 

- 7. Wind variable. Arrived the Plymouth lugger, X^ieutcnant Eliot, from fi 
cruiic oS Morlaix. 

S. Wind S. W. Fair and Sultry. Arrived the Formidable, 98 guns, from the 
Channel fleet; the Sufiisante, 14 guns, and Reynard, 18, from a cruise. 

9. Wind Variable. Fair and Sultry. Letters from the Impctueux and other 
illips sptak in the highest terras of Lievcenaut Coghlan and bis littic crew s gal- 
lantry, in boarding and carrying oU La "Cerhcre gun bri|r, of infinitely superior 
force, near Port i ouls. Admiral Larl ^^t. Vlnccnr, with his usual zeal for the 
service, presented him with a swurd worth one hundred guineas fur his bravery, 
a|id, with Sir i:. pdlew's ^(^uadrou, very gcucruusiy gave up thcix' shares of t^e 
prize money. 

10. Wind Variable. Extremely Sultry. Arrived the Chapman, 24 gvns, 
with i^ (oqvoy from Milford. 

xj. Wipd S. K. Sultry. Arrived from the Channel fleet, the Barfleur 98 
gunsp Magni^cent 74, and Saturn 74,. to vii&ual and reflt. Letters from the 
Peet st^te, that the look-out cutters venture very near the outer road of Brest 
without inolestation. The '1 riton frigate. Captain Gore, is n^oored next, then 
(ve frigates, five sail of the line, two sail of the line ofl'the Black Ruck, and the 
remainder of the fleet in line of battle in two lines ; so that notliiug can move 
without observation. 

12. Wind S. Sultry. Sailed for the fleet, the Ponipc^, 84 guna, London 98, 
Mars 7^, Rearr Admiral Berkeley, and Ajax 84. 

I3r- Wiod Variable. Fair and Sultry. Came in from a cruise, the Dasher* 
18 guns, Captain Tobin, and Telcgiaph, 18, Lieutenant Corsellls. Arrived 
froni Hewfoundlandi after a good passage, the Vohigeur, 18 guns. Captain 
Shortland, with three vessels under convoy with fish ; left the Island all well. 
Sailed the Chapman, with a convoy for the Dov/ns. 

14. Winds. Fair, and very Sultry. Arrived the .^irios, 36 guns, Captain 
King, from a long cruise off the coast of 5>])ain. Letters from the Fi&gard, 
4S ^unft. Captain Martin, state, that the following frigatei were left cruisiog on 
that station, viz. Boadicea, 38 guns, Commodore SUats; Indefatigable, 44, 
Hon. 
T 




jnenfof this well appointed 

•dcrcd as absolutely m a st^te of bloekade. 

' 15. Wind Variable. Fair and Sultry. The Siriu8» 36 guns, which arrived 
• ^t night, convoyed three prizes to thv* Kquadron, which are hourly expecU'd. 
" t^afled the PJym'oufh higpjef, 'Lieutenant Mfiot, with a convoy for the Downs 
' ^^ed the Diatt)ohd, 36 guns, oQ'ayiiise. ' 

. I •• • 



x66* MfvfrTMLT KSGiarift 

ii\tbe mjatftKfofk board die Htrmtttt.. The signal bejnf rq>eatcd, th« yetlopr 
flag was hoisted pn board the Pnhieaii at Spitheads «nd the Bfaakel vol the Har* 
b»U») >oo board which ships chey were executdd. Boats from aU the s^iips ^t 
Spithead, manned and armed with marines, attended the Pnhsant, as ^oac ia 
the Harbour did the ^raakd^ At ten o^clock Watson was launched into eter- 
nity; but, as the same Provost Martial was obliged to attend i>oth men, Allen 
was not executed until eleven o'clock. Pie came in an armed boat pn board th^ 
JSraakei^ Captain George Cc^^rke, attended by Mr.Wi lliam Howei.;., Cbap« 
lain of the Boyal Willittm, I'bey both behaved very penitent, and acknowledged 
the justice of their sentence. AUeii was bom at Chatham, and bvf twenty y&rs 
of age the day he was tried. His brother was oq board the whole of the trial, 
and was extremely al£edcd ; and, at thMime of the executiD4» he was at the 
Dock- Yard, diredly opposite his brother, and, on the gun's firing, he lell dowii 
speechleia in the yard, tE«m whence he was caken home in astaceof tni^osibilitf. 

The hand of Providence has evidently shewn itself in the poi^ishment oi theso 
»troeioQS vrretches, the shame of England and of humaaifty. They had aJU made 
their escape, and were in an enemy's country ; yet, by various ways, and hidden 
ia unaccounuble means, Divine vengeance has pursued and deUvered them up 
to the arm of their offended country !-»*We trust thn strong and memorable 
dpcnmeot will not be lost upon the Navy, and that it will recur in the very first 
mcsnciit of artful mutiny and political sedition. We shall shortly have an oppor* 
tttnky of lowing how great a part of the cr«w of that shio, riscovered b^ thQ 
gaUaotry of tnie 3riti8h seam^n» has akeady been overtaken by justice \ 

& Aff iwd the Reaver, Captain Jon^s, from a cruise. 

9. Airiv^ the Shcemess, Captain Car den, frum Gibraltar, last from th^ 
Downs, 

la Arrived the Concorde, from St. Martin*s, laden with salt, a prise to th^ 
Ant schooner s the Cath^ine, from Bourdcaux, with wiqc, prise to the Wq1> 
verene. .'^ 

II . Sailed the Termagant, Captain Bkipiey, with dispatches for I.ord Keith. 

13 . Arrived the Triton, 1 , from Havre, )aden with mahogany, prize to 

his Majesty's frigate Proselyte. 

18. Arrived the Dart sloop, of 18 guns. Captain Devonshire, from the Downs \ 
and Voltigeur, of 18 guns. Captain Shortlana, from havine convoyed the home^ 
Vard«bound Newfoundland ships. Sailed the Seaflowcr brig, Lieutenant Mur- 
ray, with General M(Doiiald and suite on board, for Jersey. 

19. Sailed the Alert cutter, I^ieutenant Clark, with 4 convoy for Plymouth \ 
and the Warrior, of 74 guns, Captain Tyler, to jpin Lord St. Vincent's fleet. 

20. Arrived the Earl St-. Vincent cutter. Lieutenant i,eekey, with the 
Friendship, a Danish galliot, her prize, laden with merchandise, from Amster- 
dam, for Lisbon. S^ed the Dart sloop, of 18 guns, Capuin pcvonsliirc, (of 
the Downs. 

ax. The Ville de Paris, no gnns. Captain Grey, went out of Dock. It i« 
fl^posed she will go out of harbour in the course ot ten days. 

%%• Arrived the Scourge, of iSgnns, Captain S. Warren, from convoying 
9»rt of the homeward-bound West ^dia fleet, safe up Bristol Channel. She 
parted, on Saturday last, off Cape Clear, with the Invincible, and the West India 
oeet, bound for the River, and proceeded as far as Luody with two West Tndia- 
ihen, bound for Bristol She sailed from thence on Tuesday last for this port, 
the brings intelligence of the outward-bound West India fleet, that sailed in 
April under convoy of the Scorpion, Serern, and Dromedary, bavin^^ arrived at 
Martinique on the 10th of May. The Scourge made her passage m ux weeks 
from the Islands. The West Itvdia fleet consisted of abont ninety-^one sail : 

treat part of them were GwneaHmen, bound to Diverpool and Glasgow. Hie 
couree has been out ever since April rs, 1797, and has taken two Spanish let- 
ters of marque. Sailed the Grand Falconer cotter, Lieutenant ChilcoU^ for St« 
Jblarcou. 

S3. Afrived Ihe Alert cntter, Lieutenant C I ark » from the Downs. 



* 

I 



l^otnotion0 anH 9n'ointfRent0« } 

ADMIRAL SIR ALAN GARDNER is ip|>oiittea AU£ on Ae Iitttcatkiii 
in the room. of Admiral KingsmilL 

The Prince of Wmles, of 98 gttnt, is ordered to be lifted Ibr the fla^ of 'Rear 
Admiral Sir Robert Calder, Bart, and Captain Tenroae is appointed to coni^ 
teiand the ship. She is to be employed in the CAianftcl Beet under £arl St. 
Vincent. 

Sir Thomas Troubridge, Bart, lately loomed from the Medtternnean, is 
appbinted Captain of the Channel fleet, and Will sail from Portsmouth in a few 
days -in the Viile de Paria, of no guns, Captain Grey. 

CapuJB Sir Home Popham is appointed to command the Rooaney, ol* f> 
guns. 

Cnpuin FreennuRle is appointed to die Gaag«8, of 74 gsns, luting «t i'ortfr- 
movtL 

Captam Patrick CamnbeH, lace of his Majestyli sloop Dait, who m ^lantly 
captured the fine French frigate l>esir^ under the Tery eiins of BnnkifkyOnd 
in Yjew of a number of 'the enemy's ships, is appointed by the Xxvds of the 
Admiralty to the command of his Majesty's frigate Ariadne. 

Captain M. Seymour, of the Spitfire, 14 guns» b appointed hf the Lords^ 
iihe Adauraky a Post Captain h> the Royal Navy. 

Captain Kun, of the Chapnuo, ^4 gun^ is appointed to the commmd of <hc 
Spitfire, 24. 

Captam W. H. Webky b appointed to the cemmandMif 4iis lufajestiyV <floop 
Aivage, on the Irish station, in the room of Captain Nonaan Uiioaipsoo, who is 
'promoted to the rank 'of Post Captain. . . 

Lieutenant Cdnn, of the Formidable, is promotedto the Tsdk of Mastdr and 
Cotattiander, and appointed to the Discovery bomb. 

Capuin Dick, of^ the Discdvery, is appointed to the Cynthia ; and Captain 
MaUxm, of the Cynthia, b promoted to the rank of Post Captain. 

Lord Codcrane b promoted to tlie rank of Master and Commandeffi and ap* 
^pointed to the -Speedy aloop of war. 

Honourable G. L. Dundas, one of the Lieutenants of his Majesty's hte •an-' 
.'fortttoate ship Queen Charlotte, is promoted to the tank of Master and Coa:i- 
niander, and appointed to the Camelion sloop of war. 

I Browne, Esq. first Lieutenant of the £lephant, b promoted to the 

rank of Commander ; and Lieutenant William Wilkinson, who was so severely 
wounded iu the ever-memorable a6lion of the Nile, on bo^rii hb Majesty's ship 
GqUah, and who was first Lieutenant of that ship for many months before she 
was paid off at Portsmouth, sncceeds Mr. Browne as first Lieutenant of tHe 
Blephant. 

The Rev. H.-1>on b appointed Chaplain of .the Royal Oak, and the whole of 
.the prison sbipaeommanoedby Captain Rawe. 

Mr. Fisher^ of the Rowcliffe armed brig, b promoted to a Surgeon, and «p* 
.pointed to the Walveme, on the Marcou station. 

Lleuteniuit Alt, of the Royal William, who has lor aooosiderable thtie-com- 
inandad the Ant ichooner, with gveat credit to himaatf, and advantage to the 
public service, is pat on half pay; and William Htrd, Esq. b appobited to the 
command of the Ant. 

Captain Monart b appokited Resident Agent ibr ttaniportsat 8ibt«kar. 

W. P. Wallis, Esq. Secfcuvy to AdminO. Sir Roger Curtis,' m the aoam 4f 
•Mr. ]• WiUlamion, whoJs appointed Purser of the Orestes. 

In conseqoenee of Ae death of .Caloncl Bdncar, of tha Marina Foiees, the 
'iSolloariagolBtcra bava^ea promoted : Major M«nto sncccads Cotooel Painter ; 
Captain Winter gets the majority; CaptaimLicnMaant Wardfawe has «*iaU 
aoaipany t^and Littwam Qifetha bmada Captain LtcBHtitnt^ 

MARRIAGES. 
LATfiL V«t Malv«ff0« Thos. Lynne, ^. of tko Hair^XB Miss Mary Warmn, 
third daughter of the Rev. Erasmus Warren, Rc^r-of • Hampslia4« A^r l<iA- T 
d^n» and of Great Bromley, in Kent. 



ff 



t6t iidftfHLt tBGliTfii OF ItfATAi BilNTJ. 

Thi »Sth ttk. at Kingston, Vice-Admiral Biigh to Mm Goligiity, of ritttf 
l^oiiimon, Stiny. 

The 4di inflt. at Plymootli, Dr. ^iUiam Knighton to MinDotdthea Hawker; 
^owngett daughter of the Ute Captain Hawker, of the Navf* 

At Mary le*bone church/Ciptain Sabine, of the Guardi, to Misii PMc/t 
daughter of Vice Admiral Sir Thomaa Paisley, Bairt. 

At Totnetf, DeYon^ Mr. Fitagerald^ Pune^ of L'AdnUe, 6f 74 gobs, to Ml^ 
TomSf of that place. 

OitlTUARY. 

Jhme 25. AFTER a lingering iihiesi, Oeorge Bc^^eif, Etq, CoiniAalnder of hit 
Majesty's ship Trusty, of 50 guns. He was nephew to Rear-Adteiral Bowen ; 
and made a Post Captain in a 795. 

. Lately^ JLiettenant Birc^, htt of the Triumph, grealtly bnented hy all who 
knew him. 

A few diyt smce, at BriMol, Colond Peter Pamter, of th6 Marine forces. He 
n greatly regretted by his brother Officers and vnttmerous ac^wubttfice* 

At Cosham, Mrs. Orrock,* widow of 'Captain Orroek. 

At Watford, Lieutenant I. A. NichoU, btely lettoned on bota'd the Bellero^^ 
phon from the Mediternnean. 

At Dublin, aged 73, Lieutenant James Boyd, fortr-two years a cturtnitsinn^l 
officer, and regulating officer of the impress senrice m Out chy. 

Ac Greenwich, the Lady ot Captain Sir H. Linsee. 

At Chatham, Mr. H. Watson, foreman of the dock-ynrd. 

Lately, atsea» retnrmng frOm Honduras, Captein Pierson, a^d sy years. He 
•enred under Lord Nelson, in the Captain, of 74 guns, in the adion betweotf 
the British and Spanish fleets, on the 14th of February, 1797. Captain, then 
Lieutenant PieriSn, of the 69th regiment, accompanied the brave Nelson, when,* 
aword in hand, he boards and captured a Spanim 84 and i la gun ship. 

The 1 6th inst. in the 71st year of his a^, at Bath, the Honourable Samuel 
Bftfrington, senictf Admiral of the White, General of his Majesty's Marine 
Forces, and brother to the Lord Bishop of Durham ; he wai the fifth son of John< 
Lord Viscount Barrington, of the kingdom of Ireland^ and consequently btothcf 
to the late Lord. O^ing to an infirai state of health, he had, for the last tetf 
Years of his life, declined accepting of any naval coounaadi but the records of 
his various and eminent services performed in the earlitf period of it, are inde^ 
libly imprinted in the page of history, and still mora hoooarably preserved in 
the minds of his countrymen. 'I'his gentleman was never married ; biit though 
he hath left no children to lament his loss, all those who have ever ierved under 
his orders, and mrvive, will supply the Want of relative griefj atfd lament his[ 
death as a foster parent, whom they loved, honoured, and revered. As attf 
officer, eiceeded hf none, and eOuallcd by few, in the diffierent requisites 0^ 
nautical knowledge, eipericnce, ability, and galiuftry ; it becomes a matter of 
•o small difficulty to dedda whether his loss be more to bo d^lored as a mis- 
fortune to that abstraA, though moreoublic braneh of society, the naval service, 
or to the flcncral cooamuaity, in which his condud displajred a rare and valnabw 
instance of untntcmipted boievaienee^ friendship, and philanthropy, raised to aa 
height which few have been able to rivals and none to eiceL He Was the inti- 
mate friend of the llarfuis of Lansdowne, Colonel Barre, and some of the mpit 
re^Mdabla persons for ulenu and integrity which 4his country can Iwast s but 
hy no pcnon vrill Admiral Barrington's loss be more regretted than by the 
maent gallant Commander of the Channel Ifeet^ vrith whom, till the day ^f 
liit death, ht livtd in habit* of the stridest intimacy and friendship. 

The Admiml was om of fivu brothers who rose to the highvst digoitiea that 
can ba coaferrod in their respedivc lines. The eldest w» a Peer s the second* 
John, a Ocacral ; the third, llaines, a Judft ; the fourth, Samuel, an AdmM; 
and Uie fifth, Shalt, the javusent Bishop oT Durham, and the only survivor of 
this iUnatrious fenily. The fint Lord Barrington, the fether of these, vras tho 
mn of a mmhawt, and Mimtlf, ind^ndcat M the other honouia he ntnmd, » 
iwittt ff great fpsfncaci. 



r 



M: 



thehon"!-"Sam1' 



B,ARKl.VG'J'ON 



. /^/,^V/^ y'//.,;.,'/.;-^,/" ^^ T;,- ^,l..-^Ayy - £...... 



/ 



MIMRMBICAL MBMOUtS OP 

TUX aONOU&ABLX 

SAMUEL BARRINGTON, 

^UXJLAt or TBK WHITS SQUADRON, AND GSNSIAI. OF MAK^Mtt. 



MThen greatness is to goodness near aHied^ 

The man that has thenit is a tnan indeed 1 .Hu nm •• 

'BetfaBieth7.hiiiiaurs,Baning|!on! ajUtJieM 

The liberal Muse, that never stain'd her page 

With Hatteryi ihall record. Akojt* 

TJI^ITH whatever wUlIngness the contemplative mind may 
join in the general fhout which attends an hero's 
triumphy it not only dwells with very high and peculiar 
fomplacency but heartfelt satisfadion on the charader in 
which the nailder virtues are no less conspicuous than the 
auurttal. There is a particular species of goodness that the 
fynic may attribute to an indolence of mind, and of valour 
which the philosopher feels himself sometimes compelled to 
regard as ferocity ; but when benevolence and bravery are 
found foimtng ingredients and <}ualities in the same person, 
the greatest sceptic dare not withhold his tribute of applause 
and. admiration. ' 

In regard to the man who is equally admirable *' in glorious 
warj and still more glorious peace," the reluctant praise of 
Aecyoicy and the hesitative determination of the philoso- 
pher, are completely done away. Praise, the just tribute of 
his high merit, is fairly and liberally bestowed by the com- 
mon consent of all parties and descriptions of his country* 
mGsu The character of a patriot may be falsely thought to 
wiflt.in the greatest brilliancy when elevated on the stilts of « 
what IB called popularity, but it must be obvious to every 
sinficre and tr.ue philanthropist, that be alojYe is deserving of 
the titk, who in all cases and at all risks to himself, is ready, 
aad anxious to promote what are the real interests and ad- 
VABlages (^his country* The man V)7h0;t.yhen his country-* , 
men .are threatened by surrounding foes, stands forward in 
their defisnoe, and who» whea public t;ranqu ill ty again 
le-assumes its reign, unceasingly labours to promote ibJt 



170 BXQG&APRXCAIi MVMOtM 

comfort of indmduaU ; as his claim to the charafter is Wit 
on the strongest foundation, so has envy never dared to 
whisper a syllable in detraction of his merits, but allows the 
uninterrupted enjoyment of that pleasure which the triumph 
of benevolence and virtue cannot fail to excite. 

Such .was truly tUe character of the subje& of the present 
Memoirs* He was the fifth son of John first Lord Viscount 
Barrington, of the kingdom of Ireland, and Anne his wife^ 
daughter and coheiress to Sir William Daines* The family^ 
from whence he was descended was of very remote antiquitj. 
It was of' Noripan extradion, and its original name Shute* 
Having settled in the county of Cambridge^ the first person 
who rendered himself conspicuous among them, was Robert) 
' son to Christopher Shute, of Stockington, in that county. 
This Robert was a Barrister, and appointed a Baron of the 
Exchequer anno 1579. from which Court he removed into 
the King's Beqch in 1^85. John» the grandson to this Robertt 
was made a Commiffionerof the Cufloms in 1708, and be- 
came in 1710 legatee to John Wildman, of ficcket, in the 
county of i^erks, Esq. \ who, though no relation, bequeathed 
to him a very noble landed property in that county,^ after 
}iaving made a declaration ip his will most highly honourable 
to the obje£t of his bounty. He expressed on that occasion^ 
that his only reasion for so doing, was because he considered 
Mr* Shute as the matt of ^1 others most deserving of bein^ 
adopted by him. 

Some years, after this a second very considerable estate wan 
iDcqu^athed to the same honourable person by Francis Bar- 
tington, of Tofts, in the county of Essex, Esq. who had' 
inarried his aunt. In compliance with the deed of settlement 
by which the eflate was conveyed, Mr. Shute then assumed 
the name of Barrington, and on the ist of July, 1720, was 
created an Irish peer, by the titles of Baron Barrington of 
Newcastle, and Viscount Barrington of Ardglass, in that 
kingdom. John, the first Lord, died December the 14^ 
1734, leaving several children, of whom particulars wiUbe 
hereafter ^ivcn. 



r- 



0F ti^i aoir* BAMuct BAtRtirfiToir« X71 

Samuel, the fifth son, being*in tended for the navd service. 
Was entered in 2740^ being then scarcely eleven years old^ on 
board the Lark, a fifth rate, of 40 gans» commanded by the 
kight Honourable Lord George Graham ^. The first ser* 

* ThU Noblcmab was the fourth ion of Jaihes, fbvnti Martinis, aad first TMm 
•f Montrose, by the Lady Christian Carnegie, daughter of David Earl of Nor- 
'tiicik. He waa the desteadaat of one of the most ancient fiuniltet in North 
Britain. 

Ko nrname in ieotland claims a higher origin than Graham. The trad»» 
lional account thereof handed down to nt by oar historians is, that they arc * 
descended of the renowned Grcme, who ih the year 404 was general of King 
Fergus the Second's army, and was Governor of Scotland in the minority of hie 
grandchild King Eugene II. He fought w2th the Romans and defeated th« 
Britooa. In the year 430, he made a breach in and forced that mighty wall 
which the Emperor Severus had reared up between the rivers Forth and Clyde 
is the utmost limits of the Roman empire^ to keep out the Scots from molesting 
them in thetr possessions, which wall has crer since retained, and to this day 
l^oes nader the name of Grseme's Dyke« 

The foundation of this great rampart hfts be^n of kte traced from one rirer 
to the other, and is fully marked by several stones found therein, which have 
Roman snscriptioM cut out upon them, denoting tl^e limits where and by whom 
they were set, &c. A good many of these stones are at present to be seen in the 
college of Glasgow, and are well desaibed in Mr. Gordon^ Itinerarinm Sep* 
lentrionale. 

1 his -great man is stid to have married a lady of the tloyal House of Dca» 
aiarfc, and was progenitor cf all the Grahams in the kingdom of Scotland. 

His Lerdihip impelled by his natunl spirit, inherited as it were from hii 
brave and truly noble, though unfortunate ancestor, James the first Marquis, 
entered at an early age into the navy, and was advanced more Sn consequence 
of his own merit and worth, than any advantage he derived from his noble 
birth, through the different subordinate stations till he at length became coo>» 
mander of the Mercury fireship. He was promoted on the 15 th of March 1740, 
to be Captain of the Adventure, a .fifth rate, and in the ensuing month made 
Governor of Newfoundland. He held .that station only for the current season, 
foe he was some time in the ensuing removed into the Lark, of 40 guns, and 
sent to convoy the outward-bound Turkey trade. There is no subsequent ac* 
coum o^him till the beginning of the year 1745, when be was appointed to the 
conmiand of the Cumbetbnd, of 60 guns, which he soon declined ; and chose ra* 
ther, as better suited to his adive turn of miad, to accept that of the Bridgewater : 
tome persons emneously say he commanded the sheemess, a frigate of 24 guns, 
atationed in the channel. In June following, he distinguished himself exceed- 
ingly in t^ attack and capture of several privateers and their prize?, of which 
brilliant a<^on there is the following account in an official letter from Octend : 
Yestesdey afternoon Lord George Graham^ io his Majesty's ship. the Bridge- 
water, of 34 guns, Captain Gordon, in the bheerness, of 24 guns, and Licii* 
tenant Fergusson, in the Ursula armed vessel, of |6 guns, anchored in sight of 
this town. This morning about half past ^ne, the town was alarmed with 
£ring, which arose from the three above-mentioned ships being engaged with 
Ihree Dankirk priyateeiVy the SUyal, of at gutt% the Duchess de Pcnthlevre^ ef 



vice in which that ship was engaged aftdf Mt*. Bianihgton^s first 
connexion with it, was as one of the convoy to the dtrtward^ 
bound Turkey fleet ; and soon after his return from that voy^ 
age he removed rnto the Leopard, a fourth rate, of 50 guns, 
one of the fleet employed on the Mediterranean station**. 

^6gvn9^ a doggjcr oriignnvand t«vcn prizes, iiphidi tbejhad taken, aii4 
Vicrc carrying to L unktrk. 

The fight was obstioate till about four o'clock, wken the four large prixes^ 
three of them Virgiuia ships, struck to the Sheemess, the two large prlvateert 
to the Bridgcwattr, two Brcmenei-s ao4 a Scotch brig to the Ursula, but the 
dogger prirateer made her escape* Ihe Bridgewater, Sheerncae, two large 
privateers, and four large prizes, struck the ground, biU were all got off the 
foUowiog tide, except one of the privateers* 

• He was immediately after this pipmoted to the Nottingham, of 60 g^ni, and 
in the course of a abort cruise, on which he immediately proceeded, sunk a- large 
French privateer, called the Bacchus; all the crew were, however, saved,, eip 
cept the Lieutenant His Lordship wa» taken ill on his return into port, and 
unhappily did not long inrvive this exploit, dying January a, 1746-7. 

It is elsewhere remarked, that from a multitude of concurre&t testimoniesi h« 
appears to have been an officer who attained a great share of popularity, and 
was indeed very deservedly the idol of all seamen who knew him, as well oa 
account of the high opinion .entertained of his gallantryj as an invincible fnad 
of good humour, which latter quality conciliated the affei^ioDs of men la thf 
aame degree that the first related excited their admiration and esteem, 

* This ship was then commanded by Lord Forrester, which Noblemata was 
^e eldest son of George, fifth Lord Forrester, who was a military Officer, and 
signalized himself in a very remarkable manner under the Oenerals M'ills and 
Cafpenter, at Preston, in Lancashire, during the rebellion which broke out i* 
1715. As a reward for his very great bravery, he was advanced to be Colond 
of the fourth trodp of Horse Guards. George, his son, the sixth Lord For- 
rcster^ having entered into the navy, was on the 24th of November 1741, pro- 
moted to be Captain of the Biddeford frigate. He was soon afterwards ordered 
to Gibraltar and the Mediterranean, on which station he continued during th» 
following year ; during this time no mention is made of him, except his hav'ng 
"been concerned with Captain Norris of the Kingston, in the capture of two 
Spanish prizes, the St. Anthonio and Senora Rosaria, which they carried into 
Gibraltar. Early in the year 1742, he becEme Captain of the Leopard, of 50 
guns, and still continued on the same station, where, in the month of August, 
he captured a valuable prize. Of this circumstance he gave the following rc^ 
port in a letter written to the Secretary of the Admiralty, which is worthy of 
mscrtioa as well on account of the fad itself, as of the singular stylft in which 
the memory of it is preserved : 

On the 9th instant, between Cape St, Mary's and Cacfiz, I saw a ship stem* 
mlng right in for the latter place, and as she lay immediately in my route, I 
fired two shot at her, and brought her td^ On examination, T found her to B* 
a i^paniard, 6f about two hundred and odd tons, laden with logwood, cochineal, 
and cocca, and several other sorts of dyes, the names I do not know, Canary 
%jnes, four camels, and a great present, yet nhknown, for the King of l^apieai 



0> TBI «M^ HiUtftt tkfikt9t%t09. t^) 

lifr. Bftirington continued tliere and ih Ae sMic'sbip ttB 
the year 1 746, and then returned to Cngland, having been a 
short time before promoted by Admiral Rowley to the rank 
of lieutenant ; but neither is the time known with precision 
when this advancement tooK place, nor the name of the sfatp 
to which he was appointed* 

At the latter end of the year 1746, or the beginning of tti6 
ensuing, he wit^ raised to the rank of commander^ and ap« 
pointed to the Weazle sloop, from whence he expertenoed a 
ftill farther promotion on the 29th of May 17479 when he 
became a Post Captain, being commissioned to the Bcllona^ a 
£fth rate, of 30 guns. This vessel had been a private ship 
of war, captured from the French a short time before, but 
being thoyght an excellent sailer, and well fitted for war^ 
was received into the Royal Navy. Soon as Captain Har- 
rington had entered upon his command, being then scarcely 
more than eighteen years old, ht was ordered out on a 
cruise off Ushant, and distinguished himself exceedingly kt 
a very smart action which took place on the iStli of August 
following, between the Bellona and the Duke de Chartre8,'a 
French £ast India ship of considerable force. 

Of this encounter the following official particulars ztc^ 
given : 

At nine in theraoraing his Msjesty's ship BeSenaycOiBmanded by 
tbe Hpnourable Captain Barrington, gave chase to a sail standing to 
the eastward, and at one discovered her to be an enemy. In three 
quarters of an hour the chase hoisted French colours, and flrtfd at the 
Bellona, nrhich Captain Barriagton, not thinking hstnself near enough^ 

M-alioa^ishopi a ^im, a Spanith gcntral, and other ofikers, with grckt mua$ 
of piastres. 

He ii said to have continued Captain of the Leopard till the beginning of th^ 
year 1745, when he was promoted to the Defiance, of 60 gtins. Having oajL 
happily contraded an habit of intemperance, which occanonaily rendered bim 
very iiafit fdr command, and betrayed him into severat breaches of duty ; hit 
iniicoodod at •last became so apparent and glaring, that he was broagiit befok^ a 
Coort Martial, of which Mr. Griffin was President, heid on board the Tilburyi 
at Portsmouth' 'i he charge against him being incontrovertibly proved, he waa 
sentenced to be diMnissed the service on the 28th of March 1746. He did not , 
long survive this disgrace, the cause of which all benevolent men, while they 
^ademii, must at the same time cosipassionatCt 



£d not return (being but just within pomt-blank)f tSi abottt ,t9r9 
o'clock^ when Ushant bearing E. distance three leagues, he began t^ 
engage her closely, and continued to do so till half past four, when sii0 
•truck. She proved to be a Frei&ch East India ship from port TOrieat^ 
Called the Duke dt Chartres, of ;^oo tons, 30 gunS, nine and twelTtf* 
poandersj with one hundred and ninety-five menf Uden with becfr ilour^ 
brandy* wine, and oil, and had on board three mortarSf and a greal 
somber of shells. 

iSdlled of the I^rench is Wounded it 
Bclloiia i f 

Not long after the return of Captain Sarrington lilto port 
with bis prize, at lea^t before the conclusion of the theit 
corrent year, he removed into the Rodney, a large fifth rate, 
mounting 44 guns, in which ship he Continued till the con<» 
elusion of the war ; but unfortunately without meeting with 
any second opportunity 6f distinguishing himself $0 con« 
tpicuously a^ he had before done. Not long after the cessa- 
tion of hostilities he was appointed to the Sea> horse, of 26 
guns» and ordered to the Mediterranean with the late Admiral 
Keppel, who Wa$ appointed to coitimand on that fiation^ 
iK^ith the established rank of Commodore ; while employed 
in that quarter he was particularly occupied in the civil 
oapacity of a negotiator with the different piratical States of 
the coast of Barbary for the ransom of many British subjeds 
who had been captured at different times, and were then held 
in a state of slavery. This occupation, melancholy and dis* 
^reeable as it might on some accounts be considered, was 
on others far from unacceptable to a man of Mr. Barring- 
tpn^s benevolent turn of mind.^— -After much difficulty ha 
prevailed in effeding his purpose^ if not so completely at 
he himself might wish, at least he succeeded zt well as the 
peculiar nature of his commission allowed, which appears by 
the following extra&s from official documents : 

GiBra/tsr, Jug. z6, I7f0* 
* In four or five days Captain Barrington will sail from hence la a 
man of war for Tetuan, and ^ilt carry with him Mr. Pettigrew, hit 
Britannic Majesty's Consul General to Morocco, Fez, and the AI« 
garves. In order to treat for the redemption of all British captives whidi 
#e now in slavery at those places. 



or TBf HOK« SAIIITBL BltUttOTOV. 17} 

Gt^cibatt OS. 9; 1750. 
Yesterday Captain Barrington, in the Seahorse man of war* r^ 
turned hither from Cadiz» having on board a con3iderahle sum of 
inoney» to be applied for the redemption of all the British subje&s who 
aire in slavery at Tetuan. 

Clbraltarf Dec* 9* 1750* . 
Captain Barrington in the Seahorse man of war, who sailed frott 
hence on the 7th instant in the morning for Tetuan Bay^ in order to 
bring over the British slaves, is returned hither this morning, and hn 
brought with him Mr* Latton, and twentyseven captives. 

On his return from the llation last mentioned, he was ap- 
pointed to tlie Crown, a fifth rate, of 44 giins, and ordered 
to the coast of Guinea, a quarter, more particularly in time 
of peace, where he could have no opportunity of being 
otherwise than very uninterestingly employed. He did not 
however, long remain on that station, and immediately on 
his return to England was promoted to the Norwich, a 
fourth rate, of 50 guns, one of the ships ordered to be put 
into commission and equipped for immediate service, in con* 
sequence of the various encroachments made by the French 
on the British settlements in North America. The squadron 
destined on this occasion to assist in punishing the insult 
which the honour of the nation and the property of plundered 
individuals had received, was put under the command of Com* 
modore Keppel) who was intrusted at the same time with the 
proteAion of a fleet of transports, having on board a number 
of troops with their camp equipage and artillery. This armf 
was commanded by the brave but rash and imprudent Gene* 
ral Braddock ; and the quarter in which it was destined to 
aft, being so far removed from the coast as to render any 
plan of co-operation impossible, the naval traiisadions of 
that expedition were necessarily confined to the mere pro«> 
teftion of the troops on their passage, and providing for their 
different wants, far as circumstances would permit, after 
Aey were landed. 

Captain Barrington, afier having remained for a short time 
tobsequent to his returfi to Europe without holding any com^ 
fnissioOi was, in I7{7» appointed to the Achilles, a new ship 



i9$ »i9ai«piri<M nw^M 

of >^ gout, oi\« 4|f ^ fleet destined for the home or channel 
•leryke. ^As «>Mi u ic was cqQif>ped) he was ordered on "the 
eocoessless expedition -sent against Rochfort. Independent of 
that rekiftance with which it is natural for all people to 
enter into zny detail of an occurrence on which, the wishes 
and expectations of a whole nation, after bqing anxiously 
fixed, were chilled by the severest dis^ppoinunent» Captaia 
Harrington was so trivially concerned in it, as to rcndes any 
enlarged accoimt of the tcansaAipa irrelevant and impropec 
jf^e wa$ afterwards employed as a channel cruiser during the 
iqjiain^V of '.the yeai;, and at the conuxicncement of th^ 
rnsi^ii^g, was occupied in a similar )dnd of service, under the 
larders -of Captain Pratt^n, who was senior Officer of one of 
Ihe small squadrons which were constantly kept in the 
i;harmel and Q^ the coast of France, to prevent as much ai 
possible the depredations that ji^ght otherwise have bceii 
cpjcnmitted by the enezpy's crubers. 

This little armament had the good fortune to fall in with 
the Raisonable, a French ship of war» mounting 64 guns, 
which tlie Dorsetshire, commanded by Captain, afterwards 
Sir Peter Denis, was immediately ordered to chase, but in 
consequence of its being discovered that the objed of .pursuit 
vf^ a very large vessel, Captain Barrington was ordeied tq 
follow in pursuit, and support tb4 Dorsetshire if ocoessaryt 
7he superior sailing of the Ifitter ship^ and tbe bizisicpnis 9£ 
ber attack;^ prpyeuted Captain Barringtao from acguiriiig thm 
opportunity of distinguishing bmMelf which has gaUan^ 
^d natural spirit flattered him with the hqpc^ p^ when £rst 
ordered to pursue* He continued occupied io the same line 
^f adive service till the year 1760, when he w^ ordered to 
Louisburg, whipb Ibctress had not Jong before boen csiptived 
^Q^k ike eneiuy* Prcviousj howevei« to his quitting a 
station on whicb h^ bad been so longeuiployedj be ihad tha 
happiness in the month of April 1759J ^^ ftUing in with % 
Fj^uch ahip of vismrp c^kd the St. Florentine, which livas of 
Cfwl lofce with the Achiiles* AbfiK a tsbort ^^ise h^ got 
«lpsf ^ mth bis ftmagonisf, whom be bfpvgbt to a very dost 



OP TiIe HON. SAMUEL BARRIKCTON. IJf 

idioAy which was closed after a continuance of contest for 
two hours, by the surrender of the enemy. 

'The peculiar manner and address with which the Achilles 
1i?as manceuvred during the encounter, refleded a brilliancy 
6h the>charafter of her commander superior, if possible, to 
the lustre produced by any cotemporary atchiieveraenti 
Furious and uninterrupted as the aftion had raged for so 
long a space of time, tw6 persons only were killed, and 
twenty-three wounded among Mr. Harrington's crew; while 
on board the French ship the carnage had exceeded five times 
that number; the vessel itself being reduced at the same time 
almost compfetcly to a wreck, not only by the loss of all her 
masts, but by the extreme injury she had received in her 
hull. Prudence and ability, Conneftcd with a proper por- 
tion of spirit, render the char1a£ler of a commander perfed ; 
and in few men have these united qualities appeared with 
greater advantage than they did in that of Captain Barring* 
ton, on the different occasions he met with of displaying 
them. 

After the return of Captain Harrington from Louisburg, 
at the close of the year 1760, the Achilles was taken into 
dock for repair, a necessary operation, in which the greatest 
part of the winter was consumed. , As soon as it was com- 
pleted, he was ordered to put himself under the command 
of Commodore Keppel, with whom he accordingly pro- 
ceeded on the Expedition undertaken against Belleisle. Here 
he again signalized himself, particularly in the attack of one 
of the forts situated near the shore^ which had it not been 
previously silenced, would very materially have incommoded 
the troops durinp; their debarkation. As a maik of Mr. 
Keppel*s e teem for his conduft, he was chosen by that 
gentleman to be the bearer of his official dispatches, in 
which he pays Captain Harrington the following concise 
and well deserved compliment, ** Captain Harrington having 
been employed in many of the operations on this service, I 
have sent him home with this letter, and beg, Sir, to refer 
you to him for the particulars." He continued in the same 

taou 1 v^ A A 



\ ^ 



ship till nearly the conclusion of the war, but was, genetalLjr 
speaking, very uninterestingly employed, owing to that in- 
aftion of the enemy, which was naturally consequent to 
the heavy losses their Marine had sustained. 

In the early part of the year 1762, he served in the small ar- 
mament to which those causes which have been just mentioned 
had enabled Britain to reduce her naval force stationed in the 
thannel, but before the actual cessation of hostilities took 
place, he was appointed to the Hero, of 74 guns, one of tbe 
ships employed in the same line of service the Achilles had 
been, and under the same Flag Officer, the late Sir Charles 
Hardy. His ship being put out of commission and dis- 
mantled as soon as the definitive treaty of peace had taken 
place, Mr. Barrington did not take upon him any subsequent 
command till the year 1768, when he was appointed to the 
Venus frigate, of 36 guns, which was at that time considered 
as the finest ship of her class, which had ever belonged to 
the British Navy. 

The cause of this appointment was, in order that Captain 
Barrington might a£t as instructor or tutor to his Royal 
Highness the late Duke of Cumberland, who had then de- 
termined on entering into the naval service* No person 
more fit or more capable df undertaking such a charge, 
Could have been found. The preparatory service in the 
navy, far as regarded a personage of his Highness's elevated 
rank, was at that time a mere matter of form, for it had beei> 
customary, as in the case of his Royal brother the Duke of 
York, to promote Princes to the rank of Flag Officers, almost 
as soon as those taiiporary inconveniences generally experi- 
enced by persons on their. first going to sea, had worn off. But 
in proportion as this preliminary service was dispensed with 
and shortened, by so much the more did it become incum- 
bent on the |>receptor to be diligent in communicating his 
instructions, and on the pupil to be attentive in receiving 
them. This appointment, therefore, which by some persons 
might be cursorily passed over as a circumstance of trivial of 
no consequence, will be found on closer examination, one of 



OF THE HON* 8AMUBI. lARILlNGTONt I79 

the grcitcst compliments that could have been bestowed on 
bim. 

Captain Harrington, that the rules of the service might be 
preserved, at least on such occasions as it had been un^ 
customary to dispense with, resigned the command of the 
Venus for a few days, in the course of the month of Ofto* 
ber following bis appointment, in order to afford an op«^ 
portunity to his Royal pupil of being promoted to the rank 
of Post Captain. The Duke being quickly afterwards ad- 
vanced to the station of Rear Admiral of the Blue, Mr. 
Barrington resumed his former station as commander of thq 
Venus, and bad the honour of attending his Royal Highness 
to Lisbont After his return to England, be continued 
without holding any commission till the year 177 1, when, in 
consequence of an apprehended rupture with Spain relative^ 
to the Falkland Islands, he was appointed to the Albion, of 
74 guns, one of the ships ordered to be equipped at Chat- 
ham on that occasion. The dispute being accommodated, 
the ship just mentioned was ordered to be retained in com- 
mission as a guardship stationed at Plymouth, where Captain 
Barrington continued to command her during the three 
succeeding years. 

In 1777, all prospcft having vanished of terminating the 
contest which had then so long subsisted between Great 
Britain and the American Colonies, and it becoming every 
day more and more probable that France had resolved on be- 
coming ^ party in the dispute, .Great Britain applied herself 
with no inconsiderable degree of earnestness to the equip- 
ment of a formidable naval force. ' Mr. Barrington was 
accordingly commissioned to the Prince of Wales, a third 
rate, of 74 guns, one of the ships ordered to be fitted for 
immediate service. As soon ^s the ship was ready for sea, it 
was ordered out on a cruise in the Bay of Biscay, for the 
purpose of distressing the American commerce, and met with 
no inconsiderable share of success. Mr. Barrington, how- 
Qv^r^ waii on thp point of engaging in a far more a6live scene^ 



iSo BIOQRABHICAL MEMOIRS- 

wliich consequently was much more agreeable %o his ^Aive 
turn of mind. Being promoted on the 23d of January 17785^ 
to the rank of Rear-Admiral of the White, be hoisted his flag 
on board the sarpc ship, and proceeded to the West Indies, 
having been invested with the chief command of the naval 
force employed i(i that quarter, as successor to Admiral 
Young. I'hc rupture with France, an event which had 
b.een sq long meditated by that country, ^nd considered as 
inevitable by Britain, haying commenced in 1778, the force 
under the orders of the Vice- Admiral became totally inade- 
quate to the protection of such valuable possessions as the 
West India islands. Mr. Hotham was accordingly detached 
to reinforce him from North America, with two ships of 64 
guns*, three of 50 guns each f, and a bomb-ketch. This 
squadron also served to convoy to the West Indies, which 
ware then v^ry ill-garrisoned and provided with troops, a 
fleet consisting of fifty-niqe transports, having Qn board a 
considerable land force, intended not merely fpr the protec- 
tion of the British possessions, but the annoyancq and attack 
qf any colonies, the property of the en^myj which should 
be considered as vulnerable. 

A jundlion being happily formed with Mr. Barrington at 
Barbadoes, where he had coUc£led the whole force under his 
command, which previously consisted of no more than two 
ships of the line, the Prince of Wales and Boyne, \vith six or 
seven small frigates and sloops of war, it was resolved to com- 
mence operations against the enemy, by an immediate and 
powerful attack on the French Island of St. Lucia. Scarce 
had the troops obtained a footing on the island* when the 
whole attention of the Admiral was* through necessity di- 
verted to a sudden, though not totally t^nexpede^ enemy, in 
the Count d*£$taing, who had arrived at ^artinico a f^w 
days before. The following plain unadorned account, ofli-i 
cially given by Mr. Barrington, of the principal transaAion^ 

f The St. Albani and Nopiuch. f The Ins, Ccotnrian, and Pretto^. 



or TRB BPH* SAMUEL B4AR1IZQT0V. %f\ 

v^hieh took place on thi$ t^ventful occasipiiy cannot fail of 
proving interesting in the extreme, to every lover of his 
country, and every admirer of gallantry : 

Prince of Walfs, im the Grand Cu^ de 8ai In thf Isla94 
of St, Lucia^ December 23, 1778, at Ni^bt, 

SIR, 

In my letter of the 24th of last month from Barhadoes, I informed 
you of the Vcnus's arrival there, with an account of Commodore 
Hotham's being on his way to join me ; and you will now please to 
acquaint my Liords Commissioners of the Admiralty, that the Com* 
ipodore arrived there the loth instant, with his Majesty's ships the 
Nonsuch, St. Albans, Preston, Centurion, Isis, and Carcass, and 
fifty-nine transports ; having on board 5000 troops, under the com- 
mand of Major-General Grant. 

To save time and prevent the confusion naturally arising from a 
change of signals among the transports, I adopted those of the Com« 
modore, and directing him to lead with the landing division, put to 
sea the 12th in the morning, in order to carry into execution their 
Lordships secret instrud^ions, and about three o'clock on the follow« 
ing day anchored here with the whole squadron ; except the Anadne, 
Ceres# Snake, Barbadoes, and Pelican, which I had stationed along 
the coast to intercept any vessels attempting to eacape from the 
Island. 

More than half the troops were landed the same morning, under 
the direction of the Commodore, assisted by the Captains Griffith* 
Braithwaite, and Onslow, and the remainder the next morning (the 
14th), when they immediately got possession of the Careenage ; and it 
was my intention to have removed the transports thither as soon as 
possible, had not that measure been prevented by the appearance of 
the French fleet under Count d'Estaing, of whom I received notice 
in the evening, by signal from the Anadne, 

It therefore became necessary to secure the transports as well as we 
could in the Bay, and the whole night was accordingly employed in 
warping them within the ships of war, and disposing the latter in a line 
acrosa the entrance in the order they stand in ^ the margin * ; the Isis 
to windward, rather inclining into the Bay, and the Prince of Wales, 
being the most powerful ship, the outermost to the leeward, with the 
Venus, Aurora, and Ariadne, flanking the space between the Isis and 
|he shore, to prevent the enemy's forcing a passage that way. 

Almost all the transports had fortunately got within the line be- 
fore half past eleven in the morning of the I5th» when the Count 

« 

^ Itisi St« Albans, Bojne, Nonsncfa, Centurion, Preston, Piince of Wales. 



||^ BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

thought proper to bear dqv^ and attack us with ten sail of the Hiie| 
happily without doing us any material injury, and at four in the after-* 
noon he made a second attack upon us with twelve sail of the linct 
with noT other success, however, than killing two men and wounding 
«even on board the Prinpe of Walesi and wounding one also on board 
the Ariadnei who is since dead ; but I have reason to believe the 
enemy received considerable damage, as their manoeuvres betrayed great 
confusion, and one of their ships in particular, which fe{l to leeward, 
seemed disabled from carrying the necessary sail to get to windward 
^ain* 

The next day (the i6th), the Count shewed a disposition to attack 
|is a third time, but on the appearance of a fngate standing for hia^ 
Jleet with several signals flying, he plied to >vindWard, and in the 
evening anchored off Gros Islet, about two leagues from us, where he 
ftill continues^ with ten frigates, besides his twelve sail of the line. 
Kotwilhstanding this superiority of force, he has been accompanied 
from his ^rst appearance, by several American privateers, one of them 
commanded by tl^e outlaw Cunningham, yi\tq last winter infested the 
coast of Portugal. 

That night and the following day, the enemy landed a hirgc body 
of troops froR^ a number of sloqps and schooners, which had anchore4 
in Du Choc Bay, and on the 1 8th made a spirited attack both by scs^ 
Sind land on our post at the Careenage, but met with a very severe 
pheck, having been repulsed with great courage by a small detach* 
inent of our troops under Brigadier. General Meadows, 

They have attempted nothing of consequence since, and what ma]p 
be their future plan of operations I cannot conjedlure ; but their con- 
tinuance at anchor has offered u^ an opportunity not only of getting 
in all the cruisers, except the Ceres, and all the transports except one 
(with only the baggage of the officers of three companies on board), 
which has fallen into the enemy's hands, but also of strengthening 
ourselves by warping the ships of war farther into the Bay, an4 
making the line more compact, removing the Venus astern of the 
Ftince of Wales to flank that passage, and ere£ting batteries at each 
point of the Bay, that to the northward under the direction of the 
Captains Cumming and Robertson, and that to the southward under- 
Captain Ferguson. 

This being the situation of the squadron, and the army being it\ 
possession of all the strong holds in the neighbourhood of the Bay^ 
such a spirit of chearfulness, unanimity, and resolution, annates the 
whole of our little force, both by land and sea (notwithstanding the 
amazing fatigue they have undergone), that we are under no appre« 
pensions from any. attempts the enemy may meditate } and from Hisi 



OP THS EtON* SAIdUSL BA&RlNGTOlf, lt| 

ftccouQts vhich have been transmitted to me from Captata Linzee of 
the Pearly who arrived at Barbadoes the 13th instant, that Vice«Ad« 
miral Byron was to sail from Rhode Island for Barbadoes, the 19th of 
]ast months with sixteen sail of the line and several frigates^ there is 
tvery reason to hope he will soon be here, in which case affairs la 
this country must take a very decisive turn in favour of his Majesty'i 
arms* 

Should any unforeseen accident, however, prevent the Vice-Ad- 
miral's arrival, their Lordships will, nevertheless, be pleased to assure 
bis Majesty, that every thing which can possibly be done by so small 
a body of troops and so few ships, against a force so very superior, 
will be effe^ed. 

I cannot conclude my letter without acquainting you, that in aH 
probability our operations here, have hitherto saved the Islands of St^ 
ViDcent and Grenada, which we understand from some officers whp 
fu'e prisoners, were the obje£ls of Count d'Estaing's expedition, when 
a sloop that had escaped from this island falling in with him, and 
giving him notice of our being here, direfked his attention towards us* 

I am, &c« 

SAM. BARRTNGTON* 

P. S. I have the fatisfa6lion to add, that this morning the squadron 
^ot possession of an American privateer of eighteen guns, called the 
-Bunker Hill, which at day-br.*ak was discovered within reach of our 
guns, and having struck upon finding she could not escape, the boats 
towed her within the line before any of the French fleet could get to 
her assistance. She sailed from Salem the 2d instant, and was in<« 
tended to cruise fifteen leagues to windward of Barbadoes, but had 
missed that island and fallen to leeward* 

Dw/w^^r 24,1778. SAM. BARRINGTON. 

Th'tlip StepherUi Efq. Secretary to the Admiralty. 

The critical situation in which the Admiral found him^ 
self placed on this occasion, was such as to call for the ut-* 
most exertions and demand the greatest vigour both of body 
and mind. Attacked by an enemy's fleet more than doubling 
his own in force, he had not only the safety of his ships to 
attend to, but his anxiety received considerable augmentation 
from the refleftion that the preservation of an army, ou 
whose fate that of all the British possessions in that quarter 
depended, rested merely on the event, not barely of his 
baffling or evading the force of the attack, but of his repul- 
sing the assailants with disgrace* His own abilities, se« 



lft4 1ii66iArHiciL mbmoirs 

tondied by the bratery and intrepidity of those whom h^ 
commanded, ptoVed fully <:6mpetent td the execution of thi^ 
Apparently arduous task. Foiled ,in every attenipt, the 
JFrench comirander in chief, after a series of reiterated attacks,^ 
made in his amphibious capacity of Admiral and General; 
by sea and land, all of which ended in his discomfiture; 
was obliged to retreat from the fury of ail antagbnist, the 
inferiority of who^e force almost induced contempt previous 
to tixe aAual cbmmencement of the first attack* 

The ensuing brief and modest account of the circum- 
stances which attended this memorable event, will probably 
transmit it to posterity with more advantage than any othef 
more enlarged and florid detail i 

Prince of W'ttUs^ in the Grand Cut de Sae^ Im tig 
lilandofSt. Lucia, January 6, 1779. 

You Will herewith receive the duplicate of a letter I wrote to you 
the 23d and 24.th of last month (No. 23), and dispatched to Governor 
Hay of Barhadoes, to be forwarded from thence to England by scrme 
fast sailing vessel, that my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
might have it in their power to refute any misrepresentation which 
Count d'Estaing may have transmitted to his Court of the situation 
of his Majesty's forces in those seas* 

From the state of inaAivity in which the Count continued for 
several days after, I began to conceive it was his intention to form a 
blockade, with a view of starving us into a surrender ; but to my utter 
astonishment, on the morning of the 29th (having re- embarked his 
troops during the preceding night), he retired with his whole force 
towards Martinique, and left us in quiet possession of the Island, 
which capitulated whilst his fleet was still in sight, upon the terms I 
have the honour to inclose* 

I should be very much wanting, were I on the present occasion to 
omit acknowledging the assistance I received from Major- General 
Grant, and the forces under his command, as well as expressing my 
entire satisfa6Uon with the conduA not only of Cottimodore Hotham", 
the several commanders, and the rest of the officers of the squadrorf, 
but also of the people in general, who never in the least repined at 
their precarious situation, and the difficulties they hourly encountered, 
but still performed their duty with alacrity and spirit.^ Sensible of the 
additionsd fatigue the troops underwent in occupying more extensive 
posts for the security of the squadron than there would otherwise have 
becir occasion for, the seattien laboured with the utmost cbearfulness m 



OF TUB nOH« SAMUB& SAftRINGTOlT^ iSj 

toikveying provisions, &c for them throiigh roads that were aihaost 
impassable. . 

I likewise beg leave to mention to their Lordshipsy the very great 
assistance I received from Captain Barker* the Agent of transports, 
and the services of Lieutenant Governor Stuartf of the Island of 
Dominical who has done me the favour of officiating as an honorary 
aid-de-camp between the General and myself. He accompanied me 
upon this eicpedition in hopes that his Majesty's arms might after- 
wards be employed in recovering that island, where* from his peifeA 
knowledge of ft, he must be particularly useful, and therefore offered 
himself as a viJunteer. 

What has become of the enemy's fleet since its departure from 
hence, I have not had it in my power to learn, but I hope Vice- Ad- 
miral Byron, who, I have the pleasure to acquaint you, arrived here 
this morning, with nine sail of the line, will very soon be able to give 
their Lordships that information ; and that Rear- Admiral Sir Peter 
Parker, and the Governor of Jamaica, may be upon their guard in case 
of its i^jpearance in those seas, I have sent the Ariadne to Antigua 
with letters, to be forwarded from thence by some fast sailing vessd, 
which I have requested Governor Birrt to dispatch for that purpose. 

I have great 6atis&6Uon in hearing since the capitulation, that when 
Count d'Estaing was dire£ted hither by the sloop I mentioned in my 
letter, he was bound first of all to Barl^does, in expe^btion of finding 
there only the Prince of Wales, the Boyne, and some frigates, of 
which he had received intelligence from a French flag of truce I had 
ordered away immediately on the arrival of the Venus. 

I am sorry to add, that the Ceres, which was missing when I sent 
away that letter, appears by the Martinique Gazette, to have been 
taken, after a chase of forty-eight hours, by the Iphigenie, a French 
irigate, of 36 guns, but I have no account of it from Captain Dacres, 
or any of his officers. 

I cannot help regretting the loss of this sloop, not only as she sailed 
remarkably well, but as Captain Dacres is an officer of inEnite merit ; 
I have, however, in order to replace the Ceres, as the Bunker Hfll 
privateer has the reputation of being a fast sailer (which her log- book 
confirms), commissioned her as a sloop in his Majesty's service, by the 
name of the Surprise (being expressive of the manner in which she 
came into our possession )» and appointed Lieutenant James Brine, 
First Lieutenant of the Prince of Wales, to be master and commander 
of her, with a complement of 125 men. She mounts eighteen car- 
riage and eight swivel guns. 

For further particulars I beg leave to refer their Lordships to 
Captain Robertson, of the Wcazcl, who will have the honour of de« 

laol^ IV. B » 



r86 ' 810G1APNICAL . MIMOIltir 

li^ering these dispatchest and whose condu£l as an ofiScer meriti 
their Lordships' prote&iony as well as every favour they can polfiUy 
•hew him# 

I am> &c. 

SAM. BARRINGTON. 

When the reflefling mind of a Briton shall coolly and 
deliberately draw z comparison between the termination of 
this contest^ and of that, which under nearly similar circum- 
8tances> took place twenty years afterwards on the coast of 
Egypt, it becomes as it were bewildered between gratitude 
and admiration, whether the formeralone is to be poured forth 
in acknowledgements, that those events were solely con- 
du£ted by a predisposing Providence, succouring the weak 
and punishing the guilty, or the latter should claim some 
share in the effusions of the heart beholding the ex- 
tent of that fortitude, prudence, and general ability, with 
which the supreme direAing Power can> and does on special 
occasions, influence and dire£l the minds and the exertions 
of its humble though favoured agents. 

. The attention of the Admiral during the foregoing perilous 
service was not, as is apparent from the latter part of his 
dispatch, coldly confined to the narrow limits of his own 
.command, but prudently extended to every quarter where 
supposition could suggest the vengeance of an irritated and 
disappointed foe was likely to fall ; but, as is also explaine4 
in the same dispatch, the apprehension of any future attack 
from the enemy in that quarter had been completely quieted 
by the arrival of Vice- Admiral Byron with his squadron, 
from North America. The gentleman last mentioned being 
of higher rank in the service than Mr. Barrington, naturally 
took upon him tlie chief command, on which occasion he 
paid the following proper and well deserved compliment to 
tlie abilities of bis predecessor. 

" As I found it necessary," said Mr. Byron, " to take 
the Prince of Wales, and all the ships of the line, with me to 
meet Mr. d'Estaing, upon his coming out of Fort Royal 
Harbour} Rear- Admiral Barrington (who bad shifted his 



OP T8B MOll, SAMVtL BARRIIieTON. iff 

4ag to the Isis), expressed a desire to return to the Prince of 
Wales, and a£t with me rather than remain at the Cul de 
Sac : I granted his request, and must acknowledge myself 
very unhappy at being so circumstanced as to be under an 
indispensable necessity of interfering with a command in- 
trusted to an officer, who has done bis duty with singular 
advantage to his country and honour to himself/' 

Thus did the adive spirit of this gallant Gentleman vo* 
lantarily court, as it were, danger and fatigue, because he 
conceived it probable, an opportunity might occur of his 
being able to render service to his country. Mr. Barrings 
ton continued to aA as second in command of the fleet 
long as he remained on that station, and was, on the 19th 
of March following, advanced to the rank of Rear-Admiral 
of the Blue- For several months the British armament was 
obliged to content itself with the troublesome task of watch- 
ing the motions of the French fleet in Port-Royal, and pre-* 
venting the possibility of its eifefling any mischief against 
the British possessions, by any small squadrons which 
might be detached from it As summer, however, advanced, 
affairs appeared tq wear a more serious asped, and promise 
an appearance of some more a£live sceqe.— rThis appear* 
ance was, unfortunately from the events which attended its 
realization, not fallacious. The Count d'Estaing, who had 
been considerably reinforced from Europe, till the armament 
under his orders had swelled to nearly thirty ships- of the 
line, took advantage of the partial absence of the Bri- 
tish fleet from its station off Martinico, and put to sea with 
his whole force. A considerable ix>dy of land forces had 
been taken qn board the ships previous to their patting to 
sea ; for the French commander in chief had projeded an 
attack on several of those British Colonies, which appeared in 
the most defbnceless state. The superiority of his force 
enabled him to execute his projed with success, for he made 
himself master of St. Vincents and Grenada, which the 
counter attack made ^y Mr. Barrington on St* Lucia, had on 
a fornaer occasion preservedt 



tSS BIOGRAPHICAL MBMOtRt 

The moment Mr. Byron became informed of the French 
fleet being at sea> he immediately sailed in search of it, 
though thfe force under his orders was nearly one-third m« 
ferior to that of the enemy. Mr. Barrington commanded, 
as the post naturally allotted to the rank he held, the van 
division, and the two fleets having met off Grenada on thp 
6th of July, he began the adion by a most spirited attack oi^ 
the enemy, in which he was very bravely supported by the. 
Sultan and Boyne. When the comparative strength of the 
two fleets is considered, it might at first be thought an a^ 
somewhat bordering on rashness, to attempt bringing the issue 
of the campaign to such a decision* But Mr. Byron» 
well aware that the situation of public affairs demanded i^ 
speedy exertion, and feeling that a vidoty might be attended 
by the most solid advantages, while eveq a discomfiture, 
though of the worst kind he could forebode, would be pro^ 
duftive of little inconvenience^ resolved to engine them^ 
though his force amounted to no more tha^ twenty-one 
ships of the line, many of them sixty-fours, and much 
out of condition, opposed to twenty -seven ships under tb^. 
Count d'Estaing, all of them in goo4 repair^ and very few 
of less force than 74 guns« 

The Count, in addition to that advantage which be de« 
rived from his superiority of force, possessed the weather* 
gage, and being resolved that nothing should divert his 
attention from the favourite objeft, very cautiously avoid^ 
any thing like a close adion, so that, notwithstanding, the 
very spirited maimer in which Mr. Barrington and his com* 
panions assailed the enemy> the contest ended without any 
important benefit being ' obtained by either party. But 
though the general termination of the encounter was 
such that Britain derived no advantage from it, except 
the honour of having compelled, so superior a force to de- 
cline all further contest, may be deemed one ; few superior 
instances of personal exertion have ever been displayed tb^ii 
were on that occasion* The van of the foe fled in dismay 
from the tremendous fire of the Prince of Wales, amd its 

4 



! 



pw THi mtm* tMioBi. smufOTOK* t9i^ 

associates, for the subsequent caution appeand netiriy af 
mvch owing to an apprehension of enconntering too dosdj 
that hardy spirit of which the enemy had received so strong 
and powerful a prQof, as it did to any other secret phtn ot 
future operations, then buried in the bosom of their com* 
foander in chief. 

Among the ships which were enabled to dose so 
sufficiently, as to share in the laurels earned in oonse^ 
quence of this event, was to be reckoned ibe Lion, of 64 
gun^y at that time commanded by Captain, now Adndra^ 
Cornwallis. She had the misfortune to be reduced almost 
fo a wreck, and being nearly unmanageable, was, when ii» 
this deplorable situation, attacked by a French ship, of 
^ guns, which bore down with a very evident in* 
tention of raking her. Dreadful was her condition, and 
liothing short of the most prompt and spirited etertiontf 
could possibly have preserved her from destruftion almost 
instantaneous, for the only opposition that could have beea 
made by Captain Cor ^wallis to so powerful an attack, was 
from four guns, which were all that could be brought ta 
bear from the Lion on this new and tremendous antagonise 
Admiral Barrington saw the danger, and wiA the most 

• 

fuarked decision resolved to parry the stroke. He imme* 
diately put his helm a- weather, and bearing down on the 
French ship, had the good fortune to interpose his own 
|9roadside at the instant the enemy was preparing to throw 
the whole of his fire into the Lion's stern. Having thus 
sustained the first shock of the enemy's fury, Mr. Barrington 
immediately began to attack the assailant, and retaliated on 
him so severely, that aifter a very warm but short a&ioUf 
the French ship thought proper to sheer off in a very shat- 
tered condition. 
< • 

So heavy a ^hare did the Prince of Wales sustain in* the 
whole of this engagement, which could by no means b^ 
considered as a generally serious a£tion, that seventy-two 
persons. on board that ship, -were either killed or wounded i 
amoog the latter was the Admiral himself; fortunately for 
his counxxjf for his numerous friends^ and for himself, the 



IfO 



-BiOffRAFHIfirL MBICmRt 



injury ks svstiuned was too slight to afieft his future healdi* 
The Admir^ returned to England not long afterwards, and 
4id not hold any subsequent appointment till the middle of 
the ensuing summer, when he was nominated second in 
command of the main or channel fleet, under Admiral, 
afterwards Sir Francis Geary. He did not long retain this 
station, having quitted it after a short cruise, in consequence 
of Mn Geary being obliged to resign his command in conse« 
quence of ill health, and his own unwillingness at that time to 
take upon himself so responsible a situation as that of com» 
mander in chief. On the i6th of September in this year, he 
was advanced to be Vice* Admiral of the White, and after 
a retirement of nearly two years continuance, re<^hoisted his 
flag, in the month of April 1782, on board the Britannia, a 
£nt rate, being appointed qncc ipore to command in the 
home OF channel fle^t. 

Intelligence had been received by the British Ministry 
just before this time, that a convoy was then on the point 
of sailing from the Port of Brest bound to the East Indies^ 
Mr. Barrington was ordered to put to sea in the hope of his^ 
being able to intercept them. He accordingly sailed from 
Spithead on the 13th of April,, with the following ship^ 
under his comnumd : 

{Admiral Banington. 
Capuin HilL 
J Admiral Kempenfeitt 
(.Captain CromwelL 

 . Phipps. 
  Dalrymple, 

 Jervis, 

{Commodore Elliot* 
Captaia Moiitray. 

 Lord Longford^ 

 Onslow. 
' KeppeL 

' Sir H. Parker, 

 .  Harvey. 
— — Lord Fitzgerald. 

L f t Hon. G, Berkeley, 
King, 





Pun^ 


Bntannia, 


100 


Royal George^ 


100 


Ocean, 


90 


Union,. 


90 


Foudroyant, 


60 


Edgar, 


74 

• 


Alexander, 


7+ 


Bellona, 


74 


Fortitude, 


74 


Goliah, 


74 


Sampson, 


64 


La Prudeoty 


36 


Recovery^ 


3* 


Crocodile^ 


H 



0» THB BOM. lAMUBl. BAktllKitOlr* 1)1 

tie bad the good fortune to fail ia with the objeft of his 
ptusQit on the 20th of the same month. The force of the 
enemy consisted of two shipsy of 7^ gnnS) the Proteftenr 
and Pegase; L'Andrommque frigate of 3a guns, UAo« 
ti<»iaire, of 64 guns, ormi €nfluU% with seventeen or eighte^ 
vessels under their convoy, the whole bound to the £asf 
Indies. Through the adivity of the officers a£ting under 
the orders of Mr. Barrington, the Pegase*, the Actionaire, 
and twelve of the inferior vessels were captured. Mr. Bas^ 
ringtoit continued in the same station, but rather uniit- 
terestingly employed, till the month of September, when he 
sailed from Spithead as second in command of the formidable, 
fleet sent under the orders of Lord Viscount Howe, to at* 
tempt the relief of Gibraltar, then closely pressed on the 
land side by a Spanish army, while the combined fleets of 
the enemy, amounting together to. nearly fifty sail of the 
line, blockaded it by sea, and flattered themselves with the 
hopes of being able to prevent the introduftion of any suc-^ 
cour whatever. 

The events of this momentous crisis are briefly given 
by Captain , Drinkwater in the following terms : ^' The 
intelligence of Lord Howe being so near, now, for the first 
time, gave us sensible pleasure ; not so much on account 
of our personal situation, as of tlie advantage which the 
enemy's recent misfortunes would give his Lordship over his 
opponents, as well toward accomplishing the objed of 
his orders, as affording him a farther opportunity of a£ling 
as his Lordship's well known abilities might dictate. We 
were so elated by our enemy's distress, that some were so 
sanguine as to anticipate the most glorious conclusion of 
the war, and of our own sufferings. Our hopes, however, 
were soon depressed, by the intelligence of Lord Howe's 
great inferiority in number. Thirty-four sail to oppose 
forty-two, which still remained at anchor in the Bay, gave 
VS reason to be apprehensive for the safety of the British 

* For ft partlcoUf account of the capture of this ship, «ce the Memoin of 
Ssrl St. Viaceot, page 9. 



tqt BIOORAfHICAL MEkOlM 

fleet. The navigation of the Straits was so precarious tlisit 
if hit Lordship once entered the Mediterranean) he might 
f robaUy be preventsd from Returning for a considerahlt 
Vme ; arid the enemy> though now distressed, might, by the 
assistance of the canip, soon refit, and Attack him under 
''every advantage. 

'^ About sunset, sereial large ships were discovered 
tfirough tiie haze, and soon afterwards^ the Latona frigate, 
XTaptain Conway, anchored under our guns, and informed us 
that the ships to the Gut were the van of the British fleet, 
commanded by Lord Howe, consisting of thirty*four sail of 
■the line, including eleven three-deckers, with six frigates, 
-And thirty-one ordnance transports, and a reinforcement of 
upwards of 1600 men for the garrison. Captain Oonway 
£tfther told us of the anxiety which prevailed at home, 
idative to the situation of Gibraltar ; and that it was only 
off the southern coast of Portugal that Lord Howe had his 
doubts removed, by receiving intelligence of the enemy's 
late defeats. This welcome information, he said, was ac* 
companied by advice, that ' the combined fleets had taken 
their station in the bay of Gibraltar, resolutely determined 
to prevent, if possible, the intended relief/ We learned 
that upon receiving the latter intelligence, the Adrnfrals and 
principal officers were summoned on board the Viflory, 
where particular instructions and orders were communicated, 
in expcdation of an engagement, which was considered as 
unavoidable. 

^< Although the enemy's signals for the approach of thfr 
Britiali fieet were made early in the afternoon, yet the 
Spanish Admiral exhibited not the least appearance of op« 
position to any rcinforcemcntsr being sent into the Bay* 
This favourable opportunity was, however, lost ; owing, ks 
Lord Howe expresses in his official letter, to the want of 
timely attention to the circumstances of the navigation^ 
Only four or five transports reached the Bay, the rest, wid^ 
the fleet, were carried by the current into the Mediterranean. 
At night, or early on the 12th, Captain Curtis sailed in thm 



OF THB HON. SAMUEL BA&RIKGTOll, ^ 19] 

Latona, to inform Lord Howe of the calamity which had 
befallen the enemy's fleet. At noon, the British fleet appeared 
in good order off Estepona or Marbella, and the transports, 
with the frigates,, were working to windward to gain the 
Bay. As they approached the isthmus, the enemy saluted 
them from their mortars, and fired upon them from behind 
the eastern advanced guardhouse. 

" While the British fleet, with the transports, were thus 
critically situated, the combined fleets were a£^ive in repair- 
ing their damages, and in forming a line of battle along the 
shore* In the morning* a number of troops were embarked 
on board them from the camp* Their xebecs, cutters, 
armed brigs, and gun^boats, also assembled in Sandy Bay, 
with an intention, probably, of picking up our straggling 
transports. In the close of the day, however, this fleet of 
craft returned to their main fleet., At night the Panther 
man of war, and several transports, anchored in the Bay. 

^* The British fleet, at day-break on the 13th, was, still 
oflF Marbella, with the wind at West. About nine o'clock 
A. M. the Spanish Admiral made the signal for the com- 
bined fleets to weigh anchor. By one o'clock, the whole 
were, under weigh. At three, a French Rear- Admiral, 
being the last of the rear division, cleared the Bay. Their 
number in ail amounted to eighty sail, of which the fol- 
lowing, I believe, is an accurate account : six three-deckers, 
thirty^eight two*deckers» including several fifties ; total, 
forty "four men of war, five frigates, twenty-nine xebecs^ 
cutters, armed ships, and brigs, also two imagined to be 
iireships. Notwitlisianding little doubt was to be enter- 
tained of the enemy's intention of leaving the Bay, tlie 
Panther man of war remained at anchor, with several 
officers of the garrison on board, whom the Governor had 
permitted to aA as volunteers in the engagement* When 
the combined fleets had cleared the Bay, they stood some 
. time to the southward, and leaving a line of battle ship and 
two frigates to prevent the Panther from joining her Ad- 
miral, drove with the current some leagues to the eastward* 

^l IV. c c 



t94 BIOGRAPHICAL MBMOtt« 

They then appeared to edge down toward the British fleets 
which was in close line of battle upon a wind with their 
pleads to the southward ; the transports, with the frigates 
which had been beating up, falling behind them to leeward* 
Thus were both -fleets situated at the close of the evening. 
Before the enemy had totally quitted the Bay, Captain 
Curtis landed in a small boat from the Latona frigate, with 
20,oool. in specie for the garrison, having narrowly escaped 
being cut off by the combined fleets. He told us the British 
fleet were in high spirits, and impatient to engage, not- 
withstanding the enemy's great superiority. When the 
combined fleet flrst appeared in motion, the Spanish pri- 
soners who had been landed from the St. Michael, were so 
overjoyed, 'that they could not forbear expressing their 
ecstacies in so riotous a manner, as to call for some severity 
to confine them within the limits of their camp. 

** Part of the combined fleets, in the morning of the I5tb» 
were seen, though the weather was very hazy, oflF Marbella. 
The British fleet was out of sight, the Panther, neverthe- 
less, attempted to join them. About seven, A.M* the wind 
came about to the eastward. In the forenoon, nine polacres 
sailed from the Spanish camp, with troops on board, for 
Ceuta. This brought to our recollection the critical state 
of that garrison, both as to men and provisions^ when Ad- 
miral Rodney was in their neighbourhood in 1780; and 
the enemy, from embracing this opportunity of sending 
supplies, appeared not entirely to have forgotten it. About 
noon, the British fleet was discovered in the offing, to the 
^outh-east of Ceuta, standing under an easy sail toward the 
rock. At night, the Latona, with eight or ten transports, 
anchored in the Bay. They informed us, that the Buffalo 
nftan of war, with the remaining twelve ships, had separated 
by order, from the fleet, but had not afterwards joined. 
^J his intelligence gave us some uneasiness for their safety, 
but we flattered ourselves they were gone, agreeably to in- 
strudions, to the Zafarine Islands, the place of rendezvous in 
case the fleets engaged. Captain Conway, after a short con^ 
icrence with the Governor, returned in the morning of the 



•P THB HON*^ 3AMUBL BARRINGTOIT. 19$ 

tith to the British fleet, which was cruising to the east- 
ward of the rock, with the wind at east. The combined 
fleets were not in sight; we concluded, therefore, they 
were gone to Malaga to make farther repairs, and join 
tho^e ships which had been forced from the Bay on the nth. 
Since the arrival of the first transports, the garrison had 
been busily employed in disembarking the supplies. The 
former had principally brought us only men and ammuni- 
tion, which probably might, without this supply, have 
become as scarce articles as the former had been. 

** On the i8th, the wind again came about to the north- 
east, and the Buffalo, with eleven of the missing transports, 
arrived in the course of the day. These ships, as we had con- 
jedured, had separated from the fleet, and were proceeding to 
the place of rendezvous, when, not hearing the engagement, 
and the wind veering about, they returned, and were very 
near joining the combined fleets, but discovered their error 
time enough to rectify it. The missing vessel, they in- 
formed us, had been taken by the enemy some days before, 
off Malaga; and having on board the wives and baggage 
of tlietwo regiments which ^cre on board the fleets, and 
were intended for our reinforcement, her capture greatly 
distressed those corps, and the garrison heartily condoled 
with them. The Latona, in her return to the fleet, chased 
and boarded a vessel which proved to be a Spanish fireship. 
The crew deserting her, were conduced by two gun -boats 
attending, to a xebec at some distance, which afterward 
went into Ceuta. The prize was sent into the Bay. About 
noon, four or five men of war arrived from the fleet, with 
the 25 tb and aQth regiments. Lord Mulgrave, who com- 
manded the disembarkation, landed the troops with the 
greatest expedition under the lime wall at the New Mole, 
Rosia, and Camp Bays, and returned to Lord Howe off 
Tetuan. We now learned that the Admiral, having ac- 
complished the objefl of tlie expedition, intended to embrace 
the favourable opportunity of the wind^ and inimediate.Iy 
return to the westward* 



196 BIOCRATRICAL MCMOTRt 

** At day-break on the 19th, both fleets, to our great 
astonishment, were in sight; the combined fleets being 
some leagues to windward, Wheri the British fleet was 
abreast of the Europa, Lord Howe dispatched the Tisiphone 
fireship with a farther supply of powder, colleded from the 
fleet. The British fleet afterwards put before the wind, and 
stood under an easy sail, in close order, to the westward. 
The van of the combined fleets, composed of French ships, 
followed with a press of canvass at some distance. By two 
o'clock, P.M. Lord Howe was out of sight; but the 
Spanish ships sailing heavily, it was night before they dis- 
appeared." 

In the subsequent skirmish which took place on the 20th 
of Oftober, immediately after the service last mentioned 
was completed, Mr. Barrington was more materially engaged ; 
the Britannia had a greater number of men killed or wounded 
than almost any ship in the fleet, the Buffalo excepted, 
twenty-one of the crew being cither killed or wounded. 
Peace succeeding almost immediately to the return of the 
fleet into port, Mr. Barrington consequently struck his flag, 
and held no farther naval appointment till 1790, when, on 
the apprehension of a rupture with Spain, he re-hoisted it 
on board the Ro)al George, on being appointed to the 
station of second in command in the main or channel 
fleet, then under the orders of Earl Howe. During the 
preceding interval of peace he was, in 1785, appointed one of 
the Board of Land and Sea Officers convened for the pur- 
pose of inquiring into a system of national defence, brought 
forward under the auspices of the Master- General of the 
Ordnance, and on the 24th of September 1787, was ad- 
vanced to the Tank of Admiral of the Blue. 

Far, far, however, more consequential to the charafter of 
this good Iran, than any honours of this kind, well merited, 
as they certainly were, was his attention to the interests and 
promotion of a Society instituted for the Relief of indigent 
Naval Officers, their Widows, and their Children. Unpro- 
te£led by any public aid, the promoters^ among the first and 



\ OP THE IftOM* $A1il0BL Bikft&IirGTOW* t^^ 

I 

most adive of whom was Mr. Barrington, had to contend 
with tliose difficulties which all societies, notwithstanding the 
benevolence of their tendency, scarcely ever fail to meet 
with on their first introduSion to the world* Neverthc* 
less, such was the assiduity of this friend to distress, and of 
bis no less amiable associates, that in a short time they had 
the satisfadion of beholding the philanthropic plant thriving 
under their hands, and diffusing its comforts, far as its 
strength and magnitude permitted, to all objefts who sought 
its friendly shelter and support. 

The dispute with Spain having been amicably concluded 
without the necessity of even sending the amument to 
sea, Mr, Barrington struck his flag, and owing to his 
infirm state of health never took upon him any subse<juent 
command. On the 22d of April i794f he was, in conse- 
quence of a promotion of Flag Officers which then took 
place, raised to the rank of Admiral of the White, and at 
the time of his death was senior in that class of officers; 
the Admiral of the Fleet being the only officer in the service 
that preceded him. In the month of Oftober 1770, he 
received the honourable appointment of Colonel to the 
Chatham division of marines, a station in which he sue* 
ceeded the late Earl Howe, who was then promoted to be 
Rear-Admiral of the Blue, and consequently became in- 
competent to hold that station any longer. Mr. Barrington 
held that post till his own promotion to the rank of a 
Flag Officer, in the month of January 1778. In 1785, he 
succeeded Admiral Sir Thomas Pye then deceased, as Lieu- 
tenant-General of the same corps, and on the death of Earl 
Howe on the 5th of August 17999 succeeded him to the 
Generalship thereof. Such were his appointments, such 
were his services, and such were his honours. However 
worthily and truly the latter were acquired, he gained to 
himself a far superior title to any that even a monarch 
could bestow, and as though the family motto had beeii 
pointedly applied in allusion to himself :«-«-that of a benevolent 
and an honest man* 



I9S 8I0GKAPHICAL IfBMDtXS 

HeraUlc Pariicularr relative to Samuel Barringtorif Esq, Admtrci 

of the White Squadrofiy (ffc. 

His brothers were William, the late Lord ; John, a General Officerf 
who died April the id, 17641 and whose son William succeeded to 
the title, and is now Lord Viscount Barrington ; Datnes, some time 
a Welsh Judge, a Gentleman of great worth and ingenuity, who died 
a short time since ; Sbute, now Lord Bishop of Durham ; Sarah» 
Biarried to Robert Pi ice, of the coflnty of Hereford, Esq. ; Anne» 
married to Thomas, only son to Sir Thomas Clarges, Baronet ; and 
Mary, who died unmarried. The Admiral himself died at Bath oa 
the 16th of August 1800 *, in the 7 ist year of his age* 

Akbis.J Argent, three chevrooels Gules, a label of three points Azure. 
C&tar.] A Capuchin Friar Proper, with black hair, a band about the neck 
Argent ; veatcd Palea of six Argent and Gules ^ with a cap or cowl, of the 



MQtroJ} ** Honesta quam splendida.*' 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF NAVAL TACTICS, 

X}ra*o)t^from aSual Events ^ and the Success nvbich has attended fariicu/ar 
Mameuvres praQised in Engagements bettveen two Fleets^ From the 
IU*yohition down t§ the present Time* Arranged in Chronological Order% 

[Continued from Page 116.] 



INDEPENDENT of the Instances already adduced in proof of 
the efficacy and advantage with which a partial and spirited attack 
on an enemy's line has rarely failed to be attended, there are two other 
events which place the propriety of the measure in perhaps a still 
more sti iking point of view than any of the preceding have done. 
They are the exad counterpart of each other, the first, which hap- 
pened in the late war, shewing the mischief resulting from the negfcft 
of it; the second, which took place during the present, the glorious 
success occasioned by an obeervance of it. "At daylight on the 
morning of the 19th," says Sir George Bridges Rodney, in his letter 
to Mr. Stephens, dated off Port- Royal Bay, Martinique, April 26, 
1780; *« wc sawtlic enemy disthidly, beginning to form the line 
a-head at two cables length distance ; at forty-five minutes after six 

I OAT« NOTLCB BY PUBLIC SIGNAL THAT MY INTENTION WAS 
TO ATTACK THE BNEMy's REAR WITH MY WHOLE FORCE, which 

iij;nal was aoswered by evtf^ ship in the fleet* At seven A* M. per* 

* Sec page i68. 



ILLUSTIIATIOHS 07 MATAL TACTlCf, 19^ 

living the fleet too much extended, I made the signal for the line 
, of battle at one cable's length asunder only. At thirty minutes after 
eight A M. I made the sigprial for a line of battle abreast, each ship 
bearing from the other N. by W. and S. by E. and bore down on the 
enemy* This signal was penetrated by them, who discovered mj 
intention, wore, and formed a line of battle on the other tack." 

The latter circumstance, added to the mistake afterwards com* 
initted by the leading ship in the British fleet, which stood on for the 
enemy's van, contrary to the irftention of the Bn'ttsh commander in 
chief, and thereby compelled the whole of the fleet to follow him, 
rendered the whole of his plan abortive. The contest ended inde- 
cisively, and the enemy, though worsted, might be said to derive 
every advantage which they could have expe^ed even from a 
positive vidory. Sir George, in the latUr part of his letter, 
inserts what amounts almost to a confession of this being the true 
state of the case. ^' At the conclusion of the battle, the enemy 
might be said to be completely beaten, but «uch was the distance of 
the van and rear from the center, and the crippled condition of 
several ships, particularly the Sandwich, who for twenty-four hours 
was with difficulty kept above water, that it was impossible to pursue 
them without the greatest disadvantage." 

Let us now dire6i our minds from an event which cannot be 
otherwise than unpleasant to every lover of his country, to one more 
recent, than which none was ever more produdive of glory, and of 
substantial advantage — the battle of the Nile ; a contest brought to 
the most glorious issue, by an attention to the very principle which 
is here attempted to be recommended. The French fleet lay at anchor 
in an open bay, and Lord Nelson with great judgment, conceived and 
arranged his plan of engaging the weathermost ships of the enemy '« 
line with his whole force, justly concluding that he should make 
himself master of them before any succour could be afforded by 
their companions, even if they should attempt it ; and that be miglit 
afterwards pursue, the same measures with the remainder, attacking 
them progressively in the^same manner. The* event fully proved the 
ability of the arrangement, notwithstanding the advantage the 
enemy derived from their batteries on shore, the ereftion of wjiich 
was a full and convincing proof that they were apprehensive of and 
expe^ed an attack. Thtir van was assailed with so much spirit, 
that after a contest almost incredibly short, the British commanders 
were perfedly convinced they had secured a viAory, though they 
knew not to what extent. According to a very correA account of 
the a£kion, drawn up from the minutes of an ofRcer on board the 
f ^uadrpni the Goliath apd^ Zealous^ followed by the Orion, Auda- 



2CO ILLUSTRATIONS 6f NAYAL TACTICS. 

C10U8, and Theseus, took their statioris between the shore and tlic 
enemy's van, anchoring close alongside Le Gucrrier, Le Conquerant* 
Le Spartiate, L'Aquilon, and Le Souverain Peuplc ; while the 
Vanguard, the Minotaur, Defence, Bellerophon, Majestic, Swiftsure, 
and Alexander^ bringing up on the outside of the same ships, joined 
in so furious an attack that all those vessels might be considered as 
completely in the power of the assailants in less than a quarter of an 
hour after the adion commenced^ notwithstanding some of them 
still continued to keep up a feeble resistance. 

As the van ships were progressively subdued, the assailants* who 
bad anchored by the stem, moved onward to contest with new an- 
tagonists, where they experienced a repetition of the like success^ 
and in less than two hours after the first gun had been fired, three 
other ships, L'Orient, L'Heureux, and Le Tonnanty were also 
silenced and subdued, though they were not absolutely taken pos* 
session of. A continuance of the same mode of condu6l, and the 
spirited manner in which the Leander, of 50 guns, brought up 
athwart the hawse of the Franklin, of 80, produced the subse- 
quent surrender of that ship, together with the Mcrcure, and the 
dcstru6lion of the Timoleon. Thus were eleven ships of the line, 
out of thirteen which composed the enemy's squadron, either captured 
or destroyed* The means by which this most glorious defeat and 
conquest were efic<Eled, are concisely but clearly pointed out in the 
narrative: " After the vi£tory had been secured in the van, such 
British ships as were in a condition to move had gone down upon the 
fresh ships of the enemy." 

The uninterrupted success which has attended the application of 
the foregoing system of attack, incontrovertibly proves its utility. 
To convert theoretical observation and the workings of cool refleding 
genius into real practice, requires an additional talent beyond what 
would be neces^ry in the more quiet occupations of life. It is re* 
quisitc that no inconsiderable portion of native genius, improved by 
mental application, should dire6i the arm of war and support that 
bravery, that personal gallantry, which, deprived of such aid, and act- 
ing only according to its natural di6bite8« might not improbably be 
^ termed rashness. The qualities just mentioned conjundkively form the 
charadler of an able commander. 

After having adduced the foregoing abstrafk instances, where such 
qualities existing in the same person, seizing the proper and fortunate 
moment of application, have rendered the particular system of 
Naval Tadics just treated on, more eminently conspicuous in the 
• maritime . annals of Britain, because it has been most frcqueody 
brought forward into ptadice ; it would be ao a& of iDJustice to 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF NATAL TACTICS* 201 

the abilities of an enemy, were this brief narrative of the advantages 
resoiting from the use of it, to be concluded without adding to the 
list an account of the success which attended an adoption of the same 
measure by a French officer. I mean the Count De SuSrein, and 
however generally improper it may be to sptak in the superlative 
degree of comparison, with regard to the abilities of any individualt 
there would perhaps be less cause for reprobation in the present in« 
stance than in any other, were ^ to pronounce that officer the ablest 
in his particular line to whom France ever gave birth* 

The system of arranging his squadron in a double line to effect 
this purpose, was certainly new, not only in prance but in aontri- 
vance : the cfie£^ of it will be very conspicuous by the following ex« 
tmSt firom the official dispatches of Sir Edward Hughes : 

** At ten, the enemy's squadron having the advantage of the squalls 
from the N. N. E. which always reached them firet, and in conse* 
quence continued longest with them, neared us very fast, and I made 
the signal for our line to alter the course two points to leeward* 
the enemy then steering down on the rear of our Hne, in an irregular 
double line abreast. At half past noon I made the signal for our 
squadron to form the line of battle abreast* in order to draw the rear 
of our line closer to the centre, and prevent the enemy from breaking 
in on it, and attacking it when separated. At three in the afternoon, 
* the enemy still pushing on to our rear in a double line abreast, I 
again altered my course in the line, in order to draw our rear ships 
still closer to the centre, and at forty minutes after three, finding it 
impossible to avoid the enemy's attack under the disadvantages of 
little or no wind to work our ships, and of being to leeward of 
them, I made the signal for our squadron to form at once into the 
line of battle ahead. 

** At four, the Exeter, which was the stemmost ship in our rear, 
when formed in line of battle on the larboard tack, not being quite 
closed to her second ahead, three of the enemy's ships in their first 
line bore right down upon her, while four more of their second 
line, headed by the Hero, in which ship M. Suffrein had his flag, 
hauled alongside the first line towards our centre. At five minutes 
past four, the enemy's three ships began their fire on the Exeter, 
which was returned by her and her second ahead. At ten minutes 
past four, I made the signal for battle, and at twelve minutes past, the 
a^ion became general from our rear to our centre ; the commanding 
ship of the enemy, with three others of their second line, leading down 
on our centre, yet never at any time advancing farther than opposite 
the Superbe, our center ship, with little or no wind, and some heaVy 
xain during the engagement. ^ 

WUiU IV. ' p D 



M 



ZOi . ILLVITKATIOHS OF NATAL HISTOAT. 

" Under these circuiiMtaiice8» the enemy broaght eight of thcic 
bett dupt to the attack of five of oucb» as the van of oar iine, con- 
•isting of the Eagle* Burlbrd, and Worcester, cookl not be brought 
into a&ion without tacking on the enemy ; and although the signal 
for that purpose was at the mast head ready for hoistings there was 
neither wind sufficient to enable them to tack, nor for the five ships 
of our centre and rear» then engaging with the enemy, hard pressed* 
and much disabled in their yardi, sails, and rigging, to foUow them* 
without an almost certainty of separating our van from our rear." 

Though on the foregoing occasion the gallantry of British ofBcers 
and seamen presersed their ships from becoming a prey to this able 
fad enterprising foCf yet the difficulty with which their safety 
was dk€tedt sufficiently proves the merit of his attempt, the ability 
sirith which it was conduced, and that portion of success, which will 
nady fail to attend it when the force of the contending parties, and 
the general condition of their ships, in reaped to cquipmeat, can in 
any degree be considered as equal. 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF NAVAL HISTORY. 



nPHE annexed letters, which form part of a private correspondence 
-^ between those two very renowned naval cbaraders. Admiral 
llasself afterwards Earl of Orford, and SirCloudesley ShovcU, become 
extremely interesting, not merely as they contain the secret and un- 
veiled opinions of two men deservedly considered the ablest com- 
manders of their time, but as the events to which those letters allude^ 
were certainly among the most momentous of those which took place 
during the period of history which they are intended to illustrate. 

Sir Clo U d E SLB Y Sho vbll ta Admral Russb l» Wniten immeSaUfj 

after the ViSory of La Hogue, 

sia» 

* 

I H£R£ deliver my opinion to the best of my judgment, first that 
we follow the blow, by landing in the enemy's country near Brest, If 
their fleet be abroad then certainly 6 or 8ooa men doe their pleasure 
w* that town and country ; but if their fleet be in there, w^ I sup. 
pose to be still about 70 saile, line of battle ships, and modestly cal- 
ctthtting 150 land souldiers abord each ship one wt^* y« other» com to 
upwards of tenn thous"* disiplyned meni which will render our attempt 
there uaressonable» 



ILLV9TRAT10N8 OF MATAL HISTOIT* lOJ 

TheOf Siri for attemptiog any thing upon Rochford^ I doc not 
•e there is any liklyhood of success, unless you have force enough f 
master Rochell also ; for from Kochford to Rochcll is but 6 leage» 
and Rochford lys so £nr up the river Sharante, and the passage to it 
so difucidty that you can never supprize it, nor com at it before they 
have timely notiss to draw all the strength of Rochell to their 
»«rtance. 

Bcsidesy if while an attempt is making on the other side of Brest^ 
"^hich I suppose will not be so much as thought on, except their 
whole fleett be in Brest, and we resolved to keep them there, which 
I would not have you undertake, for I can j^nly demonstrate» that 
with a light squadroui they will be able to com out notwithstandhig 
all your indeavours to the contrary, which will give you great care, 
and win be eaqually dangrerous to us, if they follow our transports or 
com up our cbandl, and here have been a late demonstration, that if 
they gitt the start, they may also gitt out of sight , but if your 
decent be to the eastward of Brest, and a squadron of their ships start, 
we know where they must goe to harme us, and can take measuret 
accordingly. Further more, every thing duly considered, you may 
make your decent between Brest and Callis, with many thousand 
men more then ought to be ventured into the Bay, for from these 
coasts on urgent occasions men are recalled as easey as comand from 
Plymouth to London ; but if in the Bay you must have tvro vrinds, 
and may be two months to gitt them back lett your occasions be never 
so uigent. 

Therefore, if their fleett be in Brest, I am not for making any 
attempt with our land forces on that place, or any place on the other 
^de of it, but reither if our strength would reach, to attempt S^ Malo, 
the destru^on of which Den of theirs, would be of more import* 
ance both to us and our sea alleys then the destruAion of Pdrris ; 
but vnsser heads then mine must be consulted, I have no manner of 
knowledge of the place; but. Sir, if our strengtli be not sufficient to 
attempt this master- piece, tis certaine Deep is a town pritty large, 
and stand on y* striuui, and may easiley be destroyed, and if the 
anney that is vnth King James will give us too great trouble in our 
attempt, yett I doe not se how it can give any assistance to Deep, 
they having the Saine to pass; this is to ye best of my judgment in 
answer to what you ware please to propose. I remain, 

S% your humble Senr, 
CLOUD. SHOVELLrf 



3I>4 ILLUSTRATIOJIS OF NATAL HI»TOKr# 

From the Same to the Same. 
lift, 
< I MUST acknowledge tii one of my greatest faults in not pajtog' 
fny dutyfull respe^ to you by letter before this timey and notwttb* 
standing 1 know such negledb have else where been very pemitioua 
to me» yet I find it is my fate, and I cannot withstand it ; but stace 
tis a fault of nature predestinatted, and not premeditated^ I am very 
confident your goodness will forgive so fiuthfuH and so just an humble 
servant as I ever was, and shall continue to the end. I will not use 
much a^giment ta discurs you I have often wished myself with yott» 
I will, only tell youi contrary to my nature, I have been grave^ and 
have not had above one fitt of mirth since your departure. 
. Your coming home in your person, not with the fieet» was mucht 
talked on y* beginning of the wiotery and Sir George Rook, or my 
Lord Berkely, to cona abroad and command in your roome ;. bat» 
S^% be assured this was so much disliked by (I may justly say) all 
sorU of people, that the counsell (if they did intend i(), I believe, 
dare not. doe it. 1 doe assure you that the saving Bassalona, the 
putting up the Turkey ships, and your vigriknca in keeping the 
French from not coming out the Straights (for we love to have danger 
as far from us as possible), and the success of your crussers, which is 
koowa to be your industrious cleaning your ships, is by all esteemed 
your prudence, mixed with some ]goQd fortune, which is become a 
virtue mightily esteemed in England. 

And assuredly your condu^ is so commended by every body, that 
your encmys can say nothing against you, but insinuatt the destruc- 
tion of the fleet by the worme^ which your creening wiU prevent, if 
^heir weake and rottenness will indure it ; this with a thousand par- 
dons for my negledl, and my most humble and hearty service. From. 

AW. 3, 1694. £;c. &c« 

Jimhral RussBL to Sir CtouDBStiY Shotbi*l, . 

SIR, 

SINCE you left London we are daily alarmed with thes French 
preparatioui I think it no longer a question that they designe upon 
England, tho* I differ in opinion w"* some other people as to the 
time. You will find by the order of last night, th^t the King» is very 
impatient for your being gone, tho' with a smaller strength then was 
first proposed. By the advice we have from Capt. Cross, who has 
had it from a pilott of a man of war, of 50 guns, that they run upon 
a rock neare the Scames and sunck. Tis said Ponteau's squadron at 
Brest consists of fourteen shipps, from 50 to 80 guns, the biggest 
sbipp not having above 200 seamen, and so per race the rest of the 



ILLUSTRinOta OP MATAL NISTORT. 20$ 

riiip8> the other part of the men being land soldiersy with four trans- 

portB} and two bomb veseeb. How fanr this advice may be depended 

upon, I cannot teU» hot I believe it pritty certain they designe for 

England^ tho* the same intelligence from Cross says they goe for 

Scotland. 

I think if the wind be any thing to the northward of the east, they 

catin^t fetch any part of England ^om Brest^ and if to the southvarfl 

at this time of the year, it generally produces such sort of weather as 

may make it not very safe venturing in with the land* I wish you 

good luck for your own sake, and for all onr sakes ; I think the 

preparations they make a little too formidable to be despised,' I have 

ordered Captain Bellwood and Captain Pedder to goe down to you ; 

I think them both very good men, and have long laboured in vain to 

have them restored to their employments, I think their constat^ 

forwardness to goe where there may be any probability of service 

win remove that difficulty. 

I am. Sir, 

Your humble Servant^ 

€0va^'G0rdtMt tHs 15 DttmAir. 1696. KUSSEIX. 



ZW Orford /0 ^ir Cloudbsley Shov£LU 

DIAR sir CLOUDESLIYy 

* I HAVE received your too leters, the last came to me just as 1 
came to towne from Tunbridge, whare I have been thes thre weeks, 
and from thence with the matters I could not right. I wonder you 
shoud dout that your leters was not welcome to me> I assure you I 
allway receive you with great satisfadion, and I hope you know me 
too well to think I am weary of y« friedshipp I have pressed to you. 
I ever was your fjriendd and servant. I agree in every part of your 
leter with you ;* but the difficulty how to send deane shipps to see is 
great, for after they are cleane, the tinie they stay for men and pro- 
visions is soe long, that they are foule before they goe to see. I 
wonder Sir George Rooke would not in the summer, when no a£Hon 
could be expeded Ibr the whole fleete at Plymouth and Portsmouth, 
cleane all his 3 rates and 4, it would have been a very good scrvis to 
the publick ; I believe y« great shipps will be ordered upp, but 
Y L* Justices are not as yet come to any resolution of y* kind. I 
shall do you all the servis I can in what you desire, that you may. 
come to town to put out your money, or to make another purchass. 
. In Kent, at Tunbridge, ye gentlemen of y' country teB me you 
will have it all in a short time. Dear Shovell, I wish you all y* good 
fortune imaginable* And am most sincerely. 

Yours most fiiithfully, whilst 
7ifr J* », 97. ORFORD. 



MAMTTTME RlGHTa OF 

BELLIGERENT NATIONS, RELATIVE TO NEUtRALSL 



npHE case of the Maria Swedish mercbatUmanf latelj Heard m the 
Court of Admirakyt before Sir William Scott, being in all its 
drcumstaoces (except the incident of an afkual engagement taking 
phcc) Bimihr to that of the Danish convoy lately captured, and the 
question being of the highest importance to this country, and moat 
likely to be decided by that ultima ratio to which recourse most 
of necessity be had, when the law of nations is violated, we think 
it will gratify our readers to present them with an extra& from the 
jpdgment of the Court of Admiralty*. 

Having stated the case of the Swedish Ship, the learned Judge 
proceeded to reason upon it as follows : 

<* The adual state of the hBt being ascertained, it is proper for 
me to examine what is the legal statement, in other wotds, to what 
considerations are neutrals justly subjed, according to the law of na« 
tions ; for which putpose I state a few principles of that system, of 
law which I take to be incontrovertible. 

'< I St That the' right of visiting and searching merchant Ships upon 
the high seas, whatever be the Ships, whatever be the caigoes, what* 
ever be the destinations, is an incoiitestible right of the lawfu&y conii- 
miswoned crnisers of a belligerent nation, I say, be the Shipa^ the 
cargoes, and the destinations what they may : because, till they are 
visited and searched, it does not appear what the Ships, or the 
cargoes, or the destinations are ; and it is for the purpose of aicer* 
tainiag these points that the necessity of this right of visitation acbd 
search exists. This right is so dear in principle, that no naani can 
deny it who admits the legality of maritime capture; because if 
you are not at liberty to ascertain by sufficient inquiry whether there 
is property that can legally be captured, it is impossible to captures- 
Even those who contend for the inadmissible rule, that free Shift 
taake free goodif must admit the exercise of this right, at lent for the 
purpose of ascertaining whether the Ships are free Ships or not* The 
right is equaUy clear in pradice ; for pra&ice is uniform and universal 
upon the subjcvi. The many European treaties which refer to this 
right» refer to it as pre-existing, and merely regulate the exerdse of 
it.— All writers upon the law of nations unanimously acknowledge i^ 
without the exception even of Hubner himself, the great champion of 



MAE1TI1IB ftlGHTt OV 8Bi.LI0BKB»T VATlOMt* tOf 

aentnd privikgcs. In thott« no man in the Ituft degree conversant ift 
suljeds of this kind has ever, that I know of, breathed a dottb( 
upon iu 

** The right must unquestionably be exercised with as fittle of per- 
tonal hanhness and of vexation in the mode as possible ; but soften it 
as much as yon can* it is still a right of force, though of lawful force 
-—something in the nature of civil process, where force is employed, 
but a law&d force* which cannot lawfufiy be resisted* 

*^ 2dly. That the authority of the Sovereign of the neutral conntiy 
being interposed an any manner of mere force, cannot legally. varf 
the rights of lawfully-commissioned belligerent cruisers; I say le« 
gaily, because what may be given, or be fit to be given, in the ad« 
ministration of this species of law, to considerations of comity, or of 
national policy, are views of the matter which, sitting in this court. 
I have no right to entertain* All that I assert is, that, legally, it can* 
not be maintained, that if a Swedish commissioned cruiser, during 
the wars of his own country, has a right by the law of nations to 
visit and examine neutral Ships, the King of England, being neutral 
to Sweden, is authorised by that law to cbstru6fc the exercise of that 
right with respe^ to the metchant Ships of his country. I add thist 
that i cannot but think, that if he obstruded it by force, it would 
very much resemble (with all due reverence be it spoken) an op« 
position of illegal violence to legal right* I am not ignorant, that 
amongst the loose do^rines which modem fiincy, under the various 
denominations of philosophy and philanthropy^ have thrown upon 
the world, it has been within these few years advanced, or rather 
insinuated, that it aught possibly be well if such a security were ac« 
cepted* Upon such unauthorised spccuktions it is not necessary for 
me to descant : the law and praAice of nations (I include particidariy 
the pradice of Sweden when it has happened to be belligerent) ^ve 
them no sort of countenance ; and until that law and phi6kice are 
new-^modelled in such a way as may surrender the known ancient 
rights of some nations to the present convenience of other nations^ 
(which nations may, perhaps, remember to forget them, when they 
happen to be themselves belligerent) no reverence is due to them ; 
they are the elements of that system, which, if it is consistent, haa 
for its real purpose an entire abolition of c«^ture in war— that is, in 
other words, to change the nature of hostility, as it has ever existed 
amongst mankind, and to introduce a system of things not yet seen 
in the worid, that of a mihtary war, and a commercial peace. 

** 3dly, That the penalty for the riokrnt contravention of thxa 
right, is the confiscation of the property 86 withheld from visitation 

4 



«08 MAtlttMI HIGHTS Or BSLLlGlftllTT HATlOVn 

tnd tearcb. It is a priocipley not only of the civil bw, (on wfaicb 
great part of the law of nations is founded) but the private juris- 
prudence of most countries in Europe-— that a contumacious refusal 
to submit to fair in<^uiry infers all the penalties of convi6ted guilt. — 
Conformably to this principle we find in the celebrated French Ordi* 
nance of i688y now in force. Article 12, '< That ettery 'uessd shall hi 
goodfri%em case of reiittance and combat f** and Valin» in his smaller 
Commentary, p. 81, says expressly, that although the expression is 
in the conjun6bivei yet that the retUtance alone is sufficients He refe rs 
to the Spanish Ordinance in 17189 evidently copied from it^ in which 
k is expressed in the disjun€kive» << in ease of resistance or combat,*'^^ 
And recent instances are at hand and within view, in which it ap«> 
pears that Spain continues to aft upon this principle. The first time 
in which it occurs to my notice on the inquiries I have been able to 
make in the institutes of our own country respefting matters of this 
nature^ except what occurs in the Black Book of the Admiralty^ is 
in the Order of Council i664» Article i2» which dire£ks> <<That 
when any Ship met withal by the Royal Navy, or other Ship com- 
missjonedy shall fight or make reststancCf the said Ship and goods shall 
be adjudged lawfid prize/' — A similar article occurs in the Prochu 
nation of 1672* And it is observable that Sir Robert Wiseman, 
then the King's Advocate«GeneraI, who reported upon the Articles 
in 1 673* and expresses a di^pprobation of some of tliem as harsh 
and novel) does not mark this article with any observation of censure. 
I am therefore warranted in sayingt that it was the rule, and the 
ondisputed rulcy of the British Admiralty. I will not say that diat 
rule may not have been broken in upon in some instances by con- 
siderations of comity or policy, by which it may be fit that the ad- 
ministration of this species of law should be tempered in the hands of 
those tribunals which have a right to entertain and apply them ; for 
no man can deny that a State may recede from its extreme rights, 
and that its supreme councils are authorised to determine in what 
cases it may be fit to do so, the particular captor having in no case 
any other right or title than what the State itself would possess under 
the same fa6b of capture. But I stand with confidence upon all fair 
principles of reason — upon the dtstin^k authority, of Vattel — upon In« 
•titutes of the great maritime countries, as well as those of our own 
country— when I venture to lay it down, that by the law of nations, 
as now understoody a deliberate and continued resistance to search, on 
the part of a neutral vessel to a lawful cruiser, is followed by the 
legal consequence of confiscation.'* 



[ »09 ] 

A CIRCUMSTAJN-riAL NARRATIFS 

OF THl TRANSACTIONS ON BOAftD 

HIS MAJESTY'S SfilP RESISTANCE, * 

CAPT. E. PAKENIfA^M, COMMANDER, 

Frmn Decemher 17979 to the Time ff her Blowing up hi' the Straits of 
Mancdf Jtdy t^h, 179S; with^ the tuhiequent Becape and Dei'Uitimce 
of four of her Crew, the only Surw'vori ofth^t Catattrtfie. 

TN consequence of certain,, intelligence brought from the Eastward 
''' by Captain Shepherd8on,.of the Venus, that a part of the crew of 
an English ship of war (suppose^, tp be his Majesty's ship the I^- 
sistance), which had the nusfortunjc^tp be blown up in the Straits of 
Banca some months before, had been picked up by some pirate prow» 
and carried to Lingan, where the survivors still existed in a state of 
slavery, Major Taylor, commanding the garrison of Malacca, imme« 
diately dispatched a prow to that island, for the relief of those unfor- 
tunate men. 

In this prow, suitably stored with supplies, he sent a sepoy, 
•who being well acquainted with the Malay tongue, was charged with 
a l<;tter to the Sultan of Lingan ; entreating that Prince to assist in 
the most cfFedlual measures for the recovery and release of such of the 
Resistance's ship's company, as he might be able to discover in this 
calamitous situation. 

• On the cth of December the prow returned to Malacca, bringing 
with her one seamaui late of the Resistance's crew, from the declara- 
tion of whom the following Narrative is taken. 

The detail given by this man appears entitled to the greater share 
of credence, as no deviation from the circumstances i elated in his 
story was to be found upon the several interrogatories put to him 
from time to time afterwards. It comes very near to the floating 
report which Captain Shepherdson had of the Malays at Rhio ; and 
coincides remarkably ift many of its principal points with that 
which had already come roun(3- to Malacca from Pinang, as there 
related by his three comrades^ wjjp^.had not less providentially arrived 
in safety at that settlement. ^^u . 

As the complexion of the several unpleasant situations, if not a£lual 
distresses, into which the Resistance was eventually cast ; and aa the 
sad disaster itself of that ill fated sjiip seems to derive much of its 
tin^ure, or may perhaps be deemed to liave.priginated, with the|fale 
which she encountered almost a year ago in the Pacific Ocean, on her 
way to China ; her story is on that account brought down from t 

aoi. IV. s B 



fid A ei&CUMSTAWTlAL NAR&ATIVB OF THI 

date more remote than it may probably appear of sufficient intereil 
to the public: that it otherwise should be. 

In such a csflCf candour will be nevertheless disposed to ipake due 
allowances for (if such it should prove) a too minute and circumstantial 
account of whatever might seem^ though remotely, to affed or con- 
cern the loss of so vahiable a Commander* officers* and ship's comt 
pany, as penshed in the Resistance ; when the Recorder of this 
mournful Narrative (taken by himself from the lips of the person 
here mentioned) adds, that while his country has to lament* as it must 
deeply fed, the misfortune of that intelligent* gallant* and worthy 
Comnuinder, it is not less his mournful taA to mix the tear of private 
friendship and sincere esteem for that officer ia the individual ; and 
for more than one afiive and deserving chara£ler besides* serving with 
him* whose memory will ever remain not less dear* than their cruel 
fate is to be regretted^ 

Thomas Scott, seaman, aged 22 years* a native of Wexford in 
Ireland, relates on examination as follows : 

That he formerly belonged to the Chesterfield South-Sea whaler ; 
from which he remained at Timor Besar for three years, in the Dutch 
employ, till the capture of that place, when he entered on board the 
Kesistance. 

That she met with a heavy gale of wind on the  .<  of last 
December* which continued for four days unabated ; s^nd in which 
she proved so leaky that her chain pumps were kept constantly at 
work, night and day ; at length, in order to lighten her, they were 
^W^gcd tq heave a nqmber of her upper- deck guns overboard* She 
then bore away for the Philippines* intending* as he believes, after- 
wards to sail for Mfdacca. Being in waqt of wood, water, and pro- 
visions. Captain Pakenham tried the expedient of hoisting Spanish 
colours, as he cruised along shore* till he came to anchor nearly 
within reach gf the guns pf Antego. The Deputy Governor of 
this town, and the Captain of a Spanish brig, then lying at anchor in 
the Bay, accordingly came off tp them ; but 4iscovering their mistake 
ivhen too late^ upon endeavouring to escape, were soon brought back 
and put on board by a bqat from the Resistance. ,Upon their assurances 
that they would do their utmost to have the wants of Captain Paken- 
ham amply supplied, he generously suffered them to return the sakne 
tvcn'wg to the shore* No part, however, of the."* fair promises being 
fulfilled, nor ^he likelihood of it, at five o'clock the next evening, 
Captain Pakenham sent his third Lieutenant, Mr. Cuthbert* in the 
cutter, with an armed party, to cut out the Spanish brig ; in which 
attempt they succeeded, though fired upon smartly by the guns of 



LOSS O^ aiS MAJS»TY's ship RIStSTAKCS. tlX 

il&c forty within range of which she had anchored. Scott remembers 
this event to have happened on Christmas Day. 

The Resistance and her prize sailed from thence» immediately afteo 
lor Balambangan ; at which place they arrived in fjour days. Having, 
wooded and watered there^ and procured d partial supply of rice as well 
as live stock, the ship continuing leaky» with blowing weather, Capt. 
Pakenham and the pnze set sail fit>m this place for the Celebes ; and 
arrived in about eighteen days at Limbyi near Munadoo, on that 
island. The same evening that he anchored here he dispatched the 
brig to Amboynai to signify his distress for supplies } in conse):iuence 
of which, the Bombay fng^e was sent off from thenCe, on the ar* 
rival of the bng, to his relief. After staying a week or more at 
Limby, and having with some difficulty coUe^ed what he could pro- 
vide for the remaining part of his voyage to Amboyna, he weighed 
anchor, and sailed from that place, faUing in with the Bombay frigate 
and the supplies sent him on board her, in seven days aftcr> off the 
island of Booroo» 

Having arrived at Amboynai ftnd remained there aboiit two months 
repairing and refitting, the Resistance ssuled to Booroo ; where re* 
freshmetits and stock, as well as wood and water, were mote abun^ 
dantly and conveniently to be procured than at the former place* 
From Booroo she departed for Banda about a fonnight after, but 
springing a leak off Amboyna, l¥as obliged to put back again to 
the former island. 

Early in July she sailed from then<^<^ again; and rtinntn^ close 
along the shore of Jaca, took a Dutch brig off the, town of Serrabt> 
which} being in ballast and of little value, was released the saiile nights 
The Resistance next steered her course for the Straits of Banca^ 
which having made in about five days« she there fell in \nth a fleet of 
aWut fourteen pirate prows at anchor Under the land of Banca, each 
capable of containing fifty or sixty men. In order to board and 
examine one of the largest of these. Captain P. manu'd three of his 
boats ; but the Malays in the prow for some time refused permission 
to Lieutenants Cuthbert and Mackay to come on board them. As 
these officers, however, persisted in accomplishing their orders, the 
Malays at length suffered it without opposition, but it was found im* 
possible to effcft their purpose of searching them for Dutch pro^ 
perty and pa{)er3 ; for such was the ferment amon^ the Malays ort 
board, that to avoid the consequence with which they were threatened 
lor insiding on this examination, they were obliged to insure theif 
tefety by a hasty retreat over the side, and i^eturrt to their own ship* 
Captain P. resented this conduft by the discharge of some of hit 



212 A CIRCUM9TAHTIAL NARRATIVE OF THE 

twelve- pounders^ which soon dispersed the pirates, and sent them into 
shoal water under the land. 

Having weighed anchor about nine o'clock next morning, and cut 
out a Malay sloop that had been captured by the pirates on hpr way 
from Batavia, and was left at her anchors when they deserted 
her the preceding night. Captain P. proceeded with her on his voyage 
down the Straits* As the sloop was presumed to be Dutch pro* 
perty, the papers belonging to which her Malay captain was suspefted 
of having destroye4» and if condemned would have been of some 
value, being laden with cloth, salt, and other merchandize, she was 
detained till the evening after the second day from her re-capture» 
when it was intended thai her commander (still on board the Resistance) 
should be restored to his vessel, and herself released* With a view to 
this, the Resistance came to an anchor in the Straits of Banca at an 
early hour in the evening on the 23d of July, as the sloop had at 
that time fallen so much astern as to be entirely out of sight ; and the 
latter joined, about one o'clock the next morning, and dropped 
anchor under the stem of the Resistance* 

The officer of the deck, Lieut. Cuthbert, hailed the sloop in 
order to put her commander on boardi but not being heard, re* 
conciled the Malay Captain to this short further detention by the 
assurance that he should depart for his vessel with the morning's 
dawn : — a dawn, alas ! neither was to see. — For Scott, the narrator, 
sleeping at the larboard side of the quarter-deck (as it vras so fine a 
night that he did not .wish to retire to his berth below), was suddenly 
awakened by a fierce blaze, that seized his clothes and hair, suc- 
ceeded in an instant by a tremendous explosion, from the shock of 
which, he conjcdiures, he became utterly senseless for £ve minutes or 
more. 

He computes this dreadful accident to have taken place about four 
o'clock in the morning (24th July 1798), from the day appearing 
about an hour after he was blown up ; but how it did or could hap- 
pen, circumstanced as the ship then was, he professes himself totally 
untible to offer an opinion, or hazard a conje^ure. 

When he recovered a little, he found himself half ftufFocated with 
water, floating and struggling with twelve others in the same situation, 
the small remainder of the fine ship's company to which they had just 
belonged. He made shift with these to reach the netting of the ship 
on the starboard side, which just remained above the water. 

At the dawn of the day the people belonging to the sloop, then not 
out of hail astern, who must easily have discovered the co:.dltion of 
the wreck, and heard the repeated shouts of the wretched beings who 
were dinging to k, callous to every impulse of humaiiity, after the dis* 



V 



L0S6 or HIS majesty's ship RBSfSTAXCI. 21} 

diarge of a sii^e musket, having weighed anchor, stood over, witlu 
out regarding their situation, to the Island of Banca« The weather 
continuing mild and the water smooth^ they set to work about devea 
o'clock i^n the forenoon, to make a raft of such pieces of timber as they 
were able to pick up around them : they were fortunately enabled 
to accomplish this by means of the main-yard« whichy lying along* 
aide the wreckj furnished them with ropes sufficient for lashings ; it 
also gave them cloth for sail, which they fixed to the mast of the 
joUy boat, and they completed their task by making a platfoim upoa 
it of such planks as they could find. 

From the shock and severe scorching that one and all of the sur« 
vivors had experiencedi they were unable to accomplish their work 
before one o'clock P. M,<— in hEt, four or five only of the number 
were left in any circumstances to bear a part in it, the united labour 
of whom was very insufficient to secure, as it ought, the raft they had 
thus contrived. The sohcitude they must have felt in their distnessfui 
comlition, to reach the shore before night, was considerably augmented 
by the circumstance that the piece of the wreck by which they dung 
would only bear the weight of two of the most shattered amongst them 
(James Sullivan and Robert PuUoyne, seamen), and whom the compass 
sion of their comrades had agreed, accordingly, to give the pre^renoe 
to, by mounting them upon it : a single purokin being at the same time 
the amount of all the sustenance the whole party had to depend on. 

Having committed themselves to this raft, they made sail for the 
nearest shore, which was the low land of Sumatra, distant about three 
leagues, and about six leagues to the southward of the Dutch settle* 
ment of PaUndbang. About seven o'clock it came on to blow fresh* 
and the sea ran highj with a strong current then setting in against 
them* They were yet a considerable distance from the land, when 
the lashings of their raft began to give way, and itself to part* 
Not only every plank of the platform was presently washed 
off; but to complete the misery of their situation, their mast and 
sail were carried away. But resource, not despair, is the chara6ier 
of a British seaman. Seeing an anchor- stock, which had been lately 
a part of the raft, and which promised more security to those who 
might be able to reach it, floating a considerable way from them, S* 
Scott, being the stoutest of the party, resolved to swim after it, and 
encouraging Qi^arter- master Alexander McCarthy, John Nutton, and 
Joseph Scott, seamen, to follow his example, they all four brought it 
in safety. 

It was at this time one o'clock A. M. and clear moon-light, eight 
poor souls still remained by the raft (PuUoyne being dead},«who 
4ceiii£^ this part of their.number, from whose exertions ak>ae a ray of 



CI4 A CIRCUMSTANTIAL VARKATITV OF THf 

Iiope appeared, thus consult their own sa&ty hj the only possible 
chance for it* bewailed their separation bhtedy. 

The adventurers on the anchor-stock lost si^t in another hour 
of the forlorn companions of their distress^ and nerer heard nor saw 
them more. 

By means of two spars, lashed across to keep the stock from roDingy 
they continued to be borne in safety upon it till about nine o'clock nOLt 
morning ; when the current, changing again, set them bxt towards 
the land ; under the lee of which, though they had been driven out 
further to sea than they were when they left the wreck, they fortunately 
arrived, with the help of a paddle, about nine o'clock the same 
atght (25th)* Some surf running along the sh6re> they found it a 
matter of no less difficulty, in their exhausted and weakly state, after 
again betaking themselves to swimming, to reach the beach. 

Having thus providentially eifefled their escape fix>m the dangers 
of the deep, others no less formidable stared them in the face upon 
this desert coast ; or a coast, if not desert, preiled only by the foot* 
•teps of men scarce less savage than the wild beasts that roamed ita 
adjoining thickets. The first care of the' seamen, after their fatigrues 
and sufferings, was to gather leaves and dry grass, with which they 
made themselves a bed, whereon to repose. On this they slept sound 
till morning, when awakened by the adl of thirst, they went to look 
for vrater, which they found at hand ; but no manner of refreshment 
could they discover^besides, not even a single shell fish. 

In this deplorable condition, and almost naked (a single jacket and 
conple 4of shirts being their whole stock of clothes), they remaiiied 
starving till about four o'clock the same afternoon (26th), being a 
term of three whole nights and two days from the time of their being 
blown up, when straggling along the shore, and almost iu utter 
despair of aU human succour, ^ne of the party discovered a Malay 
prow, lying in a Bight» hardly a quarter of a mile from them. Upon 
this they consulted what was best to be done ; and it was resolved 
that T. Scott, being able to talk the Dutch and Malay tonguea 
fluently, should approach it singly, while the rest kept out of sight* 
And wrll it was for them that such was the plan and precaution they 
observed ; for, had they all . advanced together, unarmed and de« 
Icnceless as they were» it is almost a moral certainty that not a life 
would have been spared. On a nearer approach he presently di»* 
covered four more pirate prows vtrith the fid^, some of the people 
belonging to which were at work on the shore, repairing a boat. On 
perceiving Scott, their head man immediately made towards him, 
will| an uplifted axe in his hand ; upon a loud shout given by whomi 
acrowii SJfawtdp equally determined to put him to death. But^ 



tost t>V HIS tfAJBSTT^S SHir KMISTAIICB* 21$ 

fidKng upon hn knees, and sopplicating for mercy In their own 
tongue» the Chief relented, and forbad any of his people to do their 
prisoner harm* They asked htm earnestly what countryman be was ? 
From whence he came ? And what he wanted among them ? He re« 
plied he was an unfortunate Emgluhmatii one of a small remainder that 
survived the accident which had lately beBdIen his ship. They 
repeated the question, whether he was aAuaUy an Englishman ? And 
charged himi if a man of the Dutch Nation belonged to the number 
saved, that he should discover him to them, at his peril* Being an- 
swered in the negative, the Chief (or Rajah, as they styled him) 
eoquired particularly whether their Captain survived ? In which case 
lie woold undertake himself to convey them all safe to Malacca ; but 
his people, as well as the Mal^y Chief himself, vowed that if the 
party that accident had thus put into their hands had been Dutch^ 
BO consideration should have induced them to shew quarter to a sin^e 
map. 

Some of the pirates were now direAed to where the seamen werCf 
who presently returned with them, trembling under the most alarming 
apprehensions, that they should be massacred, as they conceived Scott 
had already been ; for they had seen the latter surrounded by an 
angry and threatening crowd, themselves then being undiscovered. 

On their arrival, all four were made to sit down, till they fully 
satisfied their curiosity, by asking a thousand questions relating to the 
ship, and their prisoners* The next step the pirates took, was to 
divide the captives ; each of the Rajahs taking two into his own 
boat ; the quarter-master and Hutton into one, the two Scotts into 
the other. 

It was now past six o'clock P. M* when the almost famished 
seamen ^^t last had the wants of nature relieved by a plentiful 
mea) of fish apd rice, which was served to them in each of the 
^oats. 

The time allowed for this refreshment being expired, the five prows 
immediately put off for the Resistance's wreck ; but af^er a vain 
search of two whole days, they returned without being able to picE 
up any part of the ship, or of her contents* Some seamen's chests» 
containing a few dollars and articles of little value, however, and a few. 
of the bodies, continued to be washed on shore, from ^time to time^ 
for some d^ys after. 

While these five prows, which formed a part of a fleet of eighteen 
or twenty, that were distributed along the land, remained cruising 
sieparately up and down the Straits, on the look out for trading craft 
from Chinai Java, &^, (whiph might be about three weeks); the 



^iS A CIRGUM^TAWTIAL NARItATITB OF TUB 

Malays continued to behave so well towards their prisoneis^ as to leave 
them no great cause to complain. 

About the 25th of August, the prow Rajah, or prindpal prow, la 
vhich the narrator was, at nine A. M. fcU in with a sloop from Java. 
The crew of this vessel, under cover of the preceding night, had 
abandoned her, betaken to their boats, and escaped to the nearest 
fhore, making the best of their way (probably with what specie they 
possessed) for the neighbouring town of Banca, whither it was believed 
fhcy were bound, and where they were secure of prote6kion. Imme- 
diately on seeing .this formidable prow, which carried one twelve- 
pounder, two swivels, and a proportion of musketry, swords, &c. 
lying at anchor to windward, and it being well asceitained, from her 
strength and appearance, what she was, as well as that no mercy vijas 
to be expeAed from the sanguinary band aboard her, they wisely made 
this sacrifice to their personal security. 

Before the prow Rajah boarded the sloop, the English seamen re- 
ceived a promise of a small dividend of any cloth or provisions that 
inight be found on board. Being laden, however, only with salt and 
oil, a small proportion of fowls, rice, and cpcoa nuts, part of her stock, 
came to their share, in common with the other hands* The prow 
proceeded from thence, with the sloop, for Penobang, a town on the 
Island of Lingan ; which they reached in three days, and where their 
prize fetched the captors 1500 rix-dollars. Here the two Scotts were 
separated, Joseph being sent on in the pri«e to the town of Lingan, 
and Thomas remaining with the Rajah of the prow behind at Peno- 
bang. The pirates have a small fort o^ block house at this place^ 
surrounded by water, tnounting several guns, which are occasionally 
run out of their houses, which are eredled universally upon stakes or 
piles. 

Thomas Scott remained as a slave here veith the Rajah of the 
prow, his master, four or five weeks, when he had the news of 
Quarter- master McCarthy and Hutton an-iving in the^ small prow at 
Lingan ; that the young Rajah who commanded that prow, fuid very 
Hberally and humanely rejected any ransom for his captives, and freely 
presented them to the Suhaun. 

A few days afterwards he heard that his namesake (Joseph) Scott 
bad been ransomed of the Timormen on board the prize, where it 
was his fate to be disposed of for fifteen ri^- dollars ; and, finally, that 
the Sultaun of Lingan had (with an alacrity and generosity which at 
once stamps the natural disposition of his heart, and the regard and 
Yespe£l he bears in it towards the British Nation) provided all the 
surviving seamen of which he appears to have had any knowledge^ 
with a prow to transport them to Pinang* 



Lots Of HIS majesty's SHIP RBIISTANCE* 



*»7 



Thas'did. the nsittonal cbaraAer of the land from whence these 
poor fellows sprang beconwe a blessing to Its Individttals, in the most 
trying and perilous situation imaginable : it would not become as 
to reverse the medal, and n\ake the allusion, however it might app(]r» 
to any other country, whose condu^ towards the Malay Islanders 
lias been been «o widely difFerent* and In consequence of which they 
experience very different ^e£la» 

It WW not till nine days after the liberation ^nd dieparture of his 
comii^dcs for Pinang, that Thomas Scott was brought up by hU 
4>wner fcom Penbbang to Lingan, about half a day's sail, and there 
sold in the market for thirty-five rix-dollars. 

HIb purchaser was ajjother Rajah} or head mate, who proved to him 
a kinder and more considerate master than the former ; he had now 
a better allois^ance of vi£^uals, more liberty, the gift of a cloth to 
cover him, with an handkerchief. Lamenting the hardship of his fate^ 
Mbeipg'the sole person of his countrymen left behind in bondage^ 
his new master encouraged him by the assurance, that whenever he^ 
Scptt, shoi«Id be able to pay him back the original amount of his 
purchase, he would immediately release hinu But his ddivenuice» 
and that from a quarter totally unimagined and unexpe6led, was^ 
under the dispensation of Heaven, then at hand ; for the next 
jday, to his unspeakable joy, he .found the Sultaun had become his 
ransomer also from the Macassar Rajah* Being ordered into the 
presence Qf his benefa6^or« h^ was given to understand, that in conse- 
quence of a letter received by the Sultaun the preceding day from 
Major Taylor, commanding at Malacca, requesting the SuJtaun's 
attention and relief to any of the crew of his Majesty's ship which 
might be found in those paits (too certain intelligence of which had 
been given him at Malacca), he, theSultauri, was happy to discover 
that there yet remained another Englishman, of whom he before had 
no knowledge, on the island s and to whom he cpuld have the 
pleasure of bestowing his liberty. Several otlier kind expressions 
/yrere at the same time used by him. 

Accordingly, after a delay of nine days of the prow dispatched 
by Msuoif Taylor to Lingan, Scott had the Sultaun 's permission to 
depart for Malacca. The prow arrived with him there on the 5th of 
Pecember, after a tedious passage of fourteen days, and where, 
jupon official examination, he delivered in the above report to the 
commanding officer, oifering to attest the same (to the best of his 
belief and knowledge^ at that time, or whenever after he might be called 
upon,. 

fflOl IV. P F ^ 



2t9 AHCHOKS AND CABLES* 

OJicersf Sbtp*s Cpfftpat^f CsTr, tdanpng.iOf or w hoards bit Mti^eUy's 
iihip Resutancef 'uhm s^ blew ttf^ as well as Scott can recolle3 r 

Captain Edward Pakenhaniy Mr. Courtenayy ditto. 

Commander. Mr. Woolfe, ditto. 

Mr. Haughton* 1st Lieat. Mr. — — -^^ ditto. 

Mr. Cuthbert, 2d ditto. Mr. — — — , ditto.. 

Mr. Mackay, 3d ditto» Three Master's Mates. 

Mr. Powis, Surgeon. Mr. Evans^ Coxswain^ 

Mr. Huat, Master. Mr. — — — .Suifgcon's Mate* 

Mr. Kosenhagen, l.i^t« of Serjeant Stcrens^ of Marines, 

Marines. Five QnaarteWBttuters* the Ah 
Mr. BrowDi Master at Arpis. (Mr. MCarthy ) bei^gsarcd^ 

Mr. Davroon, Gunner. Four BoaUwain's Mates ;abou^ 
Mr. Pike, BoaUwain. 3oMarine8;and25oSeamen« 

' Mr. , Carpenter, Three English women, mar* 

* Mr, Mercer, Purser. fied on board— one Mafaj 

Mr. Hat good, Master^s Mate. ' woman, of Amboyna. 

Mr. Walsh, Midshipman, Fourteen Spanish prisonert* 
Mr. Durham, ditto. taken in^ the pri?C brig. 

Malacca, December 8, 1 798. « 



• » I I  '  ' I ^ 



MR. EDITOR, 

TN oficTing to your notice a few remarks on the Cabks amd Anchors 
of Sliips in tlie Roy^l Navyi I cannqt but feel the disadvantage 
ynder which I may lie when thus attempting to show that objcds of 
so much importance, after having for ages, nay centuries, employed, 
the most sagacious and minute observers^ and received the benefit of 
their inquiries and experience, still admit of farther improvement. 
But if, as I conceive; any defc^ still exists in matters of this mo* 
ment, you will allow that a man of principle may feel anxious for 
the disclosure of those ideas which he« rightly or otherwise, imagines 
essential to its remedy. Under this impression» I take the liberty of 
icqucsting you to insert the following letter, in which I have thrown 
together my reflexions on the subjed, and the fa&S by Which those 
reflexions have been suggested. 

The first position which I shall attempt to establish is one that has 
every claim to prior consideration, and which, if admitted, of itsdf 
points out the necessity of some such other new regulations as those 
that I am about to propose. 

- I. It appears to me, after the fullest consideration and researdi, 
that his Majesty's ship^ are insu^ciently cabled* In support of this" 



( 



^AKCHOKS AHD CABLI9. 



219 



«piiuon I must remark, i* That merdiant Aipt, being from tkinee 
hondred font to seven hundred and fifty, which latter description 
includes th^ smaller vesada of the East India Com^ny, are certainly 
not provided with cables of a strength more than adequate to their 
siee, wants, and degrees of exposure ; 2. That these degrees of ex- 
posure, and consequent wants in the merchant vessels are far from 
being equal to thoee of his Majesty's ships ; 3< That merchant vessels 
are not't>ver cabled ; but that on the contrary, as all who are ac- 
quainted with them ifeadily agree, could they manage them, cables of 
a still latter size would be desirable ; novir, these postulates being 
granted, it follows that his Majesty's ships, not having cables oit 
one^alf, nor in some instances of one- thirds of the strength of those 
<on board such merchant vessels, are not cabled to one -half*, and in some 
instances to one-third, of the requisite strength. This is a hA which^ 
as rumour has said a reduSilon of the cables in the service has been 
proposed, seems to be eith^ unknbwn or unregarded* This | know, 
that the relative proportion of strength between the single cables of 
ships of the line and those of merchant ships of 3 or 400 tons, is not 
more than as three, or even two to six ; and that in length and 
namber, they hardly exceed the adual length and number of an East 
India ship of 750, and have not at the same time, more than one half 
or a third proportion of relative strength ; whence it follows, I con- 
ceive, that if an India ship is not great]y over-cabled, a sbp of the 
line is greatly deficient, . 

If I am right in this idea, it will no longer be urged against me, 
that the subje^k has been already completely examined. If this dis- 
proportion is reaUy produdive of the evils which I attribute to it, it 
will be allowed that even though the fadls alleged are weaker, and 
the arguments inferior, it would become the duty of every friend to 
his country and his countrymen, to stand forward in such a cause. 
What relates, to the most important branch of the navy, to the 
general defence and welfare, and to a point so interesting tc^ their 
safety, as firm anchorage and retention, can be of no slight or trivial 
consideration. Single ships of the line of battle are of a value, and 
what is more, include a population equal to those of some states that 
have a name in Europe. United, they are the greatest of the 
national energies, the acknowledged support, if not the source, of the 
wealth and power of the nation. They contain an assemblage of 
men forming a body not to be paralleled for. force, bravery, and 
skin ; and which, should any misfortune overwhelm, ages to conK 
might not replace. Ought a pledge of such immense worth, and <a 
pledge top for the public safety, the guaranty of wealth, liberty, and 
glory, and, as .things now stand, of every thing near and dear in 



220 AKCHOKS AMD CABL£8« 

private as \veH as public estithation, to bepermitted» if die 'contrary 

18 possible, to exist a moment m danger of sufiering from- the i»- 
commodiousuess or inadequacy of the instiixments they employ. 

In watching the enemy '« coast , which is become a usual duty; and 
in many exposed situations both at home and abroad^ our ships want 
retaining powers of the greatest strength ; and sh6u1d these powers^ 

. from error in ealculation, or any other cause, be formed of less than 
that required strength, and much more ^^ in tlie most important in- 

. stances, it is less than half of what it ought to be* it would be extremely 
criminal were we passively to witness so great an evil. It is not esc- 
travagant to supposci that such a distribution of the navy itisiy be occa« 
sionally required, as would kave half of it or nearly the whole, upon ^ 

the shores of the enemy, or in our own roads, exposed to the necessity 
of outriding the most destru£iive gale ; and a gale of that increased 
violence which late instances lead us frequently to expe£l. ' Tn such a 
chse, the flower of the heroism of Great Britain might be buried in the 
ocean : a catastrophe too dreadful for thought, hut which> as far at 
second causes are eencerned^ must be iniuenced by ihe hold of 
anchors, and the strength of cables. 

Ih It is my opinion, that the complicated nine-strand lay of y 

. cables is of inferior strength, and coiled with greater difficuhy than 
simpler combinations. 

in. n^hat it would be highly for the good of the service, and is 
pra£^icable, to adopt, for sheet and spare cables, if not for bowers, 
cordage of double or more than double substance. 

IV. That the bitts might be altered to that end, and in a man- 
ner beneficial to all cables, according to the recommendation of Mr» 
Snodgrass, and that these improvements, might be carried still 

fcrthcr. ' 

V, That anchors of the present magm'tude, being much more thaa 
adequate to cables now in use, would be &u£Ecient> or neatly so, for 
those of the proposed fabric. 

. ' VI. That an alteration might be made, which, though th^ anchor 

19 in my judgment, nearly perfe<5l in its common forms, would, in 
some casest aid its. office ; and, 

VII. That ships, to ride secure, do not wapt so great a scope of 
cable as is commonly supposed. 

The anchors of ships of the line are> it is allowed, in tolerable 
proportioR> though perhaps rather below what their ciircumstances 
require ; a ship of 300 tons possessing anchors of twelve or fourteen 
cwt. ; East India ships, of 750 tons, anchors of thirty*two or thirty* 
four cwt« } seventy* fo\irs, of i8qo tonsi .from seventy to eighty cwt. i 



ANCHGniS AI^D CABLES* 121 

second-rateSf from eighty to ninety ; and» aa I have been infonnccl^ 
the anchors of firfit-ratesy wliich are of 2200 or 2300 tons burden, lately 
approached to five ton weight. These respective weightSf common 
»ithmetic shevrs, are nearly proportional to those of the merchant 
and East India Company ships ; and perhaps nearly sufficient ; for I 
never heard that» except in very loose groundy where the form of 
an anchor is of more consequence than its weight, the anchon 
of merchant ships are not sufficiently pcrwerful for the cables to which 
they are attached. They have appeared in all the instances re- 
Bpefling which I have either had experience, or opportunity {^ 
making inquiry, to be what they ought to be — that is, completely s«« 
perior to the cables ; and, consequently, till farther experience 
amends present conceptions, it may not be improper to receive them 
as sufficient in all instances for the equivalent proportions of cab1e# 
Such have they at least, been proved, for those which the ships of the 
East India Company annex, and which are the best in all respetfl^ for 
comparison with his Majesty's sliips, as well on account of their size, 
methods, and habits, as of ihe reasoning and experimental inquiry 
which has heen made in this service, and the knowledge which ia 
generally possessed, or easily obtained, respe^ing the properties and 
powers of those ships, and their instruments! parts. 

To these comparisons I now proceed, by means of which I shall 
point one that his Majesty's ships fall beneath others in the propor- 
tion of their cables ; and that those ships being barely sufficiently found, 
the King's being still inferior, must be obviously defedlivc. 

The East India Company's ships, I mean the smaller, preserve 
pretty nearly the proportion aistomary • in the merchants' service, 
and this is scarcely sufficient ; but they can take better stations for 
riding than can the ships of the line, and have none of chose pressing 
occasioris for extreme power in their retainers, which occur perpetually 
in the public service. 

'^riie elevation of the lowest ships of the line, joined to the in. 
creased proportion of their masts and yards, the superior measure 
allowed in his Majesty's tonnage,' added to their outside berth, cause 
the least disadvantage they sustain in riding to be not reasonably less 
than a fourth more than their nominal tonnage compared with tlie 
East India «hips adduced, ; while second and first rates may be reason- 
ably set at a third more than theirs. This statement, indeed, docs 
not greatly exceed thqir real tonnage in merchant measure, and these 
considerations will cause seventy- fours to be rated at 2100 tons of 
East India tonnage, according to the strain they exert in cables; 
second rates at not less than 2600 , and first rates not below 3000. 



C «2« ] 

FRENCHv NAVAL TACTICS^ 

Essi^i on **iie Cduti rf the Naval St^^orUy (f England overihe 
French^'* extraBid frtm the Mohitevk, hy French Wtkertm In 
coHtmuatl9n from fage 148. 

ESSAY IU» 

'T^Hfi Author of tlie Memoir upon the Marinei aome tune 1^ ui« 
sertcd in the Momteur *> has treated this interesting quMion 99 
M in some measure to awaken the attention of etery saiIor» and of 
every Marine Artillery Man. This subjed appearing to be rather 
out of the sphere of a private officer, I may be blame^ for publishing 
the following observations, which I would not presume to hazard did 
not I believe that they may be of greater utility than those contained 
in the Memoir, But this is of little consequence. Should they 
only attra£l the criticism of the Officers >of the Marine Artillery, ( 
shall have attained my objeft ; for this would be one means of draw- 
ing them from the apathy in which they seem to be held. 

The Author has fixed upon three causes, which he thinks sufficient 
to give superiority in naval combats: ist, A superior excellence of 
ships. 2df A more profound knowledge in the officers of NavsJ 
Ta£^tcs ; and 3d, The more advantageous use and dired^on of tlie 
artillery. / 

The Author next having, in some way or other, demonstrated 
that the two first causes are in favour of the French,' concludes that 
it is the bad use we make of our artillery that is the cause of our 
reverses* 

It appears to me that he would have been more just had he con- 
eluded, tkat our defeats arise merely from the inferiority of our ar» 
tillcry. 

The two first points not bring within my sphere, and having been 
already resolved, I shall now, in concert with the. Author, examine 
what is the influence of the third. 

It cannot be doubted that this influence is very great in naval en* 
gagcments, since it is well known that artillery is employed in them 
as the principal ag^nt — that if it often prepares the vi^lory to land 
amites, it must by sea not only prepare but determine it. I am far 
from thinking that much does not depend upon the skilful manccuvring 
of th; ships, but can these manoeuvres be always executed under the 
superior fire of an enemy's artillery ? 

•• Sec page 146 of this Work* 



• i 



FtKNCa NATAi. TACTICS. 32} 

The Aathor stales^.that ** Tie French SnB their guns at the 
ri^Mgf WMcb comprehends every thJMg that is above the body of the 
nressd^ that three^fottrths of this space is^ a ^foid, astd consequently ^ that 
^tree fourths of the halls sp ^reSedf-must lost themul'ves in airJ* 

The list phrase is not canc&f for the bidk do not lose themselves 
in airy but in water* << From the mague elevatiom nvbicb isgizen to the 
Mis wicfi they are fired at the riggings the halls nvbicb bit the masts 
nnsst necessarily strike them one above the other ; and exfericMce proves^ 
that Jtfty camtam shots received in this maimer by a mast will not break 

When the rigging is fired at, it is only at a distance from which 
fone kind of .advantage nay be ezpeded by this dire^ion of shot* 
Thus* when a tessel is precnely distant from its adversary that space 
Wfaicb . go. wm carry rnthJpving It elcvanon, the. it h «aJoes. 
sary to allow much, and the degree necessary n»y be exa^iy deter* 
mined* But when the guns are fired beyond this distance it be- 
comes necessary to give them elevation, on account of the '-distance. 
Then it is that their muzzles conceal the hull of the enemy's tessd» 
and even its rigginga if the distance is considerablet from the eye of 
the o£Bcer who points the gttns> and it is firom hence« no doubt, that 
the Author has supposed the fire was dire6ied at the rigg^ng^ of 
the enemy's vessel when it is only pn^osed to reach it. I will agree 
that when the Marine cannoneer fires beyond the (distance of point- 
blank shot, be has nothing which indicates to hini how much he 
devates or lowers his piece ; that he does not know the precise degree 
ill which he has elevated or lowered it at the moment of the departure of 
the ban. fience it fbllowsy that besides its being possible that he may 
be able to bring back> for several ^otSf his piece to the same degree 
of elevation that it had before, it necessarily follows that the balls 
mnistlodgs in the masts, or strike them precisely one above t^e other. 
^* The EngRsb cdvsays dit-oa their guns at the buds of the vessels f l^c»" 
The Author ought to have established a term of xomparison from 
whidi we could set out» in order to estimate the efiieds of artillery. 
XiCt us suppose any Qxed distance ; it is evident that every shot direde4 
at the hull of the enemy's vessel at the distance of two cables lengtht 
cannot miss it, siflce it is impossible that the balls can miss it by 
diverging laterally, and as the degree to which they fall cannot exceed 
seventeen or eighteen feet ; bui if we suppose a distance of six cables 
length, the guns ought no longer to be direded at the hulls of the 
enemy's vesselsi for the balls would touch the water at about a third 
part of that distance, and would never reach the vessels. It would 
be necessary in this case to give the guns a certain elevation* 
-Their imizalcs will then cpflccal the objed firom the cannoneer^ wha 



rUBISCll KAITAt TACTICS* 

wffl he oUiged to take his aim by the sides of the gan-»a methoJ 
which cannot but produce error, and of which, .the praAice is only 
ncommendcd for want of better means. Jt is not uncommon, with 
•ach uncertain methods of pQincing^ for the best trained cannoneer to 
mistake one degree or even more in the elevation of the guu, which 
caiQses him to miss every part of the enemy's vessels ; since at the 
distance we are supposing, the fall of the balls must be from two to 
three hundred feet. I think it too tedious and useless to point out all 
^ errors Which pught arise from lateral pointings 

When guns are fired at a greater distance than the gun carries, 
point-blank, they are almost always aimed by chance. There can 
therefore be no security that they will strike any determined part of 
the enemy's ship $ but they are fired in the hope that they will strike 
it son^e where or other. It is easy to see from this, how ridiculous 
k woidd be to aim so as to sink it in this case. , 

•< When the guru are dircSed at iht body of the enemy* s vesseht the 
§aHt nvhlch fast above mmt pass almoit at the same height f so that those 
mjhhh striie the masts must strike them nearly in the someplace** 

What the Author says here is true \ when the gUns arc fired at » 
distance which they will carry point-blank, I think I have abeady^ 
proved, that beyond this distance there can be no security that the baila 
will in any degree strike* 

Thus the instru^bions which the Author has given fespeding Uie 
mamgenient of artillery at sea, only relate to firing point-blank. 
His views are undoubtedly not confined to this point, he has given 
iTOom to hope that in a second Memoir he will explain them for the 
)nstru6kiott of the OfEcers of the Marine Artillery. 

<• // may he supposed from the conduQ of the French in hattk, that their 
intentioti ^as enfy to get dear of the English lessels^ in order to awad 
decisive a8ion** 

I suppose that the intention of the Freni^h sailors when they are 
engaged, is to do all the ill possible to the enemy, and that if the 
eficdb does not correspond with their intention, it is the fault of the 
arms which they use. 

I shall only cite one £1^ to give an idea of the eiFed of our ar- 
tillery. Upon the return of the French and Spanish fleets, com-^ 
manded by Admiral Bniix, they fired 900 cannon shots at least* at 
an Algerine corsaire, without the smallest efFcdt. I do not believe 
that in a combat of this nature, there was ever so much unavailin|^ 

filing. 

lliongh the preference ought tp be given to dire£ting the guns 90 
as to make them strike the hi^l of the enemy's vessel, I do not thiiik 
that this opinion of the Author ought to be considered as an cx^da-*^ 



r&SliCH XAVAL TACTIC^ 22$ 

f^t principle* For instance, in a particular engagement the com« 
niander of a ship, the superiority of whose artillery over that of its 
aatagonist is discernible, ought, it appears to met to sfive the enemy'f 
vessel, and only to fire at the rigging. 

The Author, in examining the condud of the English Admirals ia 
battle, asserts that they have negk&ed manceuvriag, with the advant^ 
ages of position, and that they have reckoned solely on the superiority 
of their artillery* The English Admirab have done what every able 
General wiD do, when having the superiority of force, he can, t^ 
eombating the enemy's atmament in parallel order, fight it along the 
whole extent of its front and destroy it completely. 

The- Author observes, *^ thai the EnglUb bavt only produced onf 
fOttten^lhle work upon Naval TaSks." But they have produced 
several exceHent ones upon Artillery, which is at least as essential.^ 
^' That they have no Marine School.*' We have in opposition to that^ 
no School for Artillery. ** Lastly^ that they have no Naval Corpe of 
JrtiUefy.** It may now be asked, if wt have any ? If that Body 
which- we know by the name, is organized as it ought to be ? If th« 

- men who compose it are chosen^ and if they are commajided at sea by 
the officers who trained them \ - 

• The only French Author who has written upon the subjed of the 
Naval ArtiUery is Citizen Texier Norbie. His work, though mon? 
dero, appears to me incomplete» because he has not taken notice of 
the great changes made in the Land Artillery in 17659 and since that 
period, nor of the discoveries which have arisen from the discussiona 
which the subjeft of artillery has undergone, s4though he could not 
be nnacquatnted with them. It is true that it does not seem to have 
been his obJe6l in his researches to appreciate the importance or ad* 
Vantage of these changes, nor (o make any application of them to the 
Naval Artillery. 

- The Lan4 ArtilW having been carried to a pitch of perfe^^ion, 
which has attracted the attention of all militaiy men, and even of the 
learned of Europe, it would have been sijrprisir.g, if the Naval Ar* 
tiQery had not reaped some improvement from this perfedion, were 
it only in those parts of its construdion or management which are 
analogous or similar to those of the Land Artillery, if it had had a 
corps destined particularly to its service, of » which the oificers had 
been artillerers. This corps not having eii^isted, the Naval Artillery 
has undergone very little change. 

I have proved that our Naval Artillery does not furnish any meana 
pf taking a sore aiAi. - It is still mpre defecUve with respe<5t to its 
mounting, because this is not established on any rational principle ; 
acme of them being contrary to the simplest rules of Mechanics, it 



22^ 



VRBNCB tXAYAt TACTICS. 



would be imposnbfe to resolve them all into one I condudei duit 
in every respcd it is inferior to that of the English. We hate 
indeed the melancholy experience of this. It, would not then ^ 
aufficient to secure us constant success, merely that we hare perfe6ked 
the cdnstrudion of our vessels, that we have investigated deeply into 
Naval Tallies, and formed good Naval officeri ; it would still nemain ner 
cessary to improve our artillery, and to lender it, if possible;, superior 
to that of the enemy. I shall offer some leading ideas as to the means 
which I think best adapted to make it i:egain this superiority. 

It will be necessary to make our artillery lighter^ which may hc 
^one without danger, as is proved by the example of the English^ 
and of our allies the Spaniards, whose artillery is one fourth lighter than 
ours ; to fix the dimensions of the guns upon an ^CQuratc knowledge 
of the laws of cohesion, of the force of tenacity in the particles of 
cast iron and of the effeft of the powder which tends to break them. 

It vriU be necessary to adapt to our gnns htiiout Je mire^ vti 
hausses nubiktf similar to those with which £cld-pieces are pi^vided* 
but of which the properties wiH be more extended, and the use more 
ture, without requiring any greater skill on tht part of the cannoneer. 

The next thing requisite will be, to ^ilkate tlie means of tajdng 
aim by the sides of the gun ; some method of majcmg fast the guns, so. 
that their weight being nearer to the centre of gravity as tq the vesseli,. 
the motion may be made less, which must also be provided.-. , ^ ^ 

The carronades ought to be cast a-new; as their consttu^oB, a^ 
well as that of their frames, is evidently bad. ' "'-' 

Schools of AruHcry for the Naval Service ought to be established* 
in which officers, by being taught ^ good theory, may \k prepared for 
serving usefully. 

A coq)s of Marine Artillery, of ' chosen menji ouglit to be formed s 
to the officers of which ought to be granted, the power of direding 
the artillery at sea» and that of commanding and* disciplining their 
cannoneers. These officers not being then so completely puU as thejr 
ire at present on board our vessels, would have the glory of being id>l<5 
to contribute to our success^ the only one of which they could be 
jealous. 

The zeal which animates me for the honour of the corps to vvbid^ 
I am proud of belonging, "will plead my pardon for the faults of tht§ 
£(^ay. If I am deceived in the conclusions which Ihavedf^WQ» \ 
eagerly wish that some officers, more masters of the theory and pnifiit 
tice of the profession, may, by making it known, propose better. 

BY AN OFFICER OF TBZ ^IAEJUB ARTJU-ER^Y. ^ 

• The Trantlator is unacquainted with the EngliA terms for this »nd tbe fo|. 
lowiog ezpreision {haiusei 'mUiUi)^ but what is riicant by i*irf#«» if«wvist^ 
•mall mark near the muzzle of the g*i, to dired moffc iteadily t^e:aim n^ th« 
peiibn who pointt it. 



( a«7 ) 

 ^ POR TffS If AVAL CSROmCLS. 

M i.EbtTOi, ' 

tr^HE Moniteury or, ia other words^ the official Gazette of FmKef 
"^ of which you have givca a transbtioa *y having thought proper 
to obtrude some obsenratioos upon the comparative Naval Ta/ftict 
cf France and England^ and to draw from those observations a 
particular inference, the remarks with which I shaQ trouble you 
are intended as an answer to those observations* I shaU* how* 
ever, answer the Moniteur rather substantially than regularly, and 
#hall reply oione to the result of his argruments, than criticise his 
ifidividual paragraphs. The remarks of the Moniteur are evidently 
the laaguiq^e of Consular command* It is an obvious finesse of 
Qovemmeatf to ekcite their navy to the hope of rivalling their army. 
The Moniteur insists that the superiority of a marine force, when in 
' a^on, must depend on three things : i. The better condition of the 
vessels-*t. The greater naval skill of the officers'-3. The better use 
of the aitillery, I grant to the Consulate Gazette that such things 
are the causes, but not the only causes of superiority. There i» one 
ather cause, and tliat, fortunately for this country, a cause which is as 
much a property of our nature, as fog and beef are the charaderistics 
of our island : that eause. Sir, is the matchless firmness of our seamen 1 
The Moniteur -remarks, that the continual vi£toTies of the English 
at tea must arise vrom the imprudence of the French in firing at our 
ngging, rather than at our hulls ; but English seameo are disposed to 
insist) that fire as they may, at hull or rigging, the French fleet always 
shall, and always must, be beaten. England, says the Moniteur, has 
had but one author who has written on Naval Ta^ics, and he was 
not a seaman : aU their knowledge, therefore, he adds, must be drawn 
lirom French authors. The autlior alluded to by the Gazette of 
France is Clarke. Clarke has written a book, and a most excellent 
book it is, upon Naval Tadics ; and by the principles of that book, iu 
some measure, have the French, Spaniards, and Dutch, been severely 
chastised. But. Clarke is not the only author, although the others 
have not published any elaborate treatises on the subje^ Admiral 
Russel (not to go farther back) was an author on Naval Taftics. 
fioscawen, Hawke, Rodney, were authors of the same sort* Howet 
liothann, Jarvis, Duncan, and Nelson, have published upon the same 
topic. There is a pubb'cation called i/i^f^^rv.fift7f*^, composed of 
pages of most important composition. The authors above-mentioned 
have been rather nervously concise than eloquently difRise. •• Point 
your guns well, my lads ; don't throw away a sihgle shot ; see but 
their whiskers and you will singe them.*' 

i The letter of the Moniteur insinuates, that the cause of the inva- 
qjable defeats of the French proceed from their firing at our masts and 

• Sec Page t4j. 



«28 



V&tNCH fticTAL tACTtCff* 



rigging ; and thatthie uniform vidoiies of the Eiiglish itt theiUrCatal 
result of firing at the French holb. It is not here intended to reply 
to the indmdual arguments used in the Moniteur to^sabstantiate his 
statement. It is more to the purpose to resorty in the first instancet 
fo the truer source of British triumphi and the curdess cause of f^^ 
defejat* When a very 'valtant Captain of a French line of battk shipf 
whose vessel was sunk, after a most handsome rcststancCy was saved 
from the impending peril- of drowning, by the G>mmander of a. British 
.ship, in Lord Howe's memorable adioni the prisoner^ in the fullness 
4i£ hh gratitude for his life preserved, and a great part of his crew 
rescued £-om perdition* having thanked the English Captain vrith a 
i^ndour correspondent to his courage, very frankly declared, that 
nothing in the world could stand against the broadside of a British man 
of watf which he pronounced to be a perfied hail'ttorm of buHets. 

When the surviving first officer of a line of battle ship, taken in an 
a^'dn between the French fleet in the Mediterranean, and the British 
fleet under Admiral Hotham, had, some ^ays afterwards, his sweid 
returned to him, he congratulated himself upon receiving it, and at the 
^me time observed, that he had been obliged to thrust that sword 
thrbugh the bodies of several of his seamen, to make the remainder 
stand to their guns : he «t the same time asked the First Lieutenant 
of the Admiral's ship, on board of which the Frenchman wasprisoncry 
how the English officers contrived to keep their men to their 
^uns ? ** We have no necessity to keep them to their gnns," replied 
the Liciitenant, *• for the Devil himself could not drive them from 
^em ;" and, pointing to his speaking trumpet » said, «* We have only 
to make them hear, they will be sure to obey." In short. Sir, the 
hail. storm, as the first- mentioned officer emphatically dc>;cribed it, is 
the true and only cause of conquest on one side, and the irresistible 
impulse that dismays, disconcerts, and defeats the other party ; and 
as to John Bull, the hail-storm, with all its concomitant thunder 
and lightning of artillery, has no other effedt upon him than to 
make him pelt away in return till he has silenced and subdued hts 
antagonist* 

It is not here intended to draw illiberdl or national comparisons ; 
the letter io the Monlteur has set no such example, and requires 
ho such return : much less is it designed to vaunt any preternatural 
prowess; and, less rhan all is ic meant to allude to the mimbA^ 
sacrificed to give a temporary colouring of success to the French 
armies. There is no affinity between the two services. The hail- 
storm here alluded to, is the Itail-storm of the main. It is sufficient 
just to observe, that pushing hundred upon hundred, and devoting 
to death thousand after thousand, to fatigue'the enemy by continuation 
of slaughter, may answer the purposes of desperation on shore ; but 



V&BMCK NAVAL TACTICS* 23$ 

«udi temerity afioat, whether applied to the hull or nggiagof the British 
vhipsy win only augment destrufkion^ and ensure defeat to their assailants* 

The Moaiteur states^ that this superiority of the English^ in firing 
«t the hullt was etinced in the combat with Lord Howey and in that 
with Nelson, at the Nile : but here, in joining with the Moniteur, as 
to the incontrovertible superiority manifested by the British squadrott 
Upon the latter unparalleled day^ I must dissent from him in affixing 
the glory of it to that cause to which he assigns it : to no defedion 
OA the pait of his countrymen^s ta£iic8» to no indiscretion of jSriog at 
the rigging instead of the huD, was the event of that matchless 
transaction to be attributed. No, Mr. Editor, to the hailstorm 
alone must we apply for an explanation of that proud and unextfnpled 
ttanceuvre. 

As to Howe's renowned battle in the Channel, be it remeiaJ^eredt 
that the ships of France were, on that occasion) better fouad and 
better fought than they had ever been under the old regime ; every 
liationaly every republican, every pecuniary nerve was strained, to 
empower that formi4ablfi fleet to resist the English ; every exertion 
was made to lay their ships close to the enemy ; the old pni£bice o£ 
firing at the rigging was completely abandoned. The prisoners in 
that well disputed combat unanimously declaredi th4t the substituted 
system of firing at our hulb had been adopted, and executed with as 
much precision as the French seamen could be prevailed on to perse- 
vere in. But they did not, they could not persevere ; the hail-storm 
totally defeated the design. 

As to the fight of the Nile, be it recoUedled that the French ships 
were at anchor ; that they had a three-decker of very heavymetal ; that 
Ndsonhad two-deckers only ; that the French purposely, declaredly^ 
and universally pointed their whcde numerous and ponderous artillery 
at our hulls, their broadsides at our hulls, end on : Jt wasj at flrsl» 
hundreds of shots to one, broadsiae to bow, point blank aim at ships 
necessarily less certain in their aim, because steeriog, and occasionally 
yawing ; some lei](gth of time brought our slHps hull to hull : then 
came on the aforesaid hail-storm : then might any Frenchman* ad- 
vanced in the elegances of the English tongue, have exclaimed, <<From 
Hell, Hull, and Hail-storm, good I^ord deliver us !" 

In short, Sir, the Moniteur is correal in his data, but has ened in 
his conclusion, .like Monsieur D'Arcon, who suggested and super- 
intended the floating batteries at Gibraltar. That able Engineer pro- 
nounced his batteries (so doubt upon plausible data) to be impene- 
trable, incombustible, and insubmcrsible ; whereas the, batteries of 
Monsieur D'Arcon were shot th rough > set on Are, and sunk, 

I am, Sir, your hunr.ble servant, 

HAII^STORM. 



C ijd 3 



GREAT BRITAII*, 

A POEM. 

▼XVeXT AMOR PATEIJB. 

MAIL ! h^p7 landy aroihid whose rocky shbrsi 
The rettless wave of hoary Ocesfn ro vtf» . i 

How shall the Muse recount thy endless praise f 
Weak is her fancyi lov^ her loftiest lays ; 

To Britain's glory» strains suhlime belong ; | 

Heroic verse, and richer streaAi df song. 

HerCf from the earliest age< nhfs ever seen 
The martial form of liberty serene— 
Here.the brave Chief, whose steady ^our bore 

Rome's haughty eagles to the Gerriian shore, \ 

Tani'd the fierce Gaul^ and'sstw Pharsalia's day, 
And broke of Munda's war the firm array'— 
Here found that courage, warm'd with Freedom's fires^ 
The fearless minds with scorn of death inspires* 
Unskilled in every art of civil life. 
The savage Britons in the noble strife. 
The welUtrain'd legions gallantly withstood. 
The Seas tan purple with {he Roman blood. 

Here too these dauntless heroes could restrain, * 

The Sweeping ravage of the cruel !Dane. 
Thee^ Alfred ! fam'd in learning and in war; 
That rough and hardy race was taught to fearj 
Scar'd at thy warlike voice in dire dismay, 
The Northern Raven • drobp'd and, fled away. 
Kame, to the sacred Muse, for ever dear. 
Who 'mid the gloom of ignorance so drear. 
Could teach the light of Science how to shine. 
The wild Barbarian polish and refine, 
Pour each fair moral on the human mind. 
And ruffian rage with legal sandtions bind. 



• The Danish StandalM,, 

s 



i 



PvAp all ! un^encDy to each gcn'rous art* 
When death unspairing chiU'd thy glowing heart| 
The age to fierce j>arbarity ret^m'd— > 
f^o more with love of ancient glory li>urQ'd« 

Now brighter aeras iplaim my wiBtng lays } 
See heroes ItQinr— the mc^ of happier days. 
In pomp majestic see the Chief* advance, 
Whose courage shook the throne y)f haughty Fianov^ 
See Poidier's plain and Crnsy's glotipus field $ 
See the young Vidor f with the sable shield* 
Unmatch'd in valour as in courtly graces 
** The first in combat* ^ the first in place/^ 
See from his aslics tpp, whose deeds adon^ 
Th' historic page, another hen> bonu 
He, the fifth Henryi pa the frighted shoref 
Of hostile Franpe, his welUtndn'd smny poors; 
Who knows not Agincoort ? — there uoUy bnve> 
Ten tl)ousand warriors found a glorious grave ; 
There ,fell th^ weight of that destruAive blow. 
That humbled France, and laid her heroes low % 
There Bourbon fell oh heaps of Princes dead | 
There Dalbrpt died— and bold Alencon Ued^ 

But endless }were the task, O Land of Fama !  
Thy warrior^f valiant adkions to proclaim $ 
prance and Iberia feel their matchless force. 
And climes far distant tremble at their conne. 
Not the stout Flemish on hjs wasted fields. 
Nor German bold, the glitt'ring sword who widdf. 
Nor Swiss descending from hi? mountain's brow. 
Clad in fierce tempests, and a waste of fnow. 
Nor hardy Russians, nor iiitrepid Swe4es, 
Oi Char^^s still boasting high the warlike de<:ds« 
Nor ruthless Turk, nor Austrian firm in fight. 
Could of thy heroes quell the dauntless might : 
Germania's plain, and Flanders dy'd in blood. 
The Danube rolling sk>w his sanguine flood. 
And Ganges' broken wave, that murmVing flow% 
Clogg'd with dire carnage of thy skughter'd foesi 
Bear thro' recording times thy fair renown, 
Xnd Nations yield to thee the martial crown. 

« £djrsr4 111. i Edward the Black Pnacc^ 



2}S HATAL LtrBKATVMW 

But while thy valour sways the tide of war» 
Illustrious Country \ o'er the regions £ir» 
With sheet expanded to the blowing gal^^ " 
Thy fleet triumphant on the ocean satis ; 
Bold are thy fearless seamen on the wave. 
Bold on that furious dement tlicy brave, 
They court fair honour, 'mid the roaring sound 
Of surging biUowsH on the seas profbuud^ 
Firm and experienced in the naval arc. 
They guide their daring course with steady heart 5 
Firm and intrepid they dired the helm, 
Far to that cold inhospitable retdm : 
The seat of Winter bleak, where moDntaiQS glow* 
Bright with eternal frost and hoary snow ; 
Far to the pol^r regions of the skies. 
Where waste impassive continents of ice 
Stretch to the chiDing North in dreary view> ' 
Thy sailors glory in those trads pursue. 

^is Britain's honour to- make discord cease» 
And join the Nations in the league of Peace ; 
Bid harvests flourish where the desert tcowl'd. 
And plant fair cities where the savage bowl'd 1; 
Spread each ennobling virtge of the mindj 
And the vast world in social commerce bind ; 
For this Drake ventured to the Western ^orci^ 
Thro' seas that never felt the keel before; 
For this too J Raltrigh, wise experienced sage^ 
• The pride ^nd stain of a degcn'rate age ; 
For this, of equal fame tho' later time, 
Thy Cook midaonted travcrs'd every clime* 
Muse I at that name let tears eternal flow. 
Fay to the sacred dead the meed of woe ; 
See Commerce weep, and drooping Science mou;i];^ 
With hair dishevelled o'er his' silent urn. 

But when inceiis'd to punish lawless pride* 
Thy fleets. Oh Britain ! on the ocean ride, 
Fierce from their ports the blasting vengeance flies* 
Then wild deleat and desp'rate rout arise ; 
Death on the deck assumes his dreadful standi 
And points the cannon with his slaught'riog hand. 
Thus fell the armament of boasting Spain, . 
Brave Howard iihelm'd them in the British main i 



r' 



NA▼A^ LtTE&ATVlt* %$% 

So where Domingo rises o'er the flo<K*t» 
France shed in copious streams Ker flowing bloody 
When gallant Rodney thro' her centre broke» 
In voUied thunder, and a night of snooke :— 
Great Naval Hero ! to thy deathless name. 
The rescued Nation plans the bast of Fame'; 
Still shak thou live» while time shall flow along. 
In lays histonc, and tiie Poet's song ; 
But whiie thy Britain glories in her Chief, 
Her feeling bosom throbs with tender grief; 
She weeps her warriors in the raging fight. 
Who nobly perish'd in their country's light ; 
She sees her Blair among her -Heroes dead, 
Andstretch'd with Blair, on Honour's awful bed,- 
Her Manners too, the gallant, young, and braver . 
Who Ml to conquer, and who died to save. 
Ah! virtuous heat, and Valour's gea'rous flame ; * 
Ah I daring lust of honourable fame. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE XLL 

n^HIS Kate represenU the situation of the William Tell, French 
ship of war, of 84 guns^ as disabled by his Majesty's ship the 
Penebpe, of 36 guns. Captain Blackwood, Qn the night of the 29th of 
March, tSooy on her endeavour to escape from Malta. The Lion, 
of 64 guns. Captain Manly Dixon, and the Foudroyant, of 74 guns. 
Captain Sir Edward Berry, are seen coming up from a distance at 
day-break* For Gazette account of the engagement, we refier our 
readen to vol. iii. page 500; also for minute particulars, see pagejcS 
cf the same volume* given in a letter from on board the Foudroyant. 

The following is the French account of this memorable capture, as 
transmitted to the Minister of Marine, by which our readers, on 
comparison, may form an idea of the fallacy of republican official 
veracity. 

** Vice* Admiral Y^^C^ts to thi Mimster o/Martne and the Colomet. 

^CITIZBN MINISTtR, ist Fhreal, %th year. 

*' I HAVE the misfortune te transnut to you an account of the 
iCapture of the ship William Tell, commanded by Captain Saunier, 
aod on board of which I had recently hoisted my flag. — It was on 
the 8th Gemtinal, at eleven at night, when^ the ship left the port, 
the moon had gone down about an hour, scudding before the wind, she 
had' already doubled a part of the enemy's fleet, when she was re- 
cognized by a frigate, which immediately pursued her| at the same 

aiot IV. B H 



134 FIIIHCH ACCOUKT OF THB 

time firing her guns in order to point out the chase^ and bring n^ 
the enemy's ships. It was the Penelopey of 44 guns, which unfor- 
tunately gained ground of the William Tell ; she gained so fast upon 
her, that at one o'clock of the morning of the Qth^ she was near 
enough to fire right into her stern. -The William Tell returned the 
fire from her stern chases ; her shot several times struck the Pene- 
lope, but did not preve^it her repeating her fire during the whole of 
the nighty with all the advantage which she derived from her superior 
style of sailing and the choice of posit ion^ as well as from the neces- 
sity which compelled me to fiy* An hundred times I was tempted 
to manoeuvre in order to cripple her from fighting, as well as some 
cutters that foUoUred her and annoyed us with their fire, but as the 
wind blew fresh, and I observed^ notwithstanding the darkness of the 
nighti several ships at the extremity of the horizon in fuU sail to 
support her* I was sensible that by lying tOy I should be giving them 
all time to come up» and that my escape would be impossible. We 
were thus annoyed during the whole of the night by this frigate, 
whose fire brought down our main-top-mast about five in the morn- 
ing« At that moment the Lion» of 64 gunsy came up within musket 
shot to the larboard of the William Telly while the Penelope con- 
tinued firing astern* For three quarters of an hour» during which 
the Lion was on our quarter, a brisk fire was maintained on both 
sides* At last her's slackenedy and we were within pistol-shot of each 
othery when» perceiving that there was not a single person on the 
quarter>decky I ordered Captain Saunier to seize the first opportunity 
of boarding. The first attempt made hy that gallant o£Bcer did not 
succeedy owing to the precautions of the enemyy but having tried a 
second efibrt, the William Tell's bowsprit was entangled in the 
shrouds of the Lion, and we should certainly have succeeded in 
boarding if our bowsprit had not gone in two and disengaged the 
ehipSy at the moment when one of pur sailors had reached a part of 
their rigging, and a troop of brave fellows were preparing to follow 
him. This coup de main failingy the Lion, without a single sail, her 
rigging cut to pieceSf and her mast ready to go by the board, wa^ 
compelled to fall back without firing a single cannon. The William 
Tell for some minutes pursued her, but was soon compelled to quit 
hery in order to receive the Foudroyanty who now took part in the 
engagement. It was about six o'clock ; the Foudroyanty of 84 guns, 
one of the finest vessels in England, passed astern of the William 
Telly calling out to her to strike, and at the same time pouring in her 
whole broadside. In consequence of their manoeuvres the two ships 
were sqon alongside of each other, the Foudroyant on the starboard* 
and the Penelope on our quarter ; the fire at that moment on both 
sides was terrible, we continued as close to each other as it was 
possible without being able to boanU In about thirty-six minutes 



CAPTVRi OF THE WILLIAM T£LL. 2$^$ 

tbe fore-mait of the WSIiain Tell gave way, and at three- qoartcn 
past sk her main-mast shared the same ^te. The ssdls and rigging 
of the Foudroyant were cut to pieces, and she was for some time no* 
govenmUe> and as her stern was towards us, her mi;ienmaBt was 
divided, and several of her yards wefre hanging in different directions. 
la the mean time the Lion, which had retired from the engagement 
for more thra an hour, had repaired her' damage, and returned to 
attack us on our larboard. In the state in which' the Wiliiam Tell 
was, I confess I had but little hopes of the issue of so unequal a 
combat, but the determined resolution of her crew was such, that i 
was certain she would be dearly purchased by the enemy ; besides, 
while the ship was manageable, we were capable of any bold attempt, 
without dread of the consequences. It was for that reason I ordered 
Captain Saunier to board the Foudroyant, whose fire I perceived had 
abated. The Commander seiaeed the first opportunity that presented 
itself, and rushing suddenly on her starboard, he crossed her bowv. 
sprit. The enemy judging of our intentions, manoBovred to order 
to prevent our boarding ; the two vessels neatly touched each other, 
but could not absolutely meet* The result of this matusuvre was, 
that the Foudroyant, which had already lost her mizea-mast, was 
terribly maukd both fore and aft, her fore-t<^mast had fallen, and 
sbe was fain to sheer off with what masts she had standing* Daring 
the rest of the engagement she kept at a distance, which did not 
admit of ourboarding her. It was then that Captain Saunier, who 
bad direded the manoeuvre with \inconmion alnlity, was severely 
wounded. He was immediately replaced by Lieutenant Donadieu^ 
an officer of very great merit* From seven o'clock the William TeU* 
having only her mizen and mizen-top*Rui8t left, had to engage two 
ships of the line and a frigate ; she answered their fire by both her 
broadsides, and frequently by her guns astern. The rigging had 
several times taken fire, and had been repeatedly extinguished; 
several explosions which I had helrd on board the enemy's ships, 
aBSpred (nc that the same accident had happened to them. Unfor« 
tunately the falling of the masts obstructed the working of several of 
fur larboard guns, and we were obliged to be continually throwing 
water on that side where the ruins of the masts and rigging, ivhich 
we were' unable to remove with sufficient speed, threatened every 
moment to set fire to the ship. At eight o'clock (and I mention 
this moment because I cannot determine what was the state of tlie 
guns at the end of the a6lion), there were two destroyed by the 
enemy's shot, and nineteen dismounted, without reckoning those on 
the quarter-deck. . As the main- mast had been twice cut, one of the 
pie^s, which was fourteen feet long, lay across the quarter-deck, 
and so CQtireljr obstruded it, that it was impossible to move* Nots 



236 r&BirCH ACCOUMT) &c* 

withctonding thts accident, and the appearance o£ the blood* wUA 
oTCiflowcd all the decks, the resolution of the crew aeemed to in- 
crease ; and notwithstanding the united fire of three ships of the liac» • 
the defence of tht William Tell, at half past eight, was 8t3i vigoroos ( 
at that moment her ndzen-mast fell on thelarboardr side. The whole 
of that side against which the fire of the Lion was direded, waa 
obstni^ed fay the masts* The enemy taking advantage of our cm* 
batrassed* situation, were enabled to chuse that which was most coo^ : 
venient for them, while it was impossible for us to ayail ourselves of 
the same adyatitage. The Foudroyant, which had received the snost > 
of our fire, was unaUe to haul on oar staTboavd, but the Lion was on 
our larboard qutrter, though her sails, rigging, and yards, were cot ' 
to pieces. At length the Penelope, whidi had received but little ' 
damage, headed us,, and the William TeS received the fire of all 
three : without a mast standing, the ship ungovernable, and reding- 
from the violent motion of the waves, which she had no mast or sail 
to countera6k, we vrere obliged to shut her lower ports in order to 
prevent her filling* In this situation it was too evident not only 
that it was impossible to save the ship, but that it was out of mj 
power furtherto ifijure the enemy. 1 was sensiUe that the men I 
might lose by a longer resistance, would be the useless vidims of a 
vain obstinacy; upon this convi^iion, and petstUKled that the de* 
fence of the WiHiym TcU had been in every tespe6k truly honour* 
abley I thou^t it my duty to submit to fortune^ and about thirty- 
five minutes past nine, after the ^p was a wreck, the flag was struck* 
The Penelope was the only ship able to take possession of her, and 
board her with' a sufficient namber of sailors to cany her to Syracuse. 
The enemy did not attempt to conceal the considerable loss they 
su^ined, and from what I have seen, and what I vras inlbimed im- 
mediately afier the afEair, it is certain that in this respcdi the van- 
quishers have not been more fortunate than the vanquished* I deem 
it superfluous to make any encomiums on the conduct of the crev^ 
of the William Tell $ the hB. alone of the engagement, and of the 
three attempts to board, which, notwithstanding the superioiity of 
the enemy, promised success, will sufficiently inform you, Citizen 
Mifiister; what confidence I was justly inspired with by. the tatento 
of the Captain, the devotion of the officers, and the bravery of the 
whole of the crew! had the honour to command. 

In our next I^ublication we shall give some critical remarks an4 
observations on the preceding statement ; and by comparing the two 
accounts, that of Captain Dixon's with the French, shew at one view 
tlie ialsehood and absuidity of the lat^r« 



[ «$7 ] 

ADMIKALTT-0r»lCB» AVO. 1}. 

^h tf^ Letkr from Captain Ditrham, rf bh Mtjaift SS^ Amon^ fQ Bvam . 

SIR, 

J BBO yw will be pkMbd to Inform toy l4irds CoauniasioAert of the Ad* 
minlty, that thb moniiiifl% at day-li^ht, I discoT«red a large convoy, be- 
tween fortT or fifty nil of diierent descnptiont, in the Straits of Gibraltar. 1 
snmediately got nnder weigh and gave dute ; on oar approach they got tinder 
the batteries, where they were covrnd by twenty-fire gnn^bbats, who, toj^ether 
with the forts, very mnch annoyed us; notwithstanding, with the assistance 
of two Gibraltar row-bdatt, we captured eight, one of which was afterwarde 
retaken ; they prove to be Spiniafas, bound from Malaga to Cadiz. 

I have the eatisfadivn to uafbrm their Lordships, that I have this momeiit 
returned to my anchorage with the prises. ^ 

I feel mnch obliged to Captain Hay, of the Constance, for his disposition of 
the armed boats, which, haa it been cairn, would have rendered our sncccat 
moch more complete. 

i am, tec, 

p. C. DURHAM. 

ADKiaALTY-OrtXCI, AUO. I3. 

Ojfy tfaiuiher Later fram Caftain Ditrbam, •/Us Majesty i Slip Aasm,to Svgm ' 

NepeoH^ £/f . iatnlGihraltar^ ^otB Jumcp t:fe, 
sia, 

I have ^at satisia^ioB to inform my Lords CommissioDefs of the Admiraltyt 
that last mffht I had an opportunity of cutting off two of the Spanish gun-boats 
(the Gibraltar, and Salvador), who had been for several days a very great an* 
noyance to my convoy ; they are fine vessels, commanded by King's 0£Bccrsy 
mounting two eighteen' pounders in the bow, and eight guns of different di^ 
mensions, manned with sixty men. They defended themselves very gallantly^ 
and ) am afraid have lost a number of men. 

Jam, &c 

• P. C. DURHAM. 

AUMIRAtTT-OrriCV, AUO. 3O. 

Ctfy rfa X^tUtrfrmm G^Avm MuJge^ Commander •fhh Majesiy*i Simp JPly^ to E^am 
IfepUMf £*§' dated Guernsey Roads^ the Z^th imUamt. 
Sit, 

The heavy gales from the N. E. to N. N. W. obliged me to ^t the coast of 
CS^bourg, and with much difficulty cleared La Hogue, off which place I cap- 
tured the Trompeur French cutter privateer ; had been from Cherbourg two 
days, and had taken nothing. It blovrs still lurd from the Northward, but the 
moment i( moderates will proceed as before. 

I am, with respcA, &c. 

ZAChART MUnOR, 

>nMlWAX,TT-OFF|CE, SEPT. 6. 

Cefy »f Letter from the Marl of St, Fincenty K. A Admiral »f the fThite, tfc. to 

Svan Nepeant Meq* dated ejf Uahant^ Sept. z, 
sia. 

For the Information of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, \ enclose 
«lettar this moment revived from Kear-Admual Sir John Borhse Warrtn, 
ct his Majesty's ship Renown, ^d another from Captain Keats, of his Majesty's 
4hxp the ^oadicea, I am, &c. 

4 ST. VINC£NT. 



» » 

t$^ GAZETTB LSTTBRS. 

Cpfiy •/ a Lttfer from Rtar'Admiral Sir Join Bwlase H^arrim, X. B. t9 JidttrMt 
iBe Rati rf St- yinunt^ K» B. dalttd Reswwn^ Bay ofBlayadt Dominot^ Aug, VJ. .^ 

MT LOilD, 

1 beg Jeave to infocm you, that the sqaadron sod coiiToy noder my command 
arrived off thk Bay on the 25th instant, -without having fell in with any thing 
cicepting the St. Vinbent Schooner, who had parted from Capuin Cnrzon. 

General Sir Tame» Pulteney having desired that the troops might he 4lisem> 
larked, 1 direded Sir Edward Pellew to superintend that service, asaisted hy 
Captains Hood, Dalrymple, Fyffe, and Steckpool, with Capfains Guioo, Searle» 
and Yonng, which was most ably performed on the same night in the Bay 
above-mentioned, after a fort of eight twcnty-foor povnders hm been silenoad 
by the fire of the Impetoeux, Brilliant, Cynthia, and i>t. Vincent gon-boat ; 
tlie whole army were on shore without the lost of a man, together with sixtce» 
field-pieces, attended by seamen from the men of war to carry scai4ng<«kdders» 
ajid to get the guns np the heights above FerroL 

Od toe morning of the ft6th the General infiDrmed me, by letter, that from 
• the strength of the coantry and works, no furthei' operations could be carried 
en, and that it was his intention to re-^mbark the troops, which I ordered t» . 
take place, and the Captains of the squadron to attend ; and I have the satis- 
^ la^ion to add, that, by their indefatigable exertibn, the whole army, artillery* • 
and horses, were again 'taken on board the trasspprts and men of war before 
day-break on the ayth. 

I shall immediately proceed with the squadron and convjgy, in pursnaace of 
the latter part of your Lordship's orders. 

\ have the honour to be, &c. 

J. B. WARREN. 

I have the honour to inform your I.ordsh:p of the capture of the Spanisk 
' ship i-a Union, of 630 tons, 22 guns, and 130 men, by his Majesty's ship under 
my command, on the 14th instant ; the ship sailed from Corunna on the 13th, 
was hoond to Buenos Ayres, and has on board various merchandize. 

1 have the hoBOTur ta be, &c« 
rbe Bart e/Sf. KtAtcnt, X.B. bV, R. G. KEATS. 

ADMZRALTT-OrriCE, SEPT. 13. 

Cofy •/ a Ltittr/rom the Barl of St. Fsneent, K, B. Admiral of tha Jflite, f*fe. /« 
Evan NepeoMy Efy» dated on boa^dtbe Bayal George^ effUUtattty Sept, 7. 

I enclose letters' from Rear- Admiral Sir John Warren, thia moment received 
by the Brilliant. I am, ^c. t 

ST. VINCENT. 

MY tORzr, Benorvfty yigo Bajy Sept. a, j|8oa 

I beg leave to inform you, that, on having ordered Captain Hood of the 
CuurQgeux to lead into this Bay, I received a letter from him on the same even* 
ing, and immediately ordered two boats from this ship, the Impetucnx, and Lon- 
don ; and refer your Lordship to a letter which accompanies tJ\is, for the account 
of a gallant ad ion performed by the boats of Captain Hood*s dctachnicpt 
«nder Lieutenant Burke's orders, whose merit upon thb as well as former oc- 
casions will, I trust, induce your Lordship to recommend him to the faw>nr o£ 
the 1 ords Commissioners of the Admiralty, more especially as he lias been 
severely wounded in the service^ 

I h^vc the honour to be, &c. 
Sari of Si. FincKot, £. B. JOHN WARREN.- 

SIR, His Mfjeity*t Slip Courageujt^ yigo-Boy, Aug. 30. l80a 

Perceiving yesterday aftertjoon tlie hrcneh privateer m the harbour had re- 
moved for security near the Narrows of Redondeila, close to 'the batteries^ 
where I thought there was a probability of her being attacked with success ; I 
ordered two boats from each ship named in the margin *, with those of tbo 
Renown, Itnpctuenz, and London, you acnt me, and lour from the Courageux^ 

* Amethyst, Stag} Amelia, Brilliant* and Cynthia. 



GAZtTTS LSTTSRS* 239 

comnianded by Lieutenants volunteering their aerviees, to be rea^y at nine 
«*c]ock, and placed them under the diredion of Lieutenant Burke, of the Re- 
nown, whose mdlant conduA ha^ so often merited your commendation.—- 
About forty mmutfcs past twelve they attacked her with the greatest bravery, 
meeting with desperate resistance, her Commander having laid the hatches over 
to prevent her people giving way, and cheered as the boats advanced ; but not- 
withstanding this determined opposition, she was carried in fifteen minutes. 

I am sortf to add Lient. Burlce has received % severe wound, but I hope not 
-dangerous. Our loss has been as per enclosed list, the greater part occasioned 
by the desperate condud of her Commander, who wis mortally wounded* 
Too much praise cannot be given to these deserving Officers and men, who m 
gallantly supported I^ient. Burke, and towed her out with much coolnetts 
through the fire of the enemy's batteries. I need not, Sir, comment on the 
ability and courage of the commanding Lieutenant, his former serV^ces having 
gained your esteem; and I have.no doub( the sufferings of his wound will be 
alleviated by that well-known attention shewn to Officers who have so gaU 
lantly distinguished themselves, for which I beg leave to offer my strongest ro- 
commendation. 

The privateer is a very fine ship, named La Guipe, of Bourdeaut, wUh « 
flush deck, 300 tons, pierced for 2s guns, carrying iS nine-pounders, and i6f 
men, commanded by Citoyca Dupan, stored and provisioned in the completesc 
manner for four months. She had twenty five killed, and forty wx)unde'd. 

I have the honour to be, &x. 

SAMUEL HOOD. 

A Report of the hiJlcS, ivounM^ and mitstng in tbt Boats employed in taking the Frenli 
Privateer La Guipe, im Vigo^Bay^ on ibe Evening oftbe 2^tlf of August ^ 1 800. 

. Lieut. Henry Burke, of the Renown, wounded. 

Lieutenants John Henry Holmes and James Nourse, of the Courageux, 
slightly wounded. 

Tliree seamen and marine, killed. 

Three Officers, twelve seamen, and five marines wounded. 

One seaman missing. 

(Signed) SAMUEL HOOD. 

AOMIRALTT-OFFTCZ, SEPT. l^, t 

C^Py of a Letter from T^ice-AJmiral Lord Hugb Seymour ^ Commander in Cdtief of He 
Majesty^ s Sbips and Veiseh at the Leexoard Itlandt, to fvMi Nepean^ Etq> dated 
JFort'-Royal Bay^ Jldartinifue, June 1^, i8oo. 

SIR, 

I have the satlsfadion to enclose to you, for the information of my Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty, a letter which I have receivrd from Captain 
Western, of his Majesty's ship Tamer, acquainting me, that he had on tho 1st 
instant, fallen in with and captured, -lifter a chace of eight hours, the French 
privateer ship Geneial Masseaa. 

I am Sir, &c. 

H. SEYMOUR. 

MT LOHD, Tawfr, Barhadcet^ June ^. 

I have the honour to inft>rm yoar lordship, that on Sunday last, the ciC 
instant, I fell in with and captured, after a chace of eight hours, within gun- 
shot (his stern-chaces conatan'ly flying over the Tamer), the Frenph privateer 
ship General Masseua, pierced for eighteen gtms, besides a bridle port, but had 
only sixteen on board, and 15O men ; his guns, except four oraRS twelve- 
oundcrs, with all his boats, spars, &c. he threw overboard during the chase; 
e is forty days from Bourdeaux, and coming as a cruiser amongst these fslaudf , 
be had captured the Adventure of Liverpool,* laden with coaU, bound tn Dc- 
merara, and burnt her ; and two Americans, one of which he burnt, and th< 
other he sent to Ouadaloupe. 

I am, &c 

T. WESTERN. 



I 



• r HO T 

yOURl^AL OP THE PROCEEDINGS. 

OF 

VICE-ADMIRAL PlCKSON's SQJJADRON. 



^k« 



ExtraB^f a Letter /ram TarmatOBf Sept, 14. 

^ 'T'HE return of the squadron under the command of Vice- Admiral Ditkaoif 
to- Yarmouth Roads enables me to furnish you, for the information of the. 
public, with an account of its operations from the time it quitted England u> 
tins period. 

^* { shall begin by Informing you, that we sailed from Yannouth wiUi th€i 
ships and vessels named in tb« margin *, on the 9th of August* at «nrea in the 
morning: we had a ifair wind, though but little of it during our pa«age$ 
nevertheless, by ordering the fast sailing ships to tow the dow sailing ones, we 
reached the Skaw on tne 15th followiug, having previously dia{»tcbed Sif 
Home Popham, in the Romney, to advance as high as to the entrance pi the 
Sonnd, for the purpose of procuring intelligence of the strength and position 
of die Danes, and for forwarding such dispatches, as he might meet with firon 
Lord Whitworth. 

** On the r4th we had received information, that three sail of Danish 74 

gun ships were moored with springs on their cables, across the narrowest part 

. of the Sound, extending from Cronberg Castle to the Swedish shore ; and that 

' the gnardship (a frigate of 40 guns) was moored so as to defend that flank of 

their line next the Castle. 

' ** On the 1 6th, at four o'clock in the morning, the whole of the squadron 
had advanced as high as the Kholt ; it blew hard at N. W. which wind is di- 
tt£t\y through the Sound, and it would appear the Admiral's orders were not 
to enter it. 

*^ On Saturday the 17th,' a DaAish 74 gun ship parsed througUtbe sauadroo 
flodproceeded to F..f.iiieur, where she took her station in the line: for two 
days, during a hard }^ale of wind at N. W. did the squadfon continue to beat 
affaiiitt it, and by great cx<rrtion5 nearly held its ground ; but it continuing to 
MOW with equal violcnce.oii .the third day, and the Ardent and Glatton (two 
hskd tailing ships) being .in a veij dangerous and critical rituatton, and the 
masters, pilots, and others in the Acet; having already declared that the Sound 
affi>rded no anchorage for the squadron, the Admiral dispatched a letter to Sir 
Home Popham in the Romney (who, on account of the gale, had emcrtd the 
Sound), deuring him to apprize Lord Whitworth and the Danish CoomMKlore 
of hit intention to proceed to Elsineui- : a situacionjLhe Admiral ciiose for three 
reasons (1 apprehend) : first, to afford security and prote<^ion tn the Briti^ 
trade in the Baltic ;— secondly, for safety to thp uquadmn; and, lastlvt by 
kis adual presence, to give weight to the negotiations Lord U'hitworth waa 
charged with. With this view the Admiral caused the squadron to bear up on 
the 19th for Hkiiieur ; it proceeded accordingly to the Sound, in which it an- 
chored at 3 P. M. and rode in safety, notwidistanding the pilots had asserted 
it to be impossible. The Admiral stopped here for the purpose of making bis 
arraogen^nts for passing the Castle and the Danish squadron* in the event of 
bo^e proceedings on their part; but he had scarcely anchored, before he 

' * Mfoarchf Glatton« Palyfhemus, Ardentv Veteran, Romney, Isis, Waakaam- 
hdd, and Martin; Volcano, Heda, Sulphur, and Zebra bombs } Bokory Furieui» 
, ^apcr^ SwingcTy and Haughty gtta*vcsKls« 



JOURKAL OF riCfi-ADlnflRAL SICCSeilN SqUAB^QN^ .«4| 

received a Teiy polite letter from Commodore Lcikeo, commandiiig.tlic 
Danish ships invidDg him, ia the lUMae of hit King, t« come* to £itt«eiMr 
Roads. - 

^ " I^hall not taVe upon me to decide, whether this measue waa dlAatBd Vf 
sincerity, or whether it was an aA' arising from necessity, on the part of this 
JDaaish Court ; but I fancf it did away a difficulty in the Admiral's orders.-^ 
Here Sir Home Popha'm went on b«ard the flag > ship ; the Admiral also rer 
ceived dispatches from . .ord Whit worth, reqae^ng him to come^to Elstneur. 
He now determined to put his plan into execution ; diredioQs were therefore 
given this evening, accompanied by an order of anchorage, for the ahipa to 
weigh separately on the succeeding morning, and passing the fort and Danish 
line, to anchor above them, agreeably to the prescribed order ; in the mom«> 
ing the Admiraf went on board the Romney, and passing very near tlie Castle^ 
proceeded about twelve miles up, and anchored oiT Sophienbei^, m expe^a- 
Cton of seeing i^ord Whitworth; but his I.orddhip being engaged with the Da* 
nish MinistcrH this day, conld not meet him. He went the next, when he m«^ 
his i^ordsfaip, when a plan of co-operation was agreed upon, in consequence of 
which the Romney advanced to Copenhagen, and four bombs and two gun* 
Iresscls occupied the intermediate space between that ship and the squadron, for 
the purpose of communication, which, by means of a telegraph established by 
Sir Hpme Topham, was both rapid and corred. Mattcn being carried thu^ 
far by* Way ^'demonstration, the Danish Court, which at first treated with 
ridicule our pretensions, begap to see things in a serious point of view ; it had 
inquired, and found that our vessels chosen for communication were composed 
of bombs, placed also in a situation to bombard the city of Copenhagen, an4 
the sqaadrou advanced, so as to be at^le to protect and cover them, in the ez*> 
CDtion of such service. 

, *< On the ^ad,/ the Danish men of war seeing themselves cut off, made li 
movement, anchored above the British squadron, and moored up and down 
t^e channel leading to Copenhaeen : they gave as a reason for this movement^ 
that they had anchored on bad holding ground ; the Admiral therefore pleadef 
tRe same excuse, and made a counter- movement, and placed the squadron in 
its relative position to that of the Danish ships ; but fi;om our numbers, we were 
jmuch advanced above them, and in a situation to cot them off as efifeAualiy as 
^t first, without the fear of being annoyed by the fort. 

** On* the 24th the Danish shifts made another movement, which the Ad" 
iniral intended in the evening to couoteraiSb, and weighed for that purpose, bu| 
they 9gain got under sail, and ran higher up- As enough had been done, I 
apprehend, by way pf demonstration, 1 conclude the Admiral intended to 1^ 
^em rest here; but their movements a|3jd the several posit ion s^ they had takeo,. 
were merely feints to disguise their refl intentions, fpr the next day they ran 
np to Copenhagen, passed the Romney, and moored across the harbonr. The 
Dani h Court now held a different language^ it came into terms, and mattefi 
were amicably adjusted. 

** It is common ill Denmark, during the harvest, to permit the free men bof 
Jopging to the army to assist in getting in the cprn \ the whole of them, on thh 
occasion, were called in to join their several regiments, and all the conntry 
round was employed in repairing and strengthening the fortrew of Cronberg, 
and the work» around Copenhagen. ' A great expcpce h^s been incurred by 
Dei)DAark, which fhjey have leyied a tax qf ^wo and a half pff c«|it« en 1^ (nde 
i^defiray." 



*■! .^ IJ ^ 



»> 



I > 



C »4» I 

iftahal Coortflf apa»ftal» 



ass 




rOJ^TSMOUTBr 8t»TlMllR <. 

THIS day, punotnt to an Order froo) the Lorlh Coamiisuonert of the 
Admiralty, a Coart Martial was held on board the Cla£aUr^ in this Harboar» 
«i|i Mr. GiORGft Hop 80 K, Surgeon of Hit Nlajesty** ship Bfaver^ for strikiB|; 
akd utTng reproachful lanjvoage to Lieutenant Stmons, or the saud ship. 

Admiral HollowaTi President, 
^ Capt. £. Hakitbt, Capt. Pickmorc, 

j;..S. YoaBB, ,— fcOaiT, 

Macnamaka, *— — LoaiNQ, 

Lahcom,  MArywAKiNo, 

PoYNTt,- — — ProUSE. 

M. GasBTBAM, Esq. Judge Advocate. 
The charge hsTiRg been proved against the said Mr. Gboh^b H«7nso!r, an^ 
u the offcDce falh under the izd Article of War, the dourt did, tHerefore^ 
adjud^ him to suffer J)caib,oti bi^trd such ship of His Majesty, at Spithead, or 
in Port«nooth Harbour, and at such tinie, as the Commissioners for executing 
the office of Lord High Admiral of Great Britain and Ireland, 8ic, or.any three 
4>f them for the time bein^, should diretft. But it appearinsr that the offence 
proceedifd from an error in judgment of the said George (Hudson ; and the Court 
being folly convinced thereof, by the contrition he repeatedly exhibited as soon 
as he was aware of the same, and by his very eaMiest desire to jnakc atonehieni 
for the offence-*the Court did, in the most earnest and impressive manoeri 
rcconuneod the said George Hudson for mercy, Bince which we axe happy ta 
say he has i^eeeived His Majesty's most gracious pardon. 

IX. A Court Martial was held on board the Gladiator 09 Lieutcnanft £, H. 
Claik, of the JUUaacet for ^bseotiog himself without leave. 

.•>drairal Hoilowat, President. 

The charge bding fuUy proved, he was sentenced to be dismissed His Ma-> 
]esty*s- sendee, and rendered incapable of serving in any capacity whatever ij| 
the Royal Navy. > * 

' ' 16. Lieutenant Pact, of the Beaver y was tried by a Court Martial, held of 
board the Giadiaier, for Disobedience of Orders ; aiid being found Gu^ky, he 
was dismi|^d his ship, and put at the bottom of the 'li&t« ' ' 

FLYMOUTlJ, SEPTSMBf R 1. 

This Day a Court Martial was held on bo':ird the Camhrl'^^ flag ship, in H^^- 
imoaze, Admiral Sir T. Parkkr, Bart, on John B'arkst, one of the Mutineci^ 
of the i)tf«iiV, Captain • ord "Pro BY. 

Vice Admiral Sir Henry Harviy, K. B. President 

Barnett was discovered in N ill prison on Sunday the 24rh ult. the day 
previous to his marchine for Stapleton prison with 400 other prisoners, \tf 
l^icot. NtVixLB Laile, nrst of the Pa/tSe. Mr Cleverton, at hi«re^utrst, wit^ 
biii UMial promptitude, hud the prison mustered in hi» presence ;'aftcr goinj; 
through the ranks, he fixed on Harnett as tiie man who steered the ship into^ 
( smaret Bay, and a principal ringleader in the Mutiny: it was mure than pror, 
babic he would h<tvc escaped, as Ke is a Jersey man' and speaks i rench fluently. 
lie wastalen in La Vcngeur French privateer about 3 months since. 'J'he Court - 
Martial sentenced him, after a £sir and impartial trial; to be hanged at the Tard<« 
arm of such ship as the JLords Commissiooen of the' Admiralty shall appoint. - * 

aXBCUTlOM. \ 

g Thi« morning pursuant to Orders from the Lords Commissioners of the 
Aomira^y, the above unhappy man was conveyed on. board Z^P/^of^^ 
gtins, Capuin Vou kg, attended by all the boats of the fleet, manned and armed* 
t^ witness the awful sight.'' Th^aig^l for |ninf^ment was fiyingr from day- 
break on board the Camhrid^ and La Pij^ue. ' At half past t^ o'cloclc. the pri- 
porcr, accompanied by the Chaplain, {proceeded - alohg the gangway to the 
platform on the farecutle when thO Pidvoif Mortial placed the rope xoood hia 
Deck. He then pra) ed fervently for some time i after which the fatal gnn fire^« 
and he was itistantly run up to the fore yard arm, a dreadful example t) a^l 
Mutmeers, Aftef baiigtng one hour, his body was lowered into a ibcfi, and 
conveyed to the Royal Naval Hosyiul for intenneat* v • . t * 



C Hi 3 

MONTHLY REGISTER 
or 

 \ 

N our forttief number We had the disagreeal^e task of relatiilg some 
unpleasant circumstances which had threatened to be the foxerutt'* 
tatrs of a serioiis rtipture between Denmark and Great Britain. It is 
exceedingly gratifying to us that, in the present, we Are enabled to 
wind up our narrative with an account of a favourable termination of 
the affair } and that the situation of things seems to warrant a hopethac ^ 
the two countries will preserve a good understanding with each other. 
It was not thai Britain had any thing to fear : a single effort of her 
);>ower must have crushed so weak an enemy; but the feelings of hu- 
aanttv recoiled from the necessity of extending the horrors of war. 
Happily^ that dreadful alternative^ that '* last,*^ and deservedly |ast» 
" argument of kings,^* has been avoided. « 

^ The ciecided conauA of our Cabinet has dissiflifited eve^ appreben- 
fcJon» andy if we do not greatly err, averted all danger of the threat* 
t6td Armed "Neutrality. No time was lost in deputing Lord Whitwortk 
tatfie Court of Denmark, accompanied by the Fleet under Vice« Ad- 
iniraL Dickson *, consisting Of seven sail of ttie line, besides bomb 
and gua*vessels» to procure a full ejcplanation. The Danish govern* 
nieat immedisttely dispatched messengers to the court of Petersburgh» 
and appeared to rest ira proceedings on the result of those conununi* 
^ cations. . On the t^th of August, however, the British Envoy had the 
satis&^ion of signing a convention with the Danish minister. Count 
Bemstoff* 

The following are the principal articles of the Convention i 
. <* 'i he Danish frigate ana convoy, carried into Deal, shall be re])aircd at tho 
capc&ce of Great BritsuD, atid then reka^d. 

«* The disdusion reftpeiSiDg the aMcrtcd right of the FiigUsh to visit con* 
Iroys, shall be adjourned to a farther negotiation io London. 

*■ Until this point is decided, Daxii»h ships ihaH onlf sail iinder convoy in 
the ^Sediterranean seas, to protcd thtm kcm th« Algertne cruisers, and shall 
Ibe liable to be searched as heretofore. 

** The convcntian shall be ratified by the two courts within three weeks " 

We are sorry to observe that the court of Denmark still considera 
** tbeTight of^the £nglish to visit convoys** as a point that requires 
discussion*. That such a right necessarily exists, seems evident from th^ 

f^lain consideration suggested by Sir William Scott, in his very ableahd 
ntelligent speech delivered on a late occasion, and wliich we Iikvq 
already inserted fj «« that unless neutral vessels be visited, it is im- 
possible to ascertain their neutrality.** 

£xtFa£l of a Letter from an Officer on board the Trusty. 

Figo Bay, Aug. 3 1. 
W/e arrived here last night« when some boats were manned whh tailors, and 
s^ht to ciit out some tciw^U that were observed lying tinder the batteries. They 
returned this momine with a sloop of war*; and sorry I am to state, that wo 
lost in thtr service eight men, ard seven are wouiide<i. 1 he First Lientena* t 
of the Renown was shot through the tfiigh with a musket-balL We expcft 
more sport to-night, as orders are given to make another attack upon* two mord 
sloops of war and m me merchantmen, that are lying under the batteries. WhcrV 
we go neat is oncer rain ; but it is generally supposed Malta will be our destU 
nation from this |)iace. 

. * See Joamal of Proceedings^ page i4o: - f jScepagcapi. 



»44 



MONTHLV &B<:XSTKlt 

BLOCKADE OF CAbm. 



Copy of tbf Notice sent by Rear Admiral Sir Richard Blckerton^ CO 

Consuls of Neutrsd Nations at Cadiz. 

Bit BrHamu Maieitys Shif^ Swiftsifrtf ^Ofdatf 
otHrisEUZVf Jyh 22, 1800. 

I have this moment receiTcdrovr. letter of the 1 $th iixftant, and in replr, 
hcg leave to refer you ta Lord Keith's letter of the 5th of December, i799( m 
"which you will observe that the Constxis of all the nations in amity with Great 
Britain, have been duly informed of the Blockade of Cadiz* and that any vessel . 
attempting to enter ct sail from that port would be detained* and proceeded 
aj^ahnst according to law. I am dirrAcd^'as far as possible* to enforce the 
blockade, and I cannot allow any laden vessel fo depart from Cadiz, unless sht 
has a pass from the Commander in Chief of his Britannic Majesty's fleet in the 
l^editcrranean ; but neutral vessels without cargoes will not be molested, the 
Prosper American ship excepted, which entered Cadiz after bang warned not 
to do so, and was cleared out for Algiers. ' It is very possible several vessel* 
snay have escaped our cruisers, and got into Cadiz ; but some of his Britannic 
Majesty's ships have always been on the Port. Vessels departing from Cadis 
in ballast, are to endeavour to speak anj British man of war they ^ay fall io> 
with ifl the ncigbbpiurhood. 

I have the hononr to be, Gentlemen, 

Your most obedient humj)le servant* 
(Signed) r: BlCKfiRlON, Rear-A^n. 

Vc tie resf^t&iv* Nigtitral CmuUs reudent ai Cadix, 



1, 



Extraft of a Letter from an Officer of one of the Ship» of War. that* 

have arrived in Cawsand Bay. 

CawamdBay^ Sf/>t. It* 
We arrived oa Monday from the fleet : yow, of course* will esped some* 
thing new ; but all the information I had to give has already appeared in the 
papers. I have, however, an opportunity of sending yoM the following pott 
intelligence : 



LIST OP SHIPS IN 

Stttp** Cun-« 

Raniilics - - - • - 74 
Captain . • . . • 74' 
Bellona --•-•< 74 

IN PX.VMOUTH 

Brilliax^t - .... 28 



Tiavick 1% 



CAWSAND EAT. 

Cc*in0i«<id«rs. 

Capt. Grindall. 

 I Sir R. Strachan. 
— Sir T. 1 hompson* 

SOliND.' 

Capt. Hon. C Paget. 
— — P. Banliolomcw. 



IN STONBRAM POOL. 

. 14 Lieutenant Coghlao* 



Viper Cutter • - . 

Several Gun Vessels, Hired Cutters, &c« 



La Pique • • 
1/ Ambuscade 
Phoebe - - - 
£urydrce • % 
i/hcurcux 
L'Vidoricusc 



IN lIAMOAZa. 



40 
40 

12 



Capt. Young. 

•-.^ Hon. J. CoIvillc» 

  •  R. Barlow. 

.. — J.Talbot. 

* — L. O. Blan(L. 
J. Ridiards. 



The Fan Joseph is in great forwai dness, and will be uiidockcd shortly. It to 
faxd the Nemesis ship's company will he tarnc/d over to hei, on her arrival. 
'1 he Garlacd, (late Mprs,) of 24 guns, and the Raven, of i8 guns, are fitting 
in dock. 1 l:e CuUodcn, of 74 gun», ie in dock also, to have her leaks stopped \ 
it is said she is quite unscrvtctuible. Ihe shipwrights arc employed in getting 
the frtme of the Hibernia «p. 1 he ^<<n)pson, bicufaisant, Europe, and l^u- 
dent, have had their prisoners taken out : it U thought thty will be paid off. 
'Ihe I<ef.olue, 0^36 ^ona, is fitting for a sicp-ship. 1 he Myrmidon, of 20 
guns, is to be paid oft. ' 

bailed tiie \i9&tague{ of 74 guns> Capt. Knrght, to join Lke Chased Fleet. 



OT NATAL STINTS, 



*4J 



A List of his Majcsty^s Ships aad VesseU now on the Lisbon, 
Gibraltar* and Mediterraiu^an Stations, 

Those marlxd thus * are on their passage!^ 
> Those marked thus f are armie enfutt. 



.Aiexukiei;, « . « 

AfHiadoiis, • 

<laiefieax« - 



l^vkkdittiy 



to 

So 
74 
74 
74 
74 
74 

74 



* - 74 



Kortliumberi«ad» 
'Acfeuft - - 
\ Ctaceijr, <• - 

•t CiMIMIf 



74 

74 
f4 
04 

J* 



ConmjiiideFs. 

{Com. Star Syitncr Smidw 
Opt. B. J. Caoct. 
Sir E. Btrrf. 
A. I. B«U. 
S.GoukU 
G.CampbdL 
Mt DixoB. 
W. Hope. 
rVear-Adm I. T. Dock- 

« WOltlb 

4Capt. J. Carpenter. 
Vice-A4fn. Lcrd JCddiy 

K. B. 
Copt. T. Louis. . 
Reur-Ad. Sir a. Bicker- 
ton. 
Cqit. a. HallowcB. 
C. Martin, 
foho Stilea. 
G, Boott. 
J. Lannour* 
I oM W. Staart. 
RictisrU Btldics, 



Dovcf (annedtrtM.) 44 Lieut. H. Kem. 
Xiipeditian(it.-«liilt}« 44 GBpt.T. WMmh. 



4 Experincot, 4o. 44 
ImiiiortaUte, • * 44 
La Minenro, • ' 4a 



Santa DororhMf • 
S^nra Therew, 
Prtnceti Charlotte, 

t Kabe, - - - - 

fltiHaa, . . . 

• Thetis, . • . 

« LaTopaae, - • 



Jbnenld, • 
Vion, - . 
norends) • 
YKoidx, - 
Featrlope, • 
f Bomuliis* 
TaaMo, - . 



4» 
4a 

JS 

3S 

3S 
36 
S4 
J« 

Jtf 

3< 
Jtf 



]. G. Sa^le. 
H. Hotham. 

0. CcckhuTD, 
H. Dt^wniban. 
R . CuiipIkU. 
T. Stcpheinon. 
G^rge K<r}-iioUs» 

1. N. Morrlt. 
I. Er-tnunds. 

M. S. «. ?;!Tiiert 
S. G. Churdu 
IV. Bcwen. 
T. M. WaJJer. 
a. & hnddleepu 
J. liwiiMan. 
L. W. Halsread. 
H. BhKkwood,. 
J. CulmluNiie. 
*. KcduCt. 



' Name. Gont* 

L'Aurare (pris. alk) 32 
Coaraieux, • - ii 
MermaM, • - - js 

* GrcytKnud, - - ja 

{Ni«rr, , - - jj 
earl, - - - • ji 
Suceet:, - ' - ja 
AunrSf - - - - 36 
Mercury, - - - »• 
t Prcasos, - - - a9 
Thi.bc, - - ^ - aS 
f Vend, - - • aS 

# Alliance (sC.Mklp)t 3$ 

Champion, • - - 24 

CaK)faaDiiel(ar.:i«n.) 34 

La Conttsnce, - - 24 

La Jloaae Citpfcooc, ao 

Cormorajit, • • <• ao 

Fuicui (bomb), - ao 

jCor:.Ot - - - - 18 

Comcleoo, - • 18 

La runuae, • - iS 

Vort ViAhcot - • j8 

BlViiiCCks - - 18 

Minorca, - • > 16 

LaMoodovi, • • 16 

Netlejr, - - - - 16 

La Saluniae, . . 16 

reterdl, • - - I6 



Conimsndcn* 

• • • 

Capt. J. I'cbarda, 
K. P. Oilier. 
Cbiutea 0^o> 
James H<ilyar« 
S. J. BalLrd. 
S^reafd. 
P. Beaver. 
T. ftofcrib* 
J. Fviigeiljr* 
J. Moniaoo. 
0> Goliwd. 
J. MeUuti b. 
G< a. Hafflnn4« 
J. Monimer* 
J. B. Hajr. 
JUibeit Jftcktm. 
Hon. C. fiO}lo. 
H-XompaoD. 
\i. Jtkketni 
HlkC.H.L. 
G*c> Davits. 
W. Buciianaa. 
CfO. LuB|^  
Ceo. Miller. 
JObit Stevraic 

Lieut. F.G. Bond. 

Capt. T. Briksc. 



a< D. DuiUU 

1^«n. Hustc. 

lU. H. La. Cccbrtae . 



Incendiary (fircritip), 14 

La Miittuc, • - 14 

Sp<nd), - - - - 14 

Tiai^cr, - - -,14 

Bvldm {bimb), - 14 

La l>'u>miRntr (cut.) 8 

Bturoboif) (b'mb), S 

Tliuocer (bomb), t 

ttJlTidc, .... 7 

La LcBare (gon-vce.) < Uait. Geo. Laacfcot, 

Urchin (nui.fc«a«t) *.>«» auric%t 

Vlftotre f tender}, 

Ladjr Nci.on (cutttr), 

L'amnpeaaate., 



B. Oacrce. 
Lieut. %^ni. koMaMMu 
Ciipt. A. Tlwmpjoti. 

F« hewcombe. 



ftBCAriTVLATIOJr. 

15 Sail of the line 
39 Frigates. 
%h Sloops &c« 



Total 80 



1. IL 



QUARANTINE. 

A PaoclAMATiON has been recently published on the mbjed of qua- 
mtine. It orders that all vessels coming from or throueh the Mediterraneaa, 
€« from West Barbarr on the Atlantic Ocean, and all ships whatsoeTcr having 
c^ttoo or cotton articles ott .board, not coming diredlj from the East and West 
Indies, and having on board dean bills of health, are to perform fifteen days 
quarantine at tlie pjaces appointed, viz. those bound to the port of I^ondon, or 
to any part of the Thames or Medway, in bundgate Creek ; those bound to 
Ipswich, Yarmouth, Lynn, Boston, Hull, NcwcasHe or Berwick, in White- 
booth- road, between' Hull and Grimsby; those b^und to Chester, Liverpool, 
Lancaster, Quiisle, and the Isle of A4an, at, Highlake, near Liverpool; those 
to the Welch ports and Bristol, at Kingroad and Porshute-hiU ; thofc to Exeter, 
Plymouth, Ac. at St. Ives Pool; those for Poftsmouth, Southampton, &c. at 
the N^ other-bank; those for Leith and all the eastern coast of Scotland, at In- 
verfceithing Bay ; those to Glasgow, and the western ports of Scotland, in the 
Isle of Amn ; thoie to the northern ports of Scotland, in Cromarty bay ; those 
to Dnmfries or Kircudbright, at the month of the river Nith. And all vessels 
whatsoever coming from the Mediterranean or West Barbary, not beiug fur- 
nished with clean bills of health, are to perform quarantine in ;>undgate Creek, 
and no where ^Ise^ 



444 



UottHit Rirct^TU 



feactra6l of a Letter fit>m an Officer of^ one of the Irrigates exiip1o3re<i uL 

the Blockade of Malt*. 
ffii Maietty*! SBip Ckumfiott, tfM^iim, toA Juh^ ijfoo. 
We arrived off &is place the %'jth, of April iast, and still rauam Uockadui^ 
f^ The place is so well fortified, that it is aliuost impossible to succeed ia 
4alufi£^ it 07 storming:, for th^ walls and batteries ar^ all bombproof; and the 
only way mat it is likely to be taken, is bf starving them out '; and as there 
ea& be tio comttnoication whatever, aither by kiid or sea, it is supposed thi^ 
they cannot hold out ranch longer, for they have vetfy little provisions now lef£i. 
Oq the i6Ui of June ou/ batteries opened on them, and a very Heavy cannon- 
ading continuad for a^long time, and every three or four days they are. batter^ 
iiig at dne ^jDvther. 



TO THE £DirOJt OF THS NATAL CHROmCtS* 



lia« 



AS the trthote puhlidy paid to the «l]antry smd ability of an Officer bec(|nre*: 
*^ «D historical fa^ which it is dte duty .of every writer to transmit tc» 
jiuHgity, fhave enclosed you the copy of a letter, otficially written by the mw 
ktants oi the Island of Trinidadi to Osptain l>tekson, of his ^fajesty's brig; 
^iAorieuse, which acctfnpanied the present of an elegant sfTord. v^otedhimr 
iy the sante Colqny, as a small and very insdequate testinuny of the hi^ 
fespect which they entertained for* and the value they set on, the set vices vihicla- 
Itf had rendered them. I OTHSt, Sir, 1 may he permitted to say withonr in*' 
elkrring any charge 6( interested flattery, for 1 really ha v^ not theJioiacAir of 
heing personally known to Captain Dickson, that no man in any suti^n har 
ever oeen more respe&ed, more loved» and more revered ; that there is not an^. 
iLAgUsh inhabitant of the Island of 'I rinidad, who would not as Ibnch re- 
joice on receiving the news of his promotion and advancement^ as if he weTo 
their own initnediate relative. His mildness and suavity of manners hav^ 
teen only exceeded by his gallantry, and the latter only eqnaUcd by hia bene*' 
irolence. 

iTe E^WAi^ Sysklino Dicvson, JWre, Cafftam rf hU Majtiiyi. Br^ La 
VJ^orieusC) mni Snivr Offtcr •/the Naval Depmrtmtiti at 1 itxudad. 
$ia, Trinidad^ ut January tfW 

Tbs English inhabitants of Trinidad, impressed with a cfu'e sense of; the^ 
aAivity and diligence with which yoii discharge the duties of the service eom- 
mitted to your care, and convinced of the imp«>rtant obli<ratiDns which the 
Colony at large owes you, have resolved to present you a sword (the reward 
of military virtue) of the value of olie hundred guineas, in testiniony of thetf 
gratitude and e&teem, and they will have it immediately prepared and deU-^ 
fcicd to your agent in London. 

(SignedJ JOHN NIH£LL, Chief Jmtice, and by all the 
principal Englidi Inhabitanu of Trinidad. ' 

, -To t||» above Letter Captain Dickson returned thefoUowing^Aovwcr? 

- SI a, ^ La ri&orUusey Poiri ^f Spa'tm^ Trinidad, tjfo yvlylf^^ 

I liave this day received your Letter of the first of January, informing vck ^ 
that the English inhabitants of IVinidad had presented me a sword, Baltic oae * 
hundred guineas, as a reward Of military virtue. 1 have to -beg you will do- 
me the favour to convey to them the high spnse I have of the honour they have 
conferred on me, and accept my most grateful acknowledgment fw the nuni^« 
I have the honour to be, with |;reat regard, Sir, 

Your most obedient and humblie, servant, 
(Hgncd) EDWARD STERLING DlCltSO!t . 

r« JUm Nihttl^Esfuiri, aiefJaaUf, \^c. IzTu. \lf<, Trinidad, 

I'he ^eal of Captain Cicksnn in protc«5ling the coast of Trinidad, and drivilt^ 
from them the French privateers, carried him a liitlc too far' ttf keward, hx 
January iypgV In beating up he bad the misfortune to lose one of his masts, 
in a. heavy gale of wind, and was obliged by this circumstance to h^zr away 
for Jamaica to repair... He did npt return to Trinidad till the be]?-innin^ of July 
following. This is mentioned to account, for the diffesence of dates in the - 
letter, which was written to communicate the vote of a sword, aoU his answer 
toft. Z . . 



r 

ADMIRAL KINGSMILL. 

Cork, Sifi, 9, 
This day Admiral Kiiiffsmill gave a splendid entertainment to ih% 
Kierchants, Mayor, Sheriffs, and princlpaf inhabitants of thisx:ity j at 
which Major-General M^ers and his Staff, Major-General Sir Charles. 
Koss, and ail the principal Naval aud Military Ofiicers m this neighs 
iJourhooJ were also present. The dinner was such as might have beei» 
cxpefted from the munificence of the dignified and respe&ed charader 
M^ho presided. It was equal in splendor and elegance to an)r entertain- 
ment ever given in this country ,iand, while it bespoke the high estim>* 
•don in which the worthy Admiral* holds the inhabitants of Cork, i^ 
reflected the highest honour on his liberality. The enterrainment wis 
provided by Mr. Scraggs, who had his rooms prepared with uncommon 
magnificence for the Sccafidn« At the upper end of the table was m 
beajirifui transparent painting of Commerce, under the fieure or 
Minerva, proteain^ by her JEgis the trade of Ireland (the Agis oeiariiig 
iht Arms of Cark) from the attacks of her enemies x above was seen #• 
Winged genius, soaring aloft, holding oat a laurel wreath. At'thii^ 
lowf r end of the table was another transparent painting, representing 
an Admirars ship in the centre, a Seaman on each side, tt^mdingon the 
p-j<i<stals of Fortitude and. Valour, supporting an Admiral*s flag. Ove^ 
the ship was displayed a nsval ctown, and beneath, two dolphins hold^^ 
Ing a label, on the one 8l4e of which ^ere the words; *•* Owr Trade pn-, 
tededi"^ and on the other, <* Our Enermes *uanqtaflked.^* 

' The wines were of tl|e gr^test variety, and of the ntmost excellence* 
Amongst a great numberof loyal, patriotic, and mirth-inspiring toasta^; 
the following were given by Admiral Kingsmill r— 

His IVf ajcsty, and Qc4 bl^ts hi^i, with three tinec three. 

The Lord L.ieuten^t, and Prosperity to ircland, with three times three; 

I'he City of Cork* and may its Commerce be as prosperous aa my wishes-|bf 
it are liobounded ! with three times three. 

'I he Army and Navy of the United Kiqgdpi^, with three times (hljsc. 
' ^*Hc Mayor and Corporation of CorkJ 

Sir AUn Gardner, my worthy intended Saecessor* 

lx>rd Shannon, and the County of Cork. 

Lord St. Vincent, and his ^attadrpii, with three times three. 

By the President of the Committee of Merchants— 
The Irish S^uadrop, and the wordiy Admiral who commands it. 

Toast by Sir Patrick O'Connor- 
Ma/ the Trade and Commerce of Cork eontinae to he proteAed«s it has 
ever been,'hy the vigilance, attention, and ability of Admiral Kingsmill, in the 
jndictoos disposition of his squadron! and may the People of Ireland ever 
retain a grateful recoUedion ofthe eminent tervfccs he has done themt si>d «f 
the vaiour of the gallant Officers and Seamen under his command ! 

Never was there a scene witnessed of more social happiness^ or of more 
^rfe£l harmony^ than this entertainment exhibitedf. The Admiral, 
feeling himself amdne guests whom he regarded, omitted none of those 
attentnnSf which, while they iftfuse pleasure, imp^l regard $ and hit 
guests, feeliiT? (hat they were entertained by a man who, by his a^ivity 
«nd talents, had prote^ed their trade, and, by the <visdom of his 
arrangements, had preserved their country, were animated to a degree * 
of enthusiastic affedHon, which could only be repressed by the painful 
recolledion that they were soon to be deprived of those services, and 
those social virtues, which had raised him in their gratitude ay ait ' 
.:)f^dmiral, and i$^ their estimation as a Maiu 



^ , HONTHLT RiailTtft 

PLYMOUTH REPORT, 

fK01( AOQVST t6 TO SEFTBMBIR Xgi 



^1^ 1$. WIND Variable. Sultry. Came io Mr. W. Priof, prizt 

pt 1/ Alert French privateer, 9f 14 guns, and 75 men, prize to Conmiodoi% 
treats' squadron. Also' La Gtroqde, x8 ^ns, and i%o men, taken off Cap« 
Ortugal, by th^ Fisgard, 48 guns; she also re-captured the Joseph, HHiofphriesy. 
laden with sIluis and oil, taken by the Mincrve French privateer, of a% fnuns 
and 160 men, and re- taken by the Fisgard thre^ weeks since* S^ailed ^ SuC 
jfisante, 14 guns, on a cruise ofiTSt. Maloes. 

17. Wind Variable. Sultry, with Thunder Clouds. Came io the Cassar, 
S4 guns, Captain Sir J. Saumarez, from the fleet, to refit. She left them all ^ 
^ell on tl}e 15th inft. Also the Santa Margaretta, 36 guns, with a convoy 
from Quebec, after a passage of sir weeks. Also, from the squadron oS the 
Coast oTSpain, the Unicorn, 31 guns, Captain Wilkliison. ITirohi the fleet th^ 
Atlas, 98 gun$, Captuin Jones. Also the Suwarr^w,- 18 guns, Lieut, Nicholson, ; 
^ich dispatches from Earl ^t. Vincent for the Admiralty, Which were forwaird- 
ed dire&ly by express. ^ ' 

t8. Wind N. W. Sultry. Sailed the Saturn, 74 gust ^ Magni^ceiit, 7^ - 
gtins, on a cruise. Arrived the ArethofB, 3^ Sonsi Captain WooUey. (rank « 
cruise off the Coall of France. ' . . ' 

19. . Wind N. W. Cloudy, wUh Haiiy Thunder, and Lq;htttmg. 

la Wind N. W. Cloudy, with I'hunder and Rain. Passed up the Invlo* 
ctble, 74 guns, Captain Cayley, from Martinique, with forty sail under convoy. 
Eleven saii'wefe cpnvoyed up the Briftol Channel by the Scourge, 18 gun^ 
Arrived from off Comtina the Triton, 3a g^ns. Captain Gore ; and from tsl^ ' 
Bat the Spitfire, 44 guns, Captain Keymonr. both to reht. Sailed to Join xht, 
fleet the Formidable, 98 guns; and the Barflem*, 98 guns. Arrived £1 Belas. ' 
Spanish packer, from the Havannah, whh a cargo of cocoa, &c» prize to the " 
piyde, 44 guns, Cunningham, bound to Coninna. 

11. - Wind N. W. Cloudy and Cool. Went Info Cawsand Bay the Fribce^ 
Royal, 98 guns, Captain M. Russell ; sfa<; has received the .crew of the Qullodcni 
74 guns, Sir T. Ttoewbridge, Bart, lately paid off. ' Alsp the Centaur, 74 guns. 
Captain Markham, having repaired her damages in running fo^l pf'the Mart 
borough,' 74 guns, iieartne Black Rocks, a few weeks sinci!. Arrived from a 
cruiae the Arethttea,.38 guoSi Captain WooUey; Triton, 3a guns, Capt. Gore^ 
Irom off Brest; -and the Spitfire,' 24 guns, Captam Seymour, from Isle Bav 
Pasfcadtip thn Invincible, 74'guus, with a fleet from' Martinique, aB wcUg^ after 
a fine passage* . * 

%%. Wind N. W.' C)oudy. Arrived the Spanish packet £1 Belas, fire«9 
the Havannah to Cbfunna (^wirh dispatches, which were sunk}, and a valnali^ 
.cargo of cocoa, indigo, &c. priz6 to the Clyde, 38 guns, Captain Ctuinlngham« 
Sailrd*t0 join the Channel fleet 'Barflenr, 98 guns,'' Rear- Admiral Collingwnod j 
Formidable, 98 gun^ Captain 1 hornboroueh ; and Unicorn, 32 guns» Capcaixi 
Wilkinson. R ear- Admiral CaMer hoisted his flag on bdafd th e' Caesar, 84 guos^ . 
t^aptatn Sir Jame^ ^sinmareir, ^art. m Cawsand Bay. Admiral Sir A. Gardner, ^ 
Bar(. stnick btt fia^ on board ihe Royal Sotereign, no guns. Captain W. Bed- 
ford, and set off this morning to pay his respe<Ss to their Majesties at W^« 
month. " He4^ to succeed Admiral Kiiigsm^ OB the IfTrft station. 

23. Wind N. W. Cltfh^y and J driiperatc. Sailed the; SJnu;^ 36 gim% Capt* 
Kingt with t^e Fisgard's '|»rize matters <( la Gironde andl^Aicrtfi^ viz. lu%% • 
W. Fring, (one of the little >heroes oi the Ni)e in the Ma]e8tlc,*74 guns, ^pr^ 
Ugi of the late laiftentcd Captain We^tcott}^ and^two others; she joins (he 
a-.jUadronoffCorunna., lexers from the flee^ statc^ that ipb sail o^ ttausportsi 
Mvith troops under i.i:ut. Gen. Sir J. Pulteacy|^a8sc(^ through Earl St. Yhi<^<^('^ 



OP NAVAL SVBNTS. 2^9 

fteet the X4t1k. The men of war manned ship and chceftd them u they pMied| 
which the troops retarned with great vivaaty. A spectator says it was th« 
most animating sight he ever helKtld ; the weatha being remarkably fine, with 
a gentle rippling brteze. 

%4^ Wind N. Fair. Flying Cionds. Arrived from Earl St- Vincent's fleet 
the Snwarrow schooner, Lieutenam Nichoisc n, with dispatches, which were 
forwarded to the Admiralty express. Lieat. N. had reconnoitred the island of 
'B41eisle about three months ago, and again, per order, within the% ten days* 
He says, every point of land or creek that was not fortified at the former period 
is now put in a respedable ftate of defence . Sailed the Arethusa, 38 guns, Cipt. 
WooUey, on s cruise. 

2$. Wind N. W. Cloudy. Arrived from Earl St. Vincent's fleet the Lady 
Duncan luggex>, Lieutenant Coot, with dispatches to Admiral Sir 1 . Paisley. 

«6. Wind M. Fair, with flying Clouds. By the French officers of La Gi- 
vonde, prise to the Pisgard, 48 guns, is learnt that she had captured the follow- 
-sng vesseb in her late cruise, vis. Swan, Milton, from Oporto, with wines; the 
Countess of Lauderdale, Runnett, ft-om Demarary, with sugar, tobacco, Sec, 4 
Adive brig, Tucker, from Burmuda, with sugar and tobacco ; William, Bacon« 
Iran the Southern Whale Fishery, captured by La Gironde after a most gallant 
and spirited adion of three hours and a half { the William and Adive are since 
re-taken and carried iato Cork. Sailed the Duke of Clarence Weft ndia packet, 
Cantain Dennis, for Falmouth, to wait for the mails for the Leeward Inlands. 
5 P. M. This moment arrived, after a fine passage, the following East India- 
men : Karl Howe, Captain Burrows ; Earl Mornington, Captain Carnegy ; 
'Caledonia, Haweis, all from Bengal; Hercules, M'FarUne, from Bombay, under 
convoy of the Cerberus, 3a guns, Captain M'Namara ; and Reliance, 14 guMb 
Captain Waterhouse. 

ay. Wind N. W. Cloudy. The Cerbenis, 2% gnna, Capt. M'Namara, fell 
Sn with the four East indiamen between the Western Islands and Cape Clear. 
The Reliance, Capuin Waterhouse, left Port Jackson, New Holland, the 
ji6th of February, when the settlement was in good order, and the harvest 
well got in ; but East ^d West india produce, as well as European, sold extra* 
vagantly dear. The Reliance doubled Cape Horn in dreadful weather in the 
midst of Winter, and, after a passage of tlu-ce months, arrived at St. Helena, 
joined the four Indiamen, and put into this port after a voyage of eleven weekk 
Sailed this afternoon for the River the Cerberus, 5a guns, Captain M'Namara, 
with the East Indiamen which arrived yesterday. 

28. Wind''«W. Ckwdy. Arrived the Prince, 98 guns, Rear- Admiral Sir 
C Cotton ; Prince George, 9S guns, Captain Walker ; and Achilles, 74 guns* 
Captain G. Murray, from the Channel fleet. Sailed the Venerable, 74 guns, 
C^ain SirG. Fairfox, to join the Channel fleet. Arrived the Albion, with 
rum and sugar, from Jamaica, captured by i.a Brieve French privateer, of 44 
' •(«», and re-uken by the Dryad, 34 guns, Capcain J. Mantfeld. 

29.* Wtnd S. W. Cloudy. Arrived the Spy, 1% guns. Captain Hay, with a 
' convoy from Fahnouth. Also the Eugenie, 18 guns. Captain SomerviUe, wirth 
a convoy for the Downs. Spy tailed again direSy with those convoys ready for 
their different stations. The celebrated Musical Figure, -a most curious pieee 
«fmdchaBiBm, late the property of Tippoo Saih, and teken among his trea« 
awes at the storming Serwgapatam, is on board the £arl Howe, and, it is said» 
at mcaat as a present to her Majesty. Eailed on a loog cruize to the ^uch wai d 
the Lucky Triton, Capt. Oore. 

90. Wind S. £, Ciojidj, Tfab day Vkii-Admind Sir H. Harvey, Bart; 
JiOMted his flag on board the Royal Sovereign, iiognns, in Cawsand Bav, 
JSailod the Atlas, 9S gunt. Captain Jones ; and Centaur, 74 guns. Captain Marl- 
ham, to join the Channel fleet ^ on a cTuIk, the Santa Margarita, ^6 gtta«« 
Capcun Parker. Arrived from convoying out the outward-bound Halifax fleet, 
<h€ Phoebe, 36 gnnt, Capuin Barlow. Came in from a ruiae, the bea Gull, 18 
guas, Captain Lavie ; and 9crpa)t, 18 guns. 

3f . Wind S. 8. E. Raitt. Cloudy. Sailed the Cjssar, $4 guns, Rear-A4- 
flitfal Sir R.Ca]d<r« lb join |he Channel fleet* Arrived the Pafhcr, i%$n$B, 



tg^ ^ MONTHLY UGlSTEft 



Tobiii, from » eruUtf. This forenoon arrtTed from Halifiiz, after a 
MMage of nz weekt^ the As6i«tance» of 50 jruns, having the royal standard 
flying at the main, in compliment to his Royal I-lighness Prince Edward, Duke 
of Kent. As soon as she anchored, the royal standard was hoisted at Govern* 
pient House, Dock ; at the Vi<5lualliog OMce, Plymouth ; and at Pridham's 
J^^nc Roonw, Stonchouse. A colour guard waR mounted at the Citadel from 
the North Huits regiment : the Plymouth (or Pri^.ce of Wales's own. volun-t 
.tcers, i. ieutensiit-Colonel Hawker, were also under arms, with their colours, to 
^ece^re his Royal Highness with every mark of resped due to his rank. At 
jeleven o'clock A,. M. the men of war- in Cawsand Bay, the Sound, and Hamo- 
assc, with the citadel, fired a roval salute of twenty^one guns. At half past six 
^. M, bis Royal Highness emburked in the Assistance's twelve-oared barge, 
when the royal stanaatd was struck on board her, and hoisted in the stern sheets 
«f the barge ; on which the ciudel and the fleet agaiu fired a royal salute, 
which the Assistance answered, when all the men of war manned their ^rds» 
and cheered his Royal Highness as he passed into Stonehouse Pool to the 
AdroiraPs r.ard. where he landed, amidst tlie acclamations of thousands of spe^ 
tators, who cheered him to his carriage ; his Royal Highnms politely bowinfr 
on each side to the multitude. He was received>on landing by v.>enorad Gna- 
'Ville, General England, Admiral Sir T. Paisley, Bart, and their suites. At ft 
ijUartcr before seven, his Royal Highness passed through Plymouth in his phae- 
ton, on hir route to Weymouth, to pay his duty to their Majesties At the caat 
end of the town, a concourse of young me^ and women were colleded to see 
him, and as the carriage passed slowly on, he was received with nine hearty 
*cheer9, and loud plaudits, at which he seemed particularly pleased, repeatedly 
bowing to the spe&ators. He looks a little pale, but is far better in health tiuD 
'.'was<xpedUd« 

.&//. I. WindS»JE. Cloudy. Sailed the Aidstance, of 50 guns. Captain HaH, 
for t'ortsmouth. Arrived this day to inspcd the dock-yard, viclualling-ofllce» 
&c. General Bentham and suite. I'he General has proposed a plan to ^e Cor- 
poration of having a pipe conveyed to the viAualling- office or two inch bore, 
sufiicient to turn a steam engine to grind all the wheat wanted by Govemmeat 
for the use of the Navy : the water thrown off from the engine is to be esi- 
ploved in scalding and cleaning the casks of the cooperage. It is* understood the 
savmg to Oovemlnent will be very great. 

%, Wmd S. £. Cloudy. La Resolue, of 44 guns, is appointed as a slop and 
receiving ship at this port, under the diredion of that indefatigable officer. Dr. 
.J. Law M'Clelian, surgeon of the Myrmidon slop ship. La Resolue is flttin|f 
up for this purposie, as the Myrmidon ia ti) be put out of coftimission. 

3. WindN. W. FlSr. Last Saturday the Havick, 18 guns, Captain Ba jly» 
9nd Suffisante, 14, Captain Wittnum, fell an With a French frigate, armfM 
infimte^ of 18 giinB» s corvette of 18 guns, and a gun brig pf 14 guns, having a 

' tbnvoy of fourteen sail with provisions and stores fpr the French fleet at Brest. 

. They brought them to adion us a gallant st^le, and drove them under the batte- 
ries near Morlaix, which annoyed the Havick and Suffisante very much. Cap- 
tain Bayly was wounded in the arm, one Midshipman lost hts leg, and two 

' aeaBicn were killed. 

4. Wind K.1S. Fair. This evening was launched from Oreston Quay, m 
fine West Indiaman, called the Admiral Sir J. B. Warren, the property of 

* T. Lockyer, Esq. This is the lint ship of jier burthen, 300 tons, ever launched 
•o high up Catwater as Oreston. 

5. Wind N. W. Fair. ' Arrived the Montague, 74gmis, Captain Knight^ 
express from Carl St. Vincent. She brought >the duplicates of the dispatches 
from Qciteral Sir James Pulteney, Bart, and Rear- Admiral Sir}. B.Warren, 

- Bart to Admiral Sir T. JHusIey, Bart, containing an account of the troops having 
efieAed a landing at Terfol, but finding it too strong, the troops, artillery, and 

' Atorer, were re^embark^d wittr ilittle lota. • £ad sC Vincent sent in positive 
orders for all ships ready for sea to join him diretftly, without delay. Tn contc- 
quence of'these orders thefoUowxng sailed from Cawsand Bay immediatdy^ viz. 
Royal Sovereign, 1 10 guns, Vict-Admind SirH. Harvey^ ifdncesi Royal, 981 



/ 



. OP MAVAL B VENTS, 2^1 

Ckptain M. RuikU'; Prince, 98, Captain Sutton ; Prince George, 98, Rear- 
Admiral Sir C Cotton, Bart . ; Bcllnnu, 74, Captain Sir T. B. Tboropsofv Bart- 1 
and .^chillc, 84, Captain G. Murray. 'I'hey were all clear of Penl'^e Point by 
night fall. Arrived from the River, for Bengal and Bombay, the GeorgiaM 
£ast India packet, to wait for the Hon. W. Wellesley and diipatches firom Go- 
vernment and the East India House. ... 

. 6. Wind S. E. Fair. Letters from the fleet off Brest, datedl^laclc RocVs, 
the id inst. Htate, that Rear Admiral Sir R Calder, Bart, is appointed to the 
command of the in-shore or flying squadron consisting of the*^7sar, 84 guns, 
Excellent 74, Marlborough 74, Defence 74, a^d £lephant 74. The Britidi 
£cet were so' moored that nothing could escape them.' 

7. Wind N. E. Rain. Sailed to join the squadron ofl* Weymouth, the 
Anson, 44 guns. Captain P. C Durham. 

8. Wind N. R. Pair, Arrived the Ramilies, 74 guns, Captain OrindaU ftom 
the Channel fleet, which she left all well Saturday the 6th. Atnved .a Dca- 
gon packet, 14 guns, from Guadaloupe, for L'Orient, in twenty-five days, laden 
vrich cocoa, coffee, indigo, and cotton, prize to the Brilliant frigate^ H«u 
Gaptam Paget. 

9. Wind Variable, Rain. 

" la Wind N. W. Fair. Came in the Eurydice, of 24 guns. Captain Talbot,; 
from a cruise; and the St Anto.ipo, Spanish lugger, in ballast, captured by the 
4>rg)0, Captain Bowen, from which she parted all well on the 19th ult. Arrived' 
the Polly from Tenerifle, with wine, for tamburgh, detained by the Plymouth 
lugger, Lieutenant £I]iot. Passed up the Castor, oiF 32 guns. Captain Gower, 
wnh the Oporto fleet all welL 

II. Wind variable. Fair. Came in the Huckamida, Groot, from Bourdcavt, 
with wiiie and brandy,, detained by the Excellent, of 74 guns, Hon. Captain 
dtopfordi Letters from off Vigo, dated the 3d of September, state, that a 
Prench corvette, of %o guns, and 160 men, being discovered in a bay, waa 
Attacked and carried by the boats of the frigates, manned and armed, under the 
tommand of Lieutenant Burke, of the Renown, of 74 guns. Rear- Admiral Sir 
John Borlase Warren, after an obstinate resistance. The enemy lost seventv 
nien killed and wounded. Lieutenant Burke was badly wounded in the thigh 
with a pike, but will do well« See Gazette Letters, page 239. ' 

ra. Wind S. W. Cloudy. Arrived the Suffiiasite, of 14 ftios. Captain 
Wittman, with a Danish galliot, from Bourdeauz, for l^mbden, with wines and 
brandies. Came in the Henrietta, Poppins, with deals and timber for the 
dock-yard. Sailed the Penguin, df i9 guns; Pelican, 16 ; and Spider schooner, 
on a cruise. Arrived La Gvipe, of 10 guns, gallantly cut out of a bay near 
Vigo, by the boats of the fleet, under Lieutenant I^urke. 

13. Wind S. W. Cloudy. As a striking proof among many others, of the 
great vigibnce of the Right Hon- £arl Spencer, and the Honourable the Board 
of Admiralty, in having the navy of Great Britain out of harbour, and on 
their duty at their respedive stations, it is a fad worth recording, that on last 
Tuesday there was only the Montague, of 74 guns. Captain Knight; and Ra- 
vilies, 74, Captain Grindall, in Cawsand Bay. In the bound not a ship of 
war of any sort. And in Mamoaze only the Pheobe, 38 guns ; Ambuscade, 
44: Eurydice, 441 and Vidorieuse, 18, fitting for Sea. Sailed the Havick, 
of 18 guns. Captain Bayly, on a cruiae. • Went into the Sound the PhoDbe, of 
58 guns. Arrived La Providence French brig, with wine, soap, and brandy, 
for the Brett fleet, i^h^ was discovered under the guns of two batteries near 
Camaret Point, by the Suwarrow, of .4 guns. Lieutenant .Nicholson, who 
gallantly resolved to cut her out with his boats, which he effeded, notwith- 
■sanding the heavy fire of the batteries 1 he Elephant, of 74 gans, CaMain 
Foley ; and the Naiad, 38, Captain Picrrepoint, were in sight in the Orang« 
1'hc Officers and sbipa* conapaniet very generously relinquisbtd their share of 



152 MONTHLY RtGlSTSK 

the prize-moRr7 to IievteBant Nicholson and his gallaatcKW^is tesdmaoy 
of their approbation of their condod. 

14. Wind F< Fair< Failed for the coast of Ireland on a crntiiei the Phoebe, 
of 36 gun*, Captain Barlow. Weot^ into the Sound the Fanny, «f ^4 guns. 
Lieutenant Friisell. She goes coQ^y to Cork- Acrived from JLopdon 
P. irdwood,  sq. (oint Agent to the Honourabie East India Company, with 
their dispatches. Also the Honourable W. Wellesley, who went with the 
djj^patclies on board the Georgiana East India packet, which sailed direfily for 
Bombay and Bengal 

fi5 Wind £■ 8.'£. Fatr. Captain Stanhope, commander m chief of «U 
the Sea Fencible« in the distrid of Devon and Cornwall, reviewed the two 
companies of Mymouth Sea Fencibles, trained by that veteran Officer Lieat. 
Newton. J hey czerci.ied the great guns at the Lnnett^ battery of eiehtecn* 

?ounders in the lower fort of the citadel, with great skill : the review uiished, 
laptaiil Stinhope made them a suitable speech from the battery, and thanked 
them for the great impiovement they had made in the ezerciK of grqtt Kiins» 
which WHS received with three cheers, and the corps was then dismissed. 

16. Wind S. E. Raitu Arrived from the Channel fleet off Brest the Royai 
George, of 1 10 guns. Captain Domet, to refit ; she left them all well on Satur- 
dij last. The Ville de Paris» i r guns, Sir T. Trowbridge,, was arrived, and 
had joined the fleet, and Earl St. Vincent had shifted his JBag on board hdr» . 
Came in the PlynKNitb 1 ugger, Lieutenant tiliot, fh>m a cnme. ^Sailed the 
Ramilics, of 74 guns. Captain Grindall, to join Eati St. VtbCem. Sent badt to 
be paid, the Lellona, of 74 guns. Sir T. B. Thompson. 

17. V4nd variable. Cloudy. Arrived' an American fh>m Morlatx. She 
btiogr account that the French seamen at Brest were very turbulent at not 
being paid. 

iS. Wind S. E. Rain. Sailed to join the Channel fleet, the Ciptain, of 74 

guns, Captain Sir R. Stradum. Letters fretn the advanced squadron' <dt 

Brest, dated Monday last, state tha^ m movement had bees made by several 

.French men of war in the outer road, but on ours stwding in thiey all came 

too again. 

19. Wind vai table. ClOudy. Letters from the Caesar, of ^ g^'t Rear- Ad- 
miral Calder, dated the i6th, state, that she, with the Excellent, of 74; Marl- 
borough, 74; Elephant, 74 ; and Defence, 74, composing the squadron oft the 
Black Rocks, were all welL They had taken^ possession 6f a small island about 
two miles from the coast, where there was plenty of game, rabbits, pigeons, &c. 
vphicht with fish and vegctabks. affords them many comferts. Ju* arrived 
the Uprightly cu ter, I^ieutenant Junk, from Jamaica, in fof^'fivedaT^ witk 
the mails and passengers. 



PORTSM OUTH REPORT. 

. r^OM A.UGUST 25 TO SBPTFMBEa 49* 

jfi^, 25. Arrived the l^enguin, Captain Mansell, with a convoy froni the 
Downs ; and afterwards sailed for Ireland. 

26. Alrived the Haipy, Captain Birchall, from a cruise.' 

'27. Sailed the l>ido, Captain Colby, for Cowes. The Osprey, Captain 
Vatu, with tke ships bound to the Cape of Good Hope and the bottth Seas» 
went down to St. Helens. 

28. Arrived the Modest^, Captain Hinton, with 300 riflemen from Cork; 

^ * ■* ■-, 

29. .Arrived the Solcbay, Captain Poyntz, from Jamaica ; and the^ Rambler, 
ICaptain Schomberg, from a cruise, totally dimiastcd in a gale of wind off the 
Pace of Alderney, where she parted with the Fly^ Captaia Mttdgc, and a 
French privi^tecrt which they captured on the coast* 



' -Of WAVAt iriRTS. zjy 

Mtpi, s. Arrived die Cetbcnu, Cat>tam Machamml and Beairer, Captaia 
]oDes, from A cmiac 

|. Arrived the Eugenie, Captain Somerrille; and Spry, Captain Gravenor^ 
froo Plymouth. 

- 4k ArriTcd tbe Sea-hone. Capttin Poote, from the Mediterranean. 
5. Sailed the Greyhound, Captain Ogle, with a convoy for the Mediterrt* 
tiean; and the Santa \'argarita. Captain Parker, with the outward-hound 
£a5t India ships under his convoy. 

.6. Sailed the Spencer, Captain Darby* to join the Channel fleet; and the 
Osprey, Captain Watts,' with several vessels under his convoy, for Africa, and 
the Cape of Good 1 lope. 

7. Sailed his Majesty's ship Harpy, C&ptaln Birchall, with sealed ordeca* 
Also, La Loire, Captain Newman, lor jersey ; Hind, Captain Larcom, with a* 
convoy for the V\'eRt Indies ; and Voltigeur, Captain Thompson, with a convoy 
for Nevirfoundland and iialifiz. 

K Arrived the i^roselytc. Captain Fowke, from, Havre, having beea'jnelievfld 
CD that sution by L*Oiieau, Captain i inzee. 

, 9. Arrived the Anson, Captain Durham, from Gibraltar ; and the Endy* 
mion, Capuin ^ir Ihomas Wiliiams; and Adivc,' Captain Davers, from a 
^ui«e. 

lO. Arrived the Swan, Capt<in WaUon, with the Coounercc under, convoy* 
from Halifiut ; also the Jnhn> from Mew Vork, for Amsterdam, detained by the 
Swan* 

If. Arrived the Champion, with dispatches from Mar ecu.- On Tuesday 
bat, in company with the IJojpbin cutter, and sparkler, and Bouncer gun-hc^ 
ahe drove on shore and destroyed two sloops, laden with barilla. 

12. Arrived the Hindottan, Captain Mulock, from the Mediterranean* 
I J. Sailed the Cerberus, Captain Macnamara, for Cowes, to taketnMf* 
from thence to Jersey, and then proceed to Ireland. 

14. Sailed the Bail St. Vincent cutter. Lieutenant Leekey, to join thn 
Harpy, Captain Birchall, who sailed a few days since with sealed ordcn. 
The Scourge, lately returned from the West Indies, is paid off, and her crew 
turned over to the Qanges : and the Solebay, Captain 1 oyntZj is gone to Chat- 
ham, to be paid off. 

15. Arrived the Earl Spencer cutter, Lieutenant Eye, with a neutral vqi« 
ad, which he detained . 

t6. Arrived the Maidstone, Captain Donelly, vrith a convoy from Quehet ^ 
^nd Bittern, Captain Kittoe, from the West Indies 

1 7. Arrived the Wolverene, Captain Wight, from a etmte $ and hat bronglit 
in with him the Neptunus, laden with xaDad-atpies, which he captured going 
into Havre de Grace. Sailed the Reliance, Captain Waterhouse, with a con* 
voy for the Downs ; and the fieaver. Captain Jones^on a cruise. 

18. 1 hursday arrived the Resource and Dido, from Guernsey. 

' ai. Sailed the Hhidostan, Capt. ^xutock, with a convoy for the Dowm. 

XL. Arrived the Mode&te, Captain H in ton, with four transports from Gvem- 
iey, and a' Danish ressel, prize to the Topase, Captain ChurcJU 

aj. Sailed the Prince of Wales, Captain Prouse, to join the Channel iceu 

14. Sailed the Discovery, Captain O'Bryen^ lo lie at gnard'^hip at thq 
Needlea. 

15. Arrived theCulcutta, Captain Anderson, with several transports from 
Gneniiey. 

^6. Sailed the W^olverene, Captain Wight, on a cruise off Havre. 

27. Went out of Uarbour, after being refitted, the Ganges, Captain Frca* 
mantle; Triumph, Captain Uarvey; Thames, Captain Lukin ; and Rambler^ 
Captain Schomberg. 

z8. Sailed the Triumph,^ Capt. Harvey, and Thames^ Capt. "LvHun^ tP i<n9 
die Channel Flect« 



«54 MaifTHiT ftieiSTEm 

EAST INDIA REPORT. 

AUGUST 2$. 

THS Purser of the Caledonia, extra ship, Captaio SUfhOi Hawett^ from 
CBina and Pengal, arrived at the EasUlndia Hntse with his dispatches. This 
s&ip put into the Cape of ood Hope, homen^ard-boiiad, on the 19th March 
last, in great di tress, having lost her nwsts, and been rendered a complete 
wrecks in several furious storms, which she encountered in her paasajre frons 
Pcngal. The Caledonia sailed from the Cape the 20th of May, and from ^t* 
ndcna tVt 1 7th of 'unc, at whidi time she made twelve inches water per 
ftour, which, daring her voyage home, eocreascd to thirty inches, so that the 
ship was only kept above watei By continaally pttmp«n]g; The fo1k)wing ships 
ftav^ sf 99 ufely arrived in Plymouth ^ound, in company with the v. alcdonia, 
aftd uirder convey of his Majesty's 'hip Reliance, viz the Far! Howe, Captain* 
J(.«bert Burrowes, from Bombay, Mudra«, and Bengal ; Hercules, extra ship, 
from Bombay ; and the Lord Mornington packet, Captain Simson, from Bengal 
and viadras, after a remarkable qvick passage, having sailed from this coantr7 

•B the iSth of November la^t. 

« 

Sept. I. The Pursers of the nndermentioned kh^ps attended at the East Zmiia 
Meusfy and received their final dispatches for the governmenis of Bengal, N*! adras,. 
and Lorabay with which they immediately proceeded to Portsmouth to joso 
their .respective ahip«, viz. The Sir Edward Hughes, > apt. James Urmiton ; 
Frince William Henry, Captain Robert Baskett; and Hawke, Capt. David 
Bristow Baker. 

Stpi 23. Arrived vnder convoy of hit Majesty's ship Madras, Csipt Dilkcs^ 
tfit .undermentioned ships, viz 

From BiNGAL.-^The Minerya, Captvn Kinnard Smith; Princess Char* 
IfStte, Captain Charles Ehoii Prescott; Rose, Captain Wemyss Orrok ; Lord 
Thurlow, Captaio WtUiam Thomson i and Lord Uawkcsbury, Captain Willlafl» 
Donaldson. 

J^ram Bemcoolbk.— The Sir Stephen Lnshington, Cai>eain George Gopch. 

from Madr A«-.*»The Charlton, Capuin 1 hooias Welladvicc j and the Asia» 
Captain Robert Wardlaw. 

From China.— The True Br itod, Captain Henry Farrer (who died on faia 

ssage) ; the Alfred, Captain James Farquharsr^n i the V\ arley. Captain Henr/ 

ilson: thd Hindostair, Captain G^oi^e Miliett; the Hope, Captain James 
Hormrastle; the Farl of Abergavenny, Captain john Worasworth; and the 
Duke of Bvcclcngb, Captain I homas Wall-; to^lMr with' the Fercher aad 
Britannia, country ships, from Madras; and ibt Cartier, frain Amboyna. 

The above ships left St. Helena on the aiA of jnly, at whicb. time the Island 
wtrin pcrfbdfc tranquillity. 

LOSS OF THE CORMORAI<T, 

We've ettremely sorry to state, that His Majesty's ship Coimorant, oft9 
guns, has run on shore three miles and a hall from the fiogaz of Rosetta, and ia 
totally lost. We have, however, the pleasure of stating, that the worthy 
Commander,' the Hon. Captain Boyle, his Officers, and ^hip*s Company, are 
sU saved, after exerting, in vain, every effort' for her preservation, bhe waa 
Ibnacrly the L'iitnia Corvette, built at Havr; de Gxuce in the ycax ij^ 

LOSS OF THE STAG. 

Tt ,h with, extreme rerret we have to ^atc the loss of another of H^ Ma* 
}esty's ships :' the Stag^ of 32 guns, Cdptain Wtnthrop, ti^Us driven on shore the 
4$k ^f September, in Fi^o B^y^ in a violent gale of wind. \We are, however, 
liappy to hor no lives were lost ' Lieutenant M. i^mtth, of the Milbrook 
schooner, was very active, a'l^'d saved a grea^ many' of thU crew. 1 hey are dis4 
Aribttted among the fleet. The ship was totally destroyed by the Officers^ ind 
M/. '^ytcL, thfe £rst Lieutenant, was blown np ; but* is ^nite recovered; 



^ 



\ 



O.F KAV^L itySNTS« 



^S 



Wb have the particular satisfeAion of being enabled to insert th^ 
following important /Article, containing, not only the ships of war« 
their force, and the names of tbeir Commanders, but also the exa& 
arrangement of the line of battle of the Channel Fi^£T> commiiodfd 
by Earl St. Vimcbnt.. 



Superbe, - - 
jBxcclleot, • 
KamvT^ - •> 
vrarrior, - 

Aojral Sovcrdftt, • is» 



V-fiaacr, - • 
SlcpAuntf - - 
Centaur. • • 
Tcmeratte. - - 
L'AcMJIc, . - 
CdgAr, • • . 
Yrinc^ ... 
TormidaUe, > 
■lAU9C» ... 

fA4nt . - . 
Vrincc GeortB, - .98 



captain, > 
St« Ccorge, 



74 
74 
74 
74 
9* 
74 
74 
9< 
9« 
74 
74 



74 
74 
9« 
8d 



jriOa 4e Pari*, . too 



fCum* Conmandm. 

ofl fftcar-Ad.CoUi.igwood. 
V" ICapt. sttpheas. 
• 74 Sutton. 

. 74 SrapfoctL 

» i« LMkc. 

. 74 Tf-w. 

- 98 Vashoo. 

rrtce-Admiral «lr 
< Harv«jr. 

Jcapc 

^ GffiHMD. 

•Uvfen. 
Foley, 
M.<rld|»m, 
M.irth. 
JC> iTay* 
JivUer. 

TtMiriilMnmclU 

CoKDten* 
h4onckran. 
]tMr*Ainural Sir 

CotlDS. 

Cape. Svifr'*. 

Stracban. 

Edwards. 

Saumarez* 
rArtm. Karl St. Viaccot. 
<%vr T. TrowMdie. 
CCapt. CKjr. 



I 



Shipa. 
Vojral George, 
Cu^raaeHJC, 
Be.loiu, . . . 
Atiia, . I- . 
MarllMmch, - 
CjiMda, 

Venerable, - * 
Cloiy, . . 

Rut .el, . . . 
Foinpec, * 

Reaowii, . . 

LontaH « - • 
Magnificesit, • 
Saturn, . • . 
Triumph, - . 
Spencer, - « 

Windsor Caacle, 

Moncacne, -  
Prineett Itoyal, 
Peftflcr, - . 
Jojte, . . • 



Cnna. 
aoo 
U 



74 
M 

74 
•• 

74 



74 

#B 
74 
74 
74 
74 



74 

74 
8« 



Prince oCWalcH • 9> 



Commandcnu 
Domrtr. ' 

Hx>d. 

Thompa^iu 

5onei. 

'Sochchy. 

De CoutCK* 

rilrfu. 

Well*. 

*a»r/«, 

ttidJnc. 
riletr>A4jni<^ 
\ Warren.' 

Purvjs. 

B waier 

•T.tty. 

Harvey^ 

Parby. 
CKMr^Adininil 
< Mi.cAeL 
C Captain HonoB. 

Kniel.t. 

>aiile t. 
TrOLpe. 

i Rear- Admiral Sir 
C»l er. 
Capt. Jtbwt^ 



Sf J. & 



PROMOTiaNS AND APPOIMTMCNTS. 

Ao«!RAL ISir Hesry Harvey, K. B. is appoiotcdi>ecoQd in Coamrad m ^im 
Channel Fleet, and has hoisted his flag on board the .Rojral Sovereign of ago 
^Ds, Capt. Bedford, late the flag ahip oi Admiral Gardner, appointed xo ,& 
friah station. 

Vice Admiral 5$ir Andrew Mitahell, K. B. is alH» appainted to a commsn4 
in the Channel Fleet, and has hoisted his flag on board the Windsor Caatle ^ 

,98 gUDS. 

1 he Right Hon. Lord Hugh Seymowr, Vice of the Blue, as Chief in GtM- 
jnandon the West India station, in tkerooBi of Admiral .Sir Hyde Parker. 

f. T. Puekwokth, Rear of the White, succeeds Lord H. ^yjnour <mlSw 
lieeward Islaad sution. He airived at Tortoia in the JLxviathaa «f 74 £lMMb 
Captain Carpenter, the a 8th of July. 

Rear-Admiral sir R. Bickerton, Bart, has taken the oonraand of the Aips «■ 
tiK Lisbon station, and hoisted his flag on board the Svi&sure of 7f gwM, 
Capt. B. Hailowell. 

Adminl ^ir C. Cotton, who is ^serving in the Channel Fleet, has shi&ed his 
XagfniflS the Prince to the Prince Qe^rge of 98 guns. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Korthiisk is ai^pointed to the command 4tf the 
Prince of 9S guns, vice Walker. 

Captain Retalidc ia Appointed to the I«is of ^ gnas, vice Ocightoo. 
' Captain H Hill, late qf the Gorgon, is appointed to the Megxra iire-i^^ 

Capt. Geo« Hope ia appointed to the Prince of Orange (late WaahingtonJ «f 
* 74 gnas, one of iiM Untcn ships taken at the Hddcr. 

Cape. LeaoK Thompson, late of the Alc^o (F. S.) is appointed to ijhe Volts- 
geur of 14 guns, vice ihortland. 

Lieut. £dward O'Bpent £sq. late First of the Melpomene, ispnonated <» 
the sank of Ma*tcF and Cffnniander, and appointed to the Alc^. 



;9<S MONTHLY RtGlSTBR OF NATAL EVENTS* 

Ccpt. E. S. DiekBoti, late of La Vldoricaae, u promoted to the rank of Poie 
Captain. 

.Capt» Keen, of the Chapman, it appointed to the Spitfire, and not Kun, at 
mentioned in our laat. 

Capt fiiand« who to ^lantly captared the l.ignrian Pirate, and protedUd a 
^valuable convoy in the Mediterranean, it appointed to the Heoreuz. 
* ' Capt. S. Fortter It appointed to the Retribution ^late the Hcrmioae) of 44 
^ns, at Jamaica. ' . 

Capt. R. Mendt, at famaica, it abo pronioted from the Abergavenny, of 44 
l^mt, to the Thnnderer of 74 

Captain Bover, of the A'^gcra, who wat Firtt JLiieutcnant with AdniinJ. 
Cdpoys,'isaAin^in'theWindscr Cattle. ► . . 

Lieut R. T. Hancock, of the Prince of Walet» of 98 guns, is promoted to 
die rank of Master and Commander. 

Lord Faulkland is promoted to the raidc of Matter and Commander, and ap* 
^Ointtd to the Buty •••..- _..,.. 

Lieutenant Alt, late of the Royal William, it appointed to the Carteret ctot« 

fer ; and Palmer, £tq who particularly distmguithed himself under Sir 

Charles Hamilton, at Goree,- is made a Lieutenant of the Melpomene. 

Captaio Malbon, of the Cynthia, is made Pott. 

Captain Searle is appointed to command the La D^ermini^, fitting at Ports- 
mouth ; and Captain Gifiard, ^re ttmpon^ to the AAivc, in place of Captain 
Davers, who is mdispotcd.  ■- " 

Lieutenant Haweis, of the Renown, of 74 gont, it made a Matter and Com* 
mander. 

Lieutenant Hancock, Ute of the Queen, on the Jamaica station, it-promoted 

* to the rank of Master and Commander. 

Captain Prowte is appointed to the Prince of Wialct, and not Penrote,'3a 
•tated in our latt. 

Lieutenant-ColOnel Flight, o£>hit. Vajetty't Marine Forcet, hat just been 
appointed Adjutant-General of thn Channel Fleet, and' in eonaequehce hat 
Uen pott on board the ViUe dePartt, the. iUg ^tip of the Commander in ; 
^ C^ieC . • . , .  

J. Sedeewick, Esq. one of the Cleri(t«f the Admiralty, it appointed Purler 
«f the Vflle de Paris, of 1 10 gunt. 

MARRIAOE$. ... 

Lately, Sir Charles Henry Knowlet, Bart. Rear-Admiral of the White> t* 
Mits Charlotte Johnstone, daughter of Charlet Johnstone, Esq. of Ludlow. 
At Weymouth, Captain Fitzgerald, of the Royal Navy, to Miss fane Webb. 

OBITUARY. 

A few days since died* at Brittol, Captain Knighton, of the Marine Forcet* 
' Who, iti consequence of ill-health, had ^lately gone out on t3ie rettrdnent. * C^ 
Idnel Dawet, of the Plymouth Division, gets the retiremtet, atad Captain Foy 
fttcceeds to the company of Colonel Dawes. 

A few days since died, at Plymoath,.. J> Kempthorne, Etq. a Purser of a tbi^ 
in ordinary, and Lieutenant of the Coniish Miners. 

In April Idst died, off Cape' St. Vlftcent, aged i^, Mr. Philip Henry Traiit, 
onTy son of Mr. James Philip Trant ; he was doing duty a) Captain of MarihSa 
in die Queen Charlotte, private ship of war, when by tome accident he fell 
•vcrboara, and was unfortunately 4rowned. 

Lately; Mrs. WVay, wife of Capt. WTay, of tliei^oyal'Nayy. , 

At Portsmouth, Lieatenant Syme, of the Marinet, in a fit; andonTfavr^ 

^ay he was buried wi^h military, honours, at the Garrison Chapcfl, attended by 

his two brothers^ and all the officers and privates of the corps. The pall iw^ 

tupported by six Lieutenants, his particular friends. He wat a fine promiting 

. young man, and much rcspedcd. 

* On the z 1st of May last, on hit passage from China, miich lamented, Henr^ 
Farrer, K^. Comm'ander of the True Britoii East (ndianian. • . . 

On Tuesday last died, at IrlymottCh| the Lady of Captaitt H. Hi)I» 9f 4^ 
)loyal Navy. 



IS5ERASHVS ^aia_ GOWEK KT 



1 



ftitlffit^ty JTiuuuy *Al^yAM£ 



MiOOkAPHICAL MMMOIRS OF 

SIR ERASMUS GOWER, KNIGHT. 



The Hetvealyiiiaidf with strength divine endued 
Hie daring toiil I there att her powencombin'd: 
Fum oeoituicy» undmntBd fortitude* 
Bndwiog pettence* arm'd his mighty soiudy 
Unnio?*d in toib^ in dangen undismay'd. 



Spencir. 



OIR Erasmiis Gower is the eldest son of Abel Gower> 
^ E«q, of GlandoTen, in the county of Pembroke, Sonth 
Wales, and Ltietitia Lewes Gower, only daughter to the Rev. 
Erasmus Gower, D. D. William Gower, the grandfather 
to Mr. Abel Gower, was representative in Parliament for 
the borough of Ludlow, in the county of Salop, during an 
uninterrupted period of twenty-six years. Sir Erasmus 
having been destined by his father for a naval life, was sent 
to sea at a very early age, under theproteAion of Captain John 
Donkley, his uncle * ; he served after the death of his relative, 
under a variety of other commanders, on the North Ame- 
rica, the home or channel station, in the Irish, and the 
North Seas. And during the time he continued, according 
to the rules of the service, in the subordinate stations of 
midshipman and mate, acquired the universal love and 
esteem of all tliose under whose orders he chanced to be 
placed. In the month of August 1762, being then very 
young, he passed through the necessary examination to 

* Captain Donkley was tppointed a lieutenant in the Nary on the 2d of 
June 1 741, and from that station was promoted to he commander of a sloop of 
war on the 5th of Jnly 1745. ^^ ^^ ^^ sobscqnent mention made of him for 
ten years after the above time ; at Icngth^about the month of September 1755, 
he appears to have been commissioned as commander of the Brilliant ; of what 
force or class this veaiel was, does not particularly appear/ but ceruinly held no 
higher rate than that of a sloop of war. On the a 7th of March 1756, he was 
promoted to be Captain of the Nightingale frigate, a» successor to Captain 
' Digge*- In this ship, however, he never proceeded to sea, having been in the 
course of the ensuing month, appointed to the Aldborough, a frigate of the 
aamr force, just before launched. Ho was some time afterwards removed into 
the Enterprize, and ordered to America, on his return from which station he 
died, having lived only to reach the entrance of the channel, on the j 7th of 
March 1758. 

Vol IV. L L 



258 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

qualify him for the rank of Lieutenant, and was soon 
afterwards selected as one of the oflScers whom Jt was deemed 
expedient to send into the Portuguese service. The station 
allotted to Mr. Gower, was that of second Captain on board 
a ship of the line, an appointment which, considering his 
youth, certainly reflefled on him the highest honour. 

The apprehension of an attack made on Portugal, or 
some of its transmarine possessions, by a Spanish fleet, 
having been prevented by the assiduity as well as the success 
which marked and attended the different enterprises under- 
taken by the British navy, Mr. Gower, after continuing in 
tedious suspense for the space of five months, returned to 
England. Soon after peace was concluded, as he had not 
obtained that promotion he so well deserved, to the rank of 
Lieutenant, and at the same time disdained to lead an inactive 
life, he went on board the Dolphin, of 20 guns, then 
equipping for a voyage of discovery round the globe, under 
the command of Commodore Byron. 

On his return from this fatiguing, and troublesome ser- 
vice in the year 1766, he was at last promoted to the rank of 
Lieutenant, being one of three persons only who were 
seledcd from among the mates or midshipmen belonging to 
the Dolphin, to be honoured with that advancement. He 
was immediately appointed to remeasure nearly the same 
course which he had just concluded, and was sent out 
Lieutenant of tlie Swallow, commanded by Captain Car- 
teret. The sufferings and distresses experienced by that 
gentleman and his crew, during their perilous voyage, which 
commenced in 1766, and was not concluded till 1769, have 
been already related, though but imperfeftly and faintly, 
in the account >vrittcn by the late Dr. Ha wkes worth. On 
the arrival of the ship in port, the journals as well as all 
private memorandums made by the different olEccrs, were 
ordered to be delivered in to the Admiralty Board without 
reserve, and promises of immediate promotion being uni- 
formly held out to all, the commands were most rigidly 
complied with, without hesitation or murmur; these pre- 

I 



OF SIR BRASMV8 OOVER^ KNIGHT. 259 

tnises were not fulfilled; owing to certain causes, which it 
would be irrelevant to the present purpose to repeat here. 
As some alleviation^ however, to the disappointment ex- 
perienced by Mr. Gower on this occasion, he was informed 
that the lieutenancy of the Swift sloop, then under orders 
for the Falkland Islands, where she was to continue three 
years, was vacant 5 and as the Captain of her was to be the 
commanding officer on that station, if Mr. Gower thought 
proper to accept of the appointment of Lieutenant, he might 
depend on promotion in case of any vacancy taking place 
during his absence; and that his appointment, whatever it 
might be, should certainly be confirmed by the Board of 
Admiralty as soon as it was known. , 

Mr. Gower closing with this proposal^ accordingly embark- 
cd as Lieutenant of the Swift at the end of the year 1769, and 
arrivcid at the place of destination very early in the ensuing 
spring. On the 13th of March, the Swift had the misfortune 
to be wrecked in Port Desire, on the coast of Patagonia, a 
misfortune owing to her having grounded on a sunk rock 
just as it was high water. The officers and crew remained 
during the whole of the ebb in the most anxious and dreadful 
state of suspense ; but though their situation was considered 
dangerous when the fatal accident had taken place, no sinister 
subsequent occurrence led them to apprehend the dcstrudlion 
of their vessel was so near at hand. At length, however, 
when hope appeared to reanimate each countenance, and 
give the crew almost an assurance of deliverance, the vessel 
suddenly slipped off the rock, overset, and went to the 
bottom in nine fathom w^ter. 

The greater part of the unfortunate crew were at this 
time nearly naked, as they had been indefatigably endea- 
vouring, though fruitlessly, during the whole of the tide, to 
guard against the very accident which had so fatally befallen 
them. The situation of Mr. Gower himself may serve to 
point out that of his wretched co-sufferers. He had on 
nothing more than his shirt, a waistcoat without sleeves, a 
pair of trowsers, and an old pair of shoes, but neither hat> 



260 BlOC&AFHlCAi; MBMOlRS 

fareecheS) nor stockings. In a ncariy equal state of eqiup* 
ment, with. itspeQ, to appareL were the whole of the eighty* 
eight unhappy persons composing the crew of the Swiftt at 
the time they might be supposed to consider themselfes fortu* 
iiate in reaching the shore. The sun was within a few days of 
entering into the winter quarter of that part of the globe : the 
country on which they were thrown was dreary^ desolate, and 
infaospitabk, unprodu^ve of provisions necessary for their 
sustenance, and destitute even of water *. The same dreary 
scene uninterruptedly presented itself for the extent of several 
degrees both to the northward and southward^ Added to 
which- the weather was so cold and inclement, that long 
before these apparently devoted suSerers were enabled to quit 
that coast, the ground was uninterruptedly covered with 
snow. 

Many a long ling'riag ihy in lonely valc> 
Stunn'd with th' eternal turbulence of waves* 
Lo, with dim eyes that never leam'd to smile. 
And trembling hands, the famish'd sailor craves 
Of Heaven his wretched fare ; shivering in caves^ 
Or drtarj rocht he pines (Tx>m day to day ; 
But Science gives the word ; and lo he braves 
The surge and tempest, lighted by her rayn 

And to a happier land wafts merrily away. 

Beattie* 

Thus fared it with Mr. Gower and his distressed com- 
panions during their continuance of twenty-nine days on 
that wretched spot, almost without clothes or other pro* 
te£lion from the weather, save what they were fortunate 
enough to meet with, in the cavities of the rocks ^ deprived of 
that palliating comfort fire, save what was produced from 
a scanty pittance of the tang or sea-weed torn by the tur- 
bulence of the waves from the rocks, and left oh the 
shore above high- water mark. Added to these accumulated 
circumstances of distress, their store of provisions, parti- 

*, The only ntpplf of this pnuid preserwUve of life which these unhappy 
people were capable of procuring, was from two old wdls dug by tome per* 
tons who had formerly landed on the same spot* It was brackish andio dirtji 
as to be loathsome In the extreme. 



OP SIR BRAtMUS OOWBty KVIOHT. t6z 

Cttlarly fartad *, became so scanty, that they were reduced to 
the wretched albwance of a biscuit a day for eachmaiu 

On the 1 2th of April, however^ thdr disttessea drew in 
great measure to a dose. The Favourite sloop of war ar- 
rived and conveyed them all to Ealkland Island in safety. 
This relief was obtained by the very gallant exertions of 
Mn William White f, the master, who, widi six volnnteers, 
proceeded in an open boat to the island, tlio«]f;h the distance 
was nearly one hundred and fifty leagues* When the aeasoa 
of the year, the tempestuous climate, and the length of the 
ran, are taken together, and compared with the means pos* 
sessed by these gallant adventurers for the accomplishment 
of their purpose, it will become a difficult matter, perhaps9 
to decide which is most worthy of admirationi the gallantry 
of the undertaking itself, or the prudence and skill with 
which it was carried into execution. 

No situation hardly could be more hopeless than that of 
those who remained behind ; they had nearly given up all 
idea of relief from their countrymen at the Falkland IslandSt 
:tnd had projefted a variety of romantic schemes to further 
their deliverance, none of which probably could ever have 
been carried into execution* The arrival, however, of their 
companions closed at once their fears, their chimerical 
projeds, and their distresses. Mr. Gower remained at the 
settlement on the Falkland Islands till the month of June 
ensuing, when, as it is well known, a squadron consisting qf 
three Spanish frigates, a xebec, and a sloop of war, arrived 
there, and forcibly dispossessed the English, whose whole 

* Th€7 were Mc to wwt hot t ^rery null ^aatitf from die ihipf ud eren 
that wu considerabij climiniihcd hj auce^ which infested them in great ituiii- 
hers. 

t Now Captain White, who has been employed during the greater part of 
the present war, as regulatxDg officer on the impress service at the port of 
Liverpool. He served in the late war on the Lisbon sution, was promoted to 
the rank of commander by Commodore Johnston, and appointed to the Porto 
sloop July 17, 1780. He afterwards commanded the Hound, and was ordered 
to the East Indies with Vice-Admiral Parker, where he was raised to the rank 
of Post Captain Aug« aS, 1783, by appointment to the San Carlos. 



2i6l Bt<>GRAPHICAI. MlMOIRf > 

Strength amoYinted . only to two sloops of war, with their 
crewsy. to ; whom were added Mr. Gowcr and his fellow- 
snffisrersy who had served on board the Swift. 
• Almost ififimediately after the violent measure just men- 
tioned had been taken , the Favourite sloop was dispatched 
home to England with the interesting intelligence, and Mr. 
/Gower, together with the. crew of the Swift, .took their pas- 
cage on- board her ;• it was extremely prosperous and speedy, 
that vessel halving arrived at the Motherbankon the 22d of 
September,- aftev^ a voyage of severity days. Mr. Gower 
coi^tinued unehiploysed after his arrival till tlie appointment 
of Sir- George Roditey to the Jamaica commaod) which took 
.place in the year ensuing.  

' '• An instanqe of. the ill luck, with respoS to. promotioDf 
which attended Mr. Gower on this occasion, is of too sin* 
gular a nature to be passed over unnoticed. He was ap- 
'pointed second lieutenant of the Princess Amelia, which was 
the ship of the commander in chief, so that he consequently 
might be considered in the diredt.and certain channel for 
advancement. At the time Sir George first hoisted his 
flag, the late Sir Robert Harland was on the point of pro- 
ceeding to the East Indies as commander in: chief of a 
squadron ordered thitherto watch the motions of the French, 
The present Sir John Colpoys, Vice- Admiral of the Red 
Squadron, was at that time third lieutenant of the Nor- 
thumberland, and being ordered out with a party to press 
men for the purpose of manning the squadron, an affray 
took place, in consequence of which a man unfortunately 
lost his life. 

» It then becoming necessary, pro form&y that the cohduft 
of Lieutenant Colpoys should be legally investigated, he was 
obliged to remain in England for that purpose, and a pro- 
posal was made to Mr. Gower, that he should exchange 
situations, as the trial would be over in sufficient time to 
permit Mr. Colpoys to proceed with Sir George Rodney, 
M'lio was not quite ready for sea, to the West Indies, while 
on the other hand, the detention would prevent his accom- 



or 81& IKAIMUS GOW8R, KNIGHT. 26j 

panying Sir Robert to the East. The chance of- promotion 
which Mr. Gower possessed in his own station, being 
ostensibly so much superior to that which was offered hirai 
he naturally rejefled the proposal, and Mr» Colpoys, soon as 
the trial was over,' followed his Admiral, having taken hia 
passage on board an Indiaman. The event, however, proved 
directly contrary to human foresight, one vacancy only hap-i 
pencd on the West India station during the whole time of 
Mr- Gower's absence. . He consequently experienced no 
farther advancement than from thestatioi; of second to that of 
first lieutenant, while .Mr. Colpoys had the good fortune in 
the same interval of time to be advanced to tl>e rank of Post 
Captain, by commission bearing date August 25, 1773, ap» 
pointing him to the Admiral's ship the Northumberland. 

Mr. Gower of course returned to England a lieutenant, 
and not having obtained promotion, was obliged to remain 
ina^ive on half-pay till the month of March 1775. He was 
then appointed first lieutenant of the Levant frigate, com« 
manded by Captain George Murray, uncle to the piesciit 
Duke of AthoL He sailed on the 4th of June following, 
and continued during the space of nearly four years on the 
Mediterranean station, under the progressive commands of 
Vice- Admiral Man and Rear- Admiral DuiF. The Levant 
was, after the commencement of the American war, ex* 
tremely successful, having captured so coilsiderable a number 
of prizes, that few vessels, perhaps, have ever quitted 
a station with more eclat respecting herself, and more regret 
from the officers and other persons concerned, who derived 
advantage from her good fortune, and the aflivity of her 
people. 

The Levant having been ordered to England in 17791 
was sent immediately after her arrival, with many other in- 
ferior ships and vessels, under the command of Captain 
Murray, over to Helvoetsluys. The objeft of this errand 
was to escort from thence the packet on board which tlic 
present Dutchess of Devonshire, with many other personages 



t64 itdctA^tfieAL UBUoitt 

of high nink, had embarked, and whose passage was rendered 
somewhat precarious, on account of the many ships belong- 
ing to the enemjr which then swarmed in Ae North Sea. 
The Levant, howerer* was prevented from executing this 
•enrice hj a contrary wind* 

Sir Geofge Rodney, the former friend and patron of Mr. 
Gower, received about this time his welUknown appoint- 
ment to the chief command on the West India station, and 
immediately chose Mr. Gower to be his first lieutenant on 
board the Sandwich. The fleet, with a considerable number 
of merchant vessels under its proteAion, sailed the latter end 
of December, and on the 8th of January had the good for- 
tune to fidl in with a Spanish convoy belonging to the Royal 
Company of Caraccas, bound from St. Sebastian's to Cadiz. 
Of twenty-seven sail which composed this ieet, twenty-six 
were captured, seven of which were armed, and completely 
fitted according to their diflFerent rates, as ships and vessels 
of war. The Commodore's ship, called the Guipuscoan^ 
mounted 64 guns, and being deemed in every respefl fit 
for service, was immediately commissioned by Sir George 
as a British ship of the line, and called the Prince Wil- 
liam, Mr. GQWer being appointed her Captain. 

This commission being confirmed without hesitation by 
the Admiralty, Mr* Gower, as some recompence for those 
manifold disappointments he had before experienced, escaped 
passing through the intermediate rank of commander of a 
sloop of war, a circumstance very unusual in the service. 

On the 16th of the same month in which Captain Gower 
met with that well deserved advancement just mentioned, 
the memorable ad ion took place off Cape St. Vincent be- 
tween the ^ritsh fleet and the Spanish armament, commanded 
by Don Juan de Langara, an event so recent as not to require 
any fartlier account than what has been already given in t^e 
Memoir of Lord Rodney, more particularly as tlie Prince 
William was not fortunate enough to have any interesting 
share in the a&ion. 



OF SIR UtAtMOS •OWBl^ UriGHT* tSg 

The fleet soon afterwards reached Gibraltar with the 
prizes it had so successfully made, and effedually relieved 
chat fortress from the famine^ike distress which the hosti-^ 
titles with the Court of Spain, and the close blockade cbrse*^ 
quent to them had necessarily occasioned. During the con- 
tinuance of the fleet in Gibraltar Bay Captain Gower was re- 
moved first into the Porcupine, of 24 guns, secondly into 
the Enterprise of 28 j and lastly, on the 14th of February 
1780, into the Edgar, of 74, as Captain under Commodore 
Elliot, who hoisted his broad pendant on board that ship, 
being left behind the fleet as commander in chief of a small 
force which it was supposed would assist in the defence of the 
fortress. 

It being experimentally found, after a few months con- 
tinuance there, that to persist in the same measure, was to 
render so fine a ship nearly useless, ' Commodore Eilidt 
returned to England. Cajptain Gowcr continued in the 
same command, sometimes serving under the Conlmo- 
dore himself, and during his abf;ence, commanding *the 
Edgar as a cruiser or a: [Private ship in the channd 
fleet, till the year 1 78 1, when Mr. Elliot having ^trudc 
his broad pendant and resumed his station of a private 
Captain, Mr. Gower of necessity quitted tire Edgar, and 
continued till the month of November 1781, on half- 
pay. He was then appointed Ckptain of the Medea, a 
frigate, of aft guns, under orders to join the squadron 
fitting out for the East Indies, - lander the tomftiaild of 
Commodore Sir R. Bickerton; Accidents, however, pre* 
vented Captain Gowet ftoin joining his companions, 
and he accordingly proceeded alone as far as Rio Janeiro 
on riie coast of Brazil, where "he met with the Sceptre, 
of 64 guns, one oPthe shipis composing* the same arrna* 
menL After continuing at the same port for six weeks^ 
in daily expeftatibn that the squadrqn which had iailed from 
England three days befbre the Medea, would arrive, tbe two 
,chips proceeded to India in company ; when on their passage, 
in doubling the Cape of Good Hope, the Medei captured, 

tDoL IV. M M 



%66 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

on the 2 1 St of May 1782, a large French ordnance storeship, 
bound also to India. This vessel had parted company only 
on the preceding day from several others of the same de- 
scription, under convoy of a small squadron of ships of war. 
The prize proved so dull a sailer as tp retard very consi- 
derably the passage of Captain Gower ; the Medea being 
obliged to take her in tow, and continue that measure with- 
out interruption till they jointly arrived at Madras, the 
passage thither was accordingly prolonged to no less a space 
of time than four months. But the tediousness and diffi- 
culty of this operation was fully compensated by the injury 
the enemy sustained from the capture, not only in the in- 
trinsic value of the cargo, but tlie grievous necessity they 
were under for a considerable part of those articles which 
composed it. The first service in which the Medea was 
employed subsequent to her arrival in India, was to attend 
the army, which was then on the point of proceeding under 
the command of General Sir Eyre Coote, on the expedition 
sent against Pondicherry. This event took place in tlie 
month of September, and the season of the year made it a 
task of the greatest difficulty to fulfil the orders 

Captain Gower, according to his instruAions, used every 
possible endeavour to reach Pondicherry by a limited day. 
His exertion was peculiarly necessary, for the soldiery had not 
been able to carry with them more than a very limited pro- 
portion of provision from Madras, and the monsoon^ 
which then blew contrary. to the Medea's intended course, 
threatened very powerfully to impede and prolong her pas- 
sage. What then must have been the fate of those troop.^ 
had he not resorted to extraordinary means for their sup- 
port? To have waited for the storeships and vessels which 
he was ordered to proteft, would but have increased his 
difficulties and his delay ; to quit them was dangerous ; but 
the special emergency determined him to adopt the latter 
measure. He communicated to the General his opinion of 
the small chance there was of his arrival at the place of his 
destination by the lii?Diited time, provided he was not freed 
from his incumbrance ; but as. the safety of the v^hole army 



OF SIR BRA8M US GOWER, KNiCHT. 267 

» 

depended oh at least a partial succour. Captain Gower under- 
took to relieve their most pressing necessities by converting 
the Medea herself into a storeship, and leaving the convoy 
to creep along shore, that it might seize all favourable op- 
portunities of proceeding on its route. 

In order to accomplish the important service be had 
undertaken, he himself, his officers, and all his crew, were 
obliged to forego every accommodation, and repose them- 
selves in the best manner they could on the deck itself. 
The cabins, the decks, in short the whole ship, was com- 
jpletely filled with rice, or other articles of the first necessity, 
and through the most diligent exertions,, adually arrived at 
her place of destination before she was expeded« The ex« 
pedition, however, was unfortunately obliged to be laid aside, 
in consequence of the commander in chief becoming so 
indisposed as to be totally incapable of assuming the com- 
mand, and the officer next in point of rank was under the 
necessity of returning to Madras with the troops* 
. On the 29th of September, the Medea was ordered to 
Bengal, having the General, Sir Eyre Coote, on board as a 
passenger, that change of air being considered as indispensa- 
bly necessary to the recovery of his health. Captain Gower 
was ordered to remain afterwards on the coast of Coro* 
mandel, for the better prote£lion of the coasting trade during 
the continuance of the south-west monsoon ; the British 
fleet having proceeded to Bombay in order to avoid that 
tempestuous weather to which the former coast is so ex* 
tremely liable during the three months then ensuing. 

Early in the month of January 1783, the French fleet, 
which was then under the command of the Count de Suf- 
frein, anchored in Ganjam road, one of the northern set- 
tlements on the coast of CoromandeL The Chef d'Escadre 
intended to continue there for seme time in the hope not 
only of being able to intercept and disturb the British com- 
merce, but of efFcfting some depredation or confusion 
among the settlements in that quarter, and Captain Gower 
entertaining not the most distant idea that the enemy were 



Sf ERASMUS 



COWER KT 



1 



'/ (f ^^^/Af-(v4'yt'.>./ait-a^//^ 



■.A ty Bfmiuy »^U S» 



ilOGkAPBlCAL MMM0IR8 OF 

SIR ERASMUS GOWER, KNIGHT. 

The Hetvoklf miii» with imigth divine endued 
Hit difing toul ; there lU her powcn combin'd : 
Firm ooonancy* uadaiuited fortitude* 
Bpdwiog peiieiicet Irm'd his migbty mindt 
UnalovM in tnls> in dangers undisauy'd. 
' « Spencxr* 

OIR Erastntis Gower is the eldest son of Abel Gower» 
^ Esq, of GlandoTen, in the county of Pembroke, South 
Wales, and Ld^titia Lewes Gower, only daughter to the Rev. 
Erasmus Gower, D* D. William Gower, the grandfather 
to Mr. Abel Gower, was representative in Parliament for 
the borough of Ludlow, in the county o( Salop, during an 
uninterrupted period of twenty-six years. Sir Erasmus 
having been destined by his father for a naval life, was sent 
to sea at a very early age, under theproteAion of Captain John 
Donkley, his uncle* ; he served after the death of his relative, 
under a variety of other commanders, on the North Ame- 
rica, the home or channel station, in the Irish, and the 
North Seas. And during the time he continued, according 
to the rules of the service, in the subordinate stations of 
midshipman and mate, acquired the universal love and 
esteem of all those under whose orders he chanced to be 
placed. In the month of August 1762, being then very 
young, he passed through the necessary examination to 

* Captain Bonkley was Ippointed a Ilentenant in the Navy on the id of 
June 174a, and from that station was promoted to he commander of a sloop of 
war on the 5th of Jnly 1745. We find no sabscfpient mention made of him for 
fen years after the above time ; at length, about the month of September 1755, 
he appears to have been commissioned as commander of the BriiUant ; of what 
force or class this vessel was, does not particularly appear/ bnt certainly held no 
higher rate than that of a sloop of war. On the a 7th of March 1756, he was 
promoted to be Captain of the Nightingale frigate, a} successor to Captain 
' Diggts. In this ship, however, he never proceeded to sea, having been in the 
coarse of the ensuing month, appointed to the Aldborough, a frigate of the 
sanr force, jnst before laanched. H« was some time afterwards removed into 
the Enterprize, and ordered to America, on his return from which station he 
died, having lived only to reach the entrance of the channel, on the. 17th of 
March 1758. 

tnoL IV. L L 



25S BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

qualify him for the rank of Lieutenant, and was soon 
afterwards selcfted as one of the officers whom.it was deemed 
expedient to send into the Portuguese service. The station 
allotted to Mr. Gower, was that of second Captain on board 
a ship of the line, an appointment which, considering his 
youth, certainly reflefted on him the highest honour. 

The apprehension of an attack made on Portugal, or 
some of its transmarine possessions, by a Spanish fleet, 
having been prevented by the assiduity as well as the success 
which marked and attended the different enterprises under- 
taken by the British navy, Mr. Gower, after continuing in 
tedious suspense for the space of five months, returned to 
England. Soon after peace was concluded, as he had not 
obtained that promotion he so well deserved, to the rank of 
Lieutenant, and at the same time disdained to lead an inaflive 
life, he went on board the Dolphin, of 20 guns, then 
equipping for a voyage of discovery round the globe, under 
the command of Commodore Byron. 

On his return from this fatiguing, and troublesome ser- 
vice in the year 1766, he was at last promoted to the rank of 
Lieutenant, being one of three persons only who were 
seleftcd from among the mates or midshipmen belonging to 
the Dolphin, to be honoured with that advancement. He 
was immediately appointed to remeasure nearly the same 
course which he had just concluded, and was sent out 
Lieutenant of the Swallow, commanded by Captain Car- 
teret. The sufferings and distresses experienced by that 
gentleman and his crew, during their perilous voyage, which 
commenced in 1766, and was not concluded till 1769, have 
been already related, though but imperfeftly and faintly, 
in the account written by the late Dr. Ha wkes worth. On 
the arrival of the ship in port, the journals as well as all 
private memorandums made by the different officers, were 
ordered to be delivered in to the Admiralty Board without 
reserve, and promises of immediate promotion being uni- 
formly held out to all, the commands were most rigidly 
complied with, without hesitation or murmur; these pr«- 

I 



OF Sift SRASMVS GOWER^ KMIGHT. 259 

mises were not fulfilled^ owing to certain causes, which it 
would be irrelevant to the present purpose to repeat here. 
As some alleviationy however, to the disappointment ex- 
perienced by Mr. Gower on this occasion, he was informed 
that the lieutenancy of the Swift sloop, then under orders 
for the Falkland Islands, where she was to continue three 
years, was vacant ; and as the Captain of her was to be the 
commanding officer on that station, if Mr. Gower thought 
proper to accept of the appointment of Lieutenant, he might 
depend on promotion in case of any vacancy taking place 
during his absence ; and that his appointment, whatever it 
might be, should certainly be confirmed by the Board of 
Admiralty as soon as it was known. , 

Mr. Gower closing with this proposal^ accordingly embark- 
cd as Lieutenant of the Swift at the end of the year 1769, and 
arrived at the place of destination very early in the ensuing 
spring. On the 13th of March, the Swift had the misfortune 
to be wrecked in Port Desire, on the coast of Patagonia, a 
misfortune owing to her having grounded on a sunk rock 
just as it was high water. The officers and crew remained 
during the whole of the ebb in the most anxious and dreadful 
state of suspense ; but though their situation was considered 
dangerous when the fatal accident had taken place, no sinister 
subsequent occurrence led them to apprehend the dcstruftion 
of their vessel was so near at hand. At length, however, 
when hope appeared to reanimate each countenance, and 
give the crew almost an assurance of deliverance, the vessel 
suddenly slipped off the rock, overset, and went to the 
bottom in nine fathom w^ter. 

The greater part of the unfortunate crew were at this 

« 

time nearly naked, as they had been indefatigably endea- 
vouring, though fruitlessly, during the whole of the tide, to 
guard against the very accident which had so fatally befallen 
them. The situation of Mr. Gower himself may serve to 
point out that of his wretched co-sufferers. He had on 
nothing more than his shirt, a waistcoat without sleeves, a 
pair of trowsers, and an old pair of shoes, but neither hat> 



26o BIOO&APHICAL MtMOlftS 

fareecfaeti nor stockings. In a ncariy equal state of equip- 
ment, with lesped to appareL were the whole of the eighty* 
eight unhappy persons composing the ciew of the Swiftf at 
the time they might be supposed to consider themselfes foftu* 
nate in leacbing the shore. The sun was within a few days of 
entering into the winter quarter of that part of the globe : the 
country on which they were thrown was dreary^ desolate, and 
inhospitable, unproduAive of provisions necessary for their 
sustenance, and destitute even of water *. The same dreary 
scene uninterruptedly presented itself for the extent of several 
degrees both to the northward and southward^ Added to 
which' the weather was so cold and inclement, that long 
before these apparently devoted sufierers were enabled to quit 
that coast, the ground was uninterruptedly covered with 

snow. 

Many a long liAg'riag Jay in lonely vale^ 

Stunn'd with th' eternal turbulence of waves^ 

Loy with dim eyes that never kam'd to snule. 

And trembling hands, the famish'd sailor craves 

Of Heaven his wretched £tire ; shivering in caves. 

Or drnaty rocht he pines from day to day ; 

But Science gives the word ; and lo be biaves 

The surge and tempest, lighted by her ray. 

And to a happier land wafts merrily away. 

Beattie. 

Thus fared it with Mr. Gower and his distressed com- 
panions during their continuance of twenty-nine days on 
that wretched spot, almost without clothes or other pro* 
te£tion from the weather, save what they were fortunate 
enough to meet with, in the cavities of the rocks j deprived of 
that palliating comfort fire, save what was produced from 
a scanty pittance of the tang or sea-weed torn by the tur- 
bulence of the waves from the rocks, and left on the 
shore above high-water mark. Added to these accumulated 
circumstances of distress, their store of provisions, parti- 

* T]\e only supply of this gnuid prescrrstive of life which thete unhappy 
people were capable of procuring, was from two old wells 4Qg by some per- 
sons who had formerly landed on the same spot* It was brackish and so dirty, 
as to be loathsome in the extreme* 



OF 81ft IftAfllUS GOWBft» KVIOHT* tSt 

Cttlarly bread *, became so scanty, that diejr were ledvced to 
the wretched albwance of a biscuit a day for each man* 
' On the lathof April, however^ their distsessea drew in 
great measure to a dose. The Favourite sloop of war ar* 
rived and conveyed them all to Falkland Island in safety. 
This relief was obtained by the very gallant exertions of 
Mr. William White f , the master, who, with six volunteers, 
proceeded in an open boat to the island, tliough the distance 
was nearly one hundred and fifty leaguest When the seasoa 
of the year, the tempestuous climate, and the length of the 
nsn, are taken together, and compared with the means pos^ 
sessed by these gallant adventurers for the accomplishment 
of their purpose, it will become a difficult matter, perhaps, 
to decide which is most worthy of admiration, the gallantry 
of the undertaking itself, or the prudence and skill with 
which it was carried into execution. 

No situation hardly could be more hopeless than that of 
those who remained behind ; they had nearly given up all 
idea of relief from their countrymen at the Falkland Islands, 
sind had projeAed a variety of romantic schemes to further 
their deliverance, none of which probably could ever have 
been carried into execution* The arrival, however, of their 
companions closed at once their fears, their chimerical 
projeds, and their distresses. Mr. Gower remained at the 
settlement on the Falkland Islands till the month of June 
ensuing, when, as it is well known, a squadron consisting qf 
three Spanish frigates, a xebec, and a sloop of war, arrived 
there, and forcibly dispossessed the English^ whose whole 

* They were able to aiTe Irat a retf taaSi ^antitf from die diip, i«d rren 
tl»t -wu conudenblj dimwiihcd hj auco, which infested them in great fliun- 
bers. 

t Now Ciptain White, who has been employed during the greater part of 
the present war, as regulating officer on the impress service at the port of 
Liverpool. He serred in the hte war oo the Lisbon station, was promoted to 
the rank of commander by Commodore Johnston, and appointed to the Porto 
sloop July 17, 1780. He afterwards commanded the Hoond, and was ordered 
to the East Indies with Vice-Admiral Parker, where he was raised to the nnk 
of Post Captain Aug« 2S, 1783, by appointment to the San Carkw. 



^6Z BIOGRAPHICAL MIMOIRf > 

•treogtb amoYinted . only to two sloops of war, with their 
crewsy. to : whom were added Mr. Gower and his fellow- 
suffisrcrst who had served on board the Swift. 
• Almost immediately after the violent measure just men- 
tioned had been taken^ the Favourite sloop was dispatched 
home to England with the interesting intelligence, and Mr. 
/Gower» together with the crew of the Swift, Jtook their pas« 
sage on- board her ; it was extremely prosperous and speedy, 
that vessel having arrived at the MotJierbank on the 22d of 
September,- affet^ a voyage of severity days. Mr. Gower 
continued oirtchiployed after his arrival till rfic appointment 
of Sir George Rodnfey to the Jamaica commacidi which took 
.place in the year ensuing. 

. : An^ instanoe of. the ill luck, with respedi to promotion* 
which.'attended Air. Gower on this occasion, is of too sin* 
gular a nature to be passed over unnoticed. He was ap- 
pointed second lieutenant of the Princess Amelia, which was 
the ship of the commander in chief, so that he consequently 
might be considered in the direft.and certain channel for 
advancement. At the time Sir George first hoisted his 
flag, the late Sir Robert Harland was on the point of pro- 
ceedincr to the East Indies as commander in: chief of a 
squadron ordered thitherto watch ^le motions of the French. 
The present Sir John Colpoys, Vice- Admiral of the Red 
Squadron, was at that time third lieutenant of the Nor- 
thumberland, and being ordered out with a party to press 
men for the purpose of manning the squadron, an affray 
took place, in consequence of which a man unfortunately 
lost his life. 

' It then becoming necessary, pro forma^ that the cohduft 
of Lieutenant Colpoys should be legally investigated, he was 
obliged to remain in England for that purpose, and a pro- 
posal was made to Mr. Gower, that he should exchange 
situations, as the trial would be over in sufficient time to 
permit Mr. Colpoys to proceed with Sir George Rodney, 
M'ho was not quite ready for sea, to the West Indies, while 
on the other hand, the detention would prevent his accom* 



OF SIR IS.ASMUS GOWBRy KNIGHT* 26$ 

panylng Sir Robert to the East. The chance of promotion 
which Mr. Gower possessed in his own station, being 
ostensibly so much superior to that which was offered himi 
he naturally rejected the proposal, and Mr, Colpoys, soon ^ 
the trial was over,' followed his Admiral, having taken bis 
passage on board an Indiaman. The event, however, proved 
diredly contrary to human foresight, one vacancy only hapii 
pened on the West India station during the whole time of 
Mr. Gower*s absence. He consequently experienced no 
farther advancement than from the statioi^ of second to that of 
first lieutenant, while .Mr. Colpoys had the good fortune in 
the same interval of time to be advanced to tl>e rank of Post 
Captain, by commission bearing date August 35, 1773, ap- 
pointing him to the Admirafs ship the Northumberland, 

Mr. Gower of course returned to England a lieutenant, 
and not having obtained promotion, was obliged to remain 
inadive on half-pay till the month of March 1775. He was 
then appointed first lieutenant of the Levant frigate, com-* 
manded by Captain George Murray, uncle to the prcsciit 
Duke of Athol. He sailed on the 4th of June following, 
and continued during the space of nearly four years on the 
Mediterranean station, under the progressive commands of 
Vice- Admiral Man and Rear- Admiral Duff. The Levant 
was, after the commencement of the American war, ex- 
tremely successful, having captured so coilsiderable a number 
of prizes, that few vessels, perhaps, have ever quitted 
a station with more eciat respe£):ing herself, and more regret 
from the officers and other persons concerned, who derived 
advantage from her good fortune, and the a£tivity of her 
people. 

The Levant having been ordered to England in 17791 
was sent immediately after her arrival, with many other in- 
ferior ships and vessels, under the command of Captain 
Murray, over to Helvoetsluys. The objeft of this errand 
was to escort from thence the packet on board which the 
present Dutchess of Devonshire, with oiany other personages 



t64 Mt6otAtmcit Mtiiotfti 

of high rank, had embarked, and whose passage was renderecl 
somewhat precarions, on account of the many ships belong- 
ing to the enemy which then swarmed in the North Sea* 
The Levant, howettr, was prevented from executing this 
service by a contrary wind. 

Sir Geofge Rodney, the former friend and patron of Mr* 
Gower9 received about this time his well-known appoint- 
ment to the chief command on the West India station, and 
immediately chose Mr. Gower to be his first lieutenant on 
board the Sandwich. The fleet, with a considerable number 
of merchant vessels under its proteftion, sailed die latter end 
of December, and on the 8th of January had the good for- 
tune to fidl in with a Spanish convoy belonging to the Royal 
Company of Caraccas, bound from St. Sebastian's to Cadiz. 
Of twenty-seven sail which composed this fleet, twenty-six 
were captured, seven of which were armed, and completely 
fitted according to their diflPerent rates, as ships and vessels 
of war. The Commodore's ship, called the Guipnscoan^ 
mounted 64 guns, and being deemed in every respect fit 
for service, was immediately commissioned by Sir George 
as a British ship of the line, and called the Prince Wil- 
liam, Mr. Gpwer being appointed her Captain. 

This commission being confirmed without hesitation by 
the Admiralty, Mr. Gower, as some recompence for those 
manifold disappointments he had before experienced, escaped 
passing through the intermediate rank of commander of a 
sloop of war, a circumstance very unusual in the service. 

Of\ the x6th of the same month in which Captain Gower 
met with that well deserved advancement just mentioned, 
the memorable ad ion took place oiF Cape St. Vincent be- 
tween the ^ritsh fleet and the Spanish armament, commanded 
by Don Juan de Langara, an event so recent as not to require 
any fartlier account than what has been already given in t]{e 
Memoir of Lord Rodney, more particularly as the Prince 
William was not fortunate enough to have any interesting 
share in the a£kioQ. 



OF tit BItASMUS •OWBI^ KIIIGHT* 26f 

The fleet soon afterwards reached Gibraltar with the 
prizes it had so Successfully made, and effefluaily relieved 
that fortress from the famine^ike distress which the hosti-^ 
lities with the Court of Spain, and the close blockade cbrte^ 
quent to them had necessarily occasioned. £)uring the con- 
tinuance of the fleet in Gibraltar Bay Captain Gower wds re* 
moved first into the Porcupine, of 24 guns, secondly into 
the Enterprise of 28 j and lastly, ' on the 14th tff February 
1780, into the Edgar, of 74, as Captain under Commodore 
Elh'ot, who hoisted his broad pendant on board that ship, 
being left behind the fleet as commander in chief of a sniali 
force which it was supposed would assist in the defence of the 
fortress. 

It being experimentally found, after a few months con- 
tiniiance there, that to persist in the same measure, was to 
render so fine a ship nearly useless, ' Commodore Ellibt 
returned to England. Captain Cower continued in the 
same command, sometimes serving under the Co'nlmo- 
dore himself, and during his absence, commanding 'the 
Eldgar as a cruiser or a: {Private ' ship in the channel 
fleet, till the year 1 781, when Mr. Elliot having Struck 
his broad pendant and resumed his station of a private 
Captain, Mr. Gower of necessity quitted the Edgar, and 
continued till the month of November 1781, on half- 
pay. He was then appointed Captain of the Medea, a 
frigate, of 29 ^uns, under orders to join the squadron 
fitting out for the East Indies, tinder the eomitoaild of 
Commodore Sir R. Bttkerton; Accidents, however, pre* 
vented Captain Gower from joining his companions, 
and he accordingly ^roteeded alone as far as Rio J'aneinS 
on the coast of Brazil, where "he met wirii the Sceptre, 
of 64 guns, one of the ships composing' the same arma- 
ment. After cohtiniiing at the same port' for six weeks^ 
in daily expeflatidn that the squadron which had bailed fi^oin 
England three days befbre the Medea^ would arrive, t)»e two 
chips prefceeded to India in company j when on their pawaget 
in doubling the Cape of Good Hope, the Medea captured^ 

WA* IV* M M 



t66 BIOGRAPHICAL MIMOIRS 

on the aist of May 1782) a large French ordnance storesbip, 
bound also to India. This vessel had parted company only 
on the preceding day from several others of the same de- 
scription, under convoy of a small squadron of ships of war. 
The prize proved so dull a sailer as tp retard very consi- 
derably the passage of Captain Gower ; the Medea being 
obliged to take her in tow, and continue that measure with- 
out interruption till they jointly arrived at Madras, the 
passage thither was accordingly prolonged to no less a space 
of time than four months. But the tediousness and diffi- 
culty of this operation was fully compensated by the injury- 
the enemy sustained from the capture, not only in the in- 
trinsic value of the cargo, but tlie grievous necessity they 
were under for a considerable part of those articles which 
composed it. The first service in which the Medea was 
employed subsequent to her arrival in India» was to attend 
the army» which was then on the point of proceeding under 
the command of General Sir Eyre Coote, on the expedition 
sent against Pondicherry. This event took place in die 
month of September, and the season of the year made it a 
task of the greatest difficulty to fulfil the orders 

Captain Gower, according to his instruAions, used every 
possible endeavour to reach Pondicherry by a limited day. 
His exertion was peculiarly necessary, for the soldiery had not 
been able to carry with them more than a very limited pro- 
portion of provision from Madras, and the monsoon, 
which then blew contrary. to the Medea's intended course, 
threatened very powerfully to impede and prolong her pas- 
sage. What then must have been the fate of those troops, 
had he not resorted to extraordinary means for their sup- 
port? To have weited for the storeships and vessels which 
he was ordered to proteA, would but have increased his 
difficulties and his delay ; to quit them was dangerous ; but 
the special emergency j^etermined him to adopt the latter 
measure. He communicated to the General his opinion of 
the small chance there was of his arrival at the place of his 
destination by the lioaited time, provided he was not freed 
from his incumbrance ; but as. the safety of the ^hole army 



OF S1& BRA8MUS GOWER, KMlCUT. 267 

• 

depended oh at least a partial succour. Captain Gower under- 
took to relieve their most pressing necessities by converting 
the Medea herself into a storeship, and leaving the convoy 
to creep along shore, that it might seize all favourable op- 
portunities of proceeding on its route* 

In order to accomplish the important service be had 
undertaken, he himself, his officers, and all his crew, were 
obliged to forego every accommodation, and repose them- 
selves in the best manner they could on the deck itself. 
The cabins, the decks, in short the whole ship, was com- 
pletely filled with rice, or other articles of the first necessity, 
and through the most diligent exertions, actually arrived at 
her place of destination before she was expe£led« The ex« 
pedition, however, was unfortunately obliged to be laid aside, 
in consequence of the commander in chief becoming so 
indisposed as to be totally incapable of assuming the com- 
mand, and the officer next in point of rank was under the 
necessity of returning to Madras with the troops* 

On the 29th of September, the Medea was ordered to 
Bengal, having the General, Sir Eyre Coote, on board as a 
passenger, that change of air being considered as indispensa- 
bly necessary to the recovery of his health. Captain Gower 
was ordered to remain afterwards on the coast of Coro« 
mandel, for the better prote&ion of the coasting trade during 
the continuance of the south*west monsoon ; the British 
fleet having proceeded to Bombay in order to avoid that 
tempestuous weather to which the former coast is so ex- 
tremely liable during the three months then ensuing. 

Early in the month of January 1783, the French fleet, 
which was then under the command of the Count de Suf- 

1 

frein, anchored in Ganjaro road, one of the northern set- 
tlements on the coast of Coromandel. The Chef d'Escadre 
intended to continue there for seme time in the hope not 
only of being able to intercept and disturb the British com- 
merce, but of efFefting some depredation or confusion 
among the settlements in that quarter, and Captain Gower 
entertaining not tlie most distant idea that the enemy were 



l68 BIOORAPHIQAL MBMOlftt 

ev'cn in those seaS) the Medea came to an anchor a little way 
v^ithout them. The night was foggy, but notwithstanding 
the haze, the British frigate was visible from the French 
fleet, in consequence of the latter . being under the land. 
SufFrein being well assured that she did not belong to his 
squadron, very vigilantly formed bis plan for securing her 
the next morning. 

Great indeed was the astonishment of Captain Gower and 
his people when they discovered^ on the approach of day^ 
several ships moving towards them, while the appearance of 
others in the offing, which had been detached thither during 
the night, .appeared totally to preclude all possibility of es- 
cape. The Medea being, however, a very swift sailer, and 
extremely well managed, was fortunate enough to eScSt 
her escape, though at one time within cannpn-shot of the 
ships which were in chase of her, and her capture was con* 
sidered by the pursued, as well as the pursuers, inevitable. 

On the i6th of the same month (January) the Medea was 
again chased by a French cruiser, but as tlie vessel did not 
appear larger than a frigate, Captain Gower ordered the ship 
to be put about, and stood for her. He brought the enemy 
to adion in the evening, and after a contest of eighteen 
minutes, had the pleasure of seeing his antagonist surrender. 
The prize proved to be the Chaser, a ship of war, mounting 
20 guns, six pounders, charged with dispatches from the Isle 
of France for the French commander in chief. The Medea 
immediately proceeded to Madras, and dispatched the Chaser 
from thence to Bombay^ where the British fleet still coa* 
tinued, with an account that a French armaUnent was on the 
Coromandel coast on the 23d of January. 

The Earl of Macartney, who was then Governor of Fort 
St. George, having received intelligence that three large 
storeships belonging to theenemy, and armee enjlute^ were then 
at Goudeiour, or Cuddalore as the English term it, a French 
settlement distant about twenty-eight leagues from Madras, 
he immediately communicated this intelligence to Captain 
Gower, who put to sea the same evening, notwithstanding 



OP aiR-IILASMUS GOWBRt KNIGHTtt a$f 

liis toznplettient of oiEcerft and seamen was very much re- 
duced in consequence of his having in great measure manned 
the Chaser. He had laid his plan with much care and pre* 
caution, hoping that he should be able to get up with the 
enemy before daylight, and make himself master at least of one 
of them before he should be heard of, or discovered* The 
whole of the plan, however, was unfortunately frustrated by 
the &ilure of the wind. The Medea, therefore, sheltered 
herself near the coast during the whole day, and the time 
was consumed in assiduously attempting to disguise and 
disfigure the vessel in such a manner that its real charader 
and condition should not be discovered by the enemy. In 
this projeft also Captain Gower had the misfortune to be 
disappointed. The enemy received intelligence of every 
circumstance that occurred, but ignorant of this, and con« 
sidering himself perfeftly secure, he again made sail as sooa 
as it became dark. The wind failed a second time, and 
the Medea was more than three miles distant from the road 
of Cuddalore at the dawn of the day. 

Instead of finding three ships in the road, as the information 
promised, there remained but one, apparently a very large 
vessel, having her topsails loose, and with every other indica- 
tion of being prepared to put to sea. She had a complete tier of 
lower-deck ports hauled up, and was at anchor with springs 
on her Cftbles under the prote£lion of the forts \ the vessel had 
Dutch colours hoisted, and began to fire at the Medea the 
instant she arrived within gun-shot. The situation of the 
frigate was critical, tlie enterprise was extremely arduous^ 
and nothing but the greatest and most prompt exertions 
could render success even probable. 

To have attacked the enemy according to the previously 
proposed plan, by running' on board her, and entering 
a sufficient number of men, appeared not only dan-r 
gerous but impradicable, first, on account of the high 
state of preparation in^which the ship of the enemy appeared^ 
and secondly, from her extreme loftiness or elevation above 
the surface of the water. It was therefore resolved, as the 



25S BIOGRAPHICAL MBMOI&S 

qualify him for the rank of Lieutenant, and was soon 
afterwards sclented as one of the oflScers whom.it was deemed 
expedient to send into the Portuguese service. The station 
allotted to Mr. Gower, was that of second Captain on board 
a ship of the line, an appointment which, considering his 
youth, certainly reflefted on him the highest honour. 

The apprehension of an attack made on Portugal, or 
some of its transmarine possessions, by a Spanish fleet, 
having been prevented by the assiduity as well as the success 
nvhich marked and attended the different enterprises under- 
taken by the British navy, Mr. Gower, after continuing in 
tedious suspense for the space of five months, returned to 
England. Soon after peace was concluded, as be had not 
obtained that promotion he so well deserved, to the rank of 
Lieutenant, and at the same time disdained to lead an inactive 
life, he went on board the Dolphin, of 20 guns, then 
equipping for a voyage of discovery round the globe, under 
the command of Commodore Byron. 

On his return from this fatiguing, and troublesome ser- 
vice in the year 1766, he was at last promoted to the rank of 
Lieutenant, being one of three persons only who were 
seleAcd from among the mates or midshipmen belonging to 
the Dolphin, to be honoured with that advancement. He 
was immediately appointed to remeasure nearly the same 
course which he had just concluded, and was sent out 
Lieutenant of the Swallow, commanded by Captain Car« 
teret. The sufferings and distresses experienced by that 
gentleman and his crew, during their perilous vojage, which 
commenced in 1766, and was not concluded till 1769, have 
been already related, though but imperfeftly and faintly, 
in the account >vrittcn by the late Dr. Ha wkes worth. On 
the arrival of the ship in port, the journals as well as all 
private memorandums made by the different oiEccrs, were 
ordered to be delivered in to the Admiralty Board without 
reserve, and promises of immediate promotion being uni- 
formly held out to all, the commands were most rigidly 
complied with, without hesitation or murmur; these pr9« 

I 



OF 8I& tRAflMVS OOWER, KNIGHT* 259 

mises were not fulfilled^ owing to certain causes, which it 
would be irrelevant to the present purpose to repeat here. 
As some alleviation, however, to the disappointment ex- 
perienced by Mr. Gower on this occasion, he was informed 
that the lieutenancy of the Swift sloop, then under orders 
for tlie Falkland Islands, where she was to continue three 
years, was vacant ; and as the Captain of her was to be the 
commanding officer on that station, if Mr. Gower thought 
proper to accept of the appointment of Lieutenant, he might 
depend on promotion in case of any vacancy taking place 
during his absence; and that his appointment, whatever it 
might be, should certainly be confirmed by the Board of 
Admiralty as soon as it was known, , 

Mr. Gower closing with this proposal) accordingly embark* 
cd as Lieutenant of the Swift at the end of the year 1769, and 
arrived at the place of destination very early in the ensuing 
spring. On the 13th of March, the Swift had the misfortune 
to be wrecked in Port Desire, on the coast of Patagonia, a 
misfortune owing to her having grounded on a sunk rock 
just as it was high water. The officers and crew remained 
during the whole of the ebb in the most anxious and dreadful 
state of suspense ; but though their situation was considered 
dangerous when the fatal accident had taken place, no sinister 
subsequent occurrence led them to apprehend the destruftion 
of their vessel was so near at hand. At length, however, 
when hope appeared to reanimate each countenance, and 
give the crew almost an assurance of deliverance, the vessel 
suddenly slipped off the rock, overset, and went to the 
bottom in nine fathom w^ter. 

The greater part of the unfortunate crew were at this 
time nearly naked, as they had been indefatigably endea- 
vouring, though fruitlessly, during the whole of the tide, to 
guard against the very accident which had so fatally befallen 
them. The situation of Mr. Gower himself may serve to 
point out that of his wretched co-sufFerers. He had on 
nothing more than his shirt, a waistcoat without sleeves, a 
pair of trowsers, and an old pair of shoes, but neither hat> 



260 BIOGRAPHICAL MBIfOlRS 

ft 

breecbeS) nor stockings. In a Jicariy equal state of equip* 
menti wttb rdsped to appaicL were the whole of the eighty* 
eight unhappy persons composing the crew of the Swift, at 
the time they might be supposed to consider tliemselTes fortu* 
iiate in reaching the shore. The son was within a few days^ 
entering into the winter quarter of that part of the globe : the 
country on which they were thrown was dreary^ desolate, and 
inhospitable, unprodn^Uve of provisions necessary for their 
sustenance, and destitute even of water ^, The same dreary 
scene uninterruptedly presented itself for the extent of several 
degrees both to the noithward and southward^ Added to 
which' the weather was so cold and inclement, that long 
before these apparently devoted sufferers were enabled to quit 
dfat coast, the ground was uninterruptedly covered urith 

snow. 

Many a long lingVisg ikiy in lonely vale^ 
Stunn'd with th' eternal turbulence of waves, 
Lo, with dun eyes that never learn 'd to snule. 
And trembling hands, the famishM sailor craves 
Of Heaven his wretched £ire $ shivering in caves. 
Or dirHMj roch, he pines from day to day ; 
But Science gives the word ; and lo be braves 
The surge and tempest, lighted by her ray^ 
And to a happier land wafts merrily away. 

Bbattie, 

Thus fared it with Mr. Gower and his distressed com- 
panions during their continuance of twenty-nine days on 
that wretched spot, almost without clothes or other pro* 
te£tion from the weather, save what they were fortunate 
enough to meet with, in the cavities of the rocks j deprived of 
that palliating comfort fire, save what was produced from 
a scanty pittance of the tang or sea-weed torn by the tur- 
bulence of the waves from the rocks, and left on the 
shore above high-water mark. Added to these accumulated 
circumstances of distress, their store of provisions, parti- 

f, l\ic only supply of this gnnd preiervitive of life ythich these uohsppy 
fMople were capable of procurtog, was from two old wells dug by tome per* 
•ons who had fbnnerly landed on the sune spot. It was brackish and so dirty» 
at to be loAthionie in the extreme* 



or 8tE »EAtMV8 GOWBfty KKIOHT* l6l 

ciilarly bread *, became so scanty* that tfaejr were redttced to 
the wretched albwance of a biscuit a day for eachmati* . 

On the I2th of April, however, their distiesses drew in 
great measure to a dose. The Favourite sloop of war ar- 
rived and conveyed them all to Falkland Island in safety. 
This relief was obtained by the very gallant exertions of 
Mr. William White f, die master, who, wiA six volunteers, 
proceeded in an open boat to the island, tl^ough the distance 
was nearly one hundred and fifty leagues* When Ae season 
of the year, the tempestuous climate, and the length of the 
nsn, aretakeri together, and compared with the means pos* 
sessed by these gallant adventurers for the accomplishment 
of their purpose, it will become a difficult matter, perhaps9 
to decide which is most worthy of admiration, the gallantry 
of the undertaking itself, or the prudence and skill with 
which it was carried into execution. 

No situation hardly could be more hopeless than that of 
those who remained behind ; they had nearly given up all 
idea of relief from their countrymen at the Falkland Islands, 
atnd had projefted a variety of romantic schemes to further 
their deliverance, none of which probably could ever have 
been carried into execution* The arrival, however, of their 
companions closed at once their fears, their chimerical 
projefts, and their distresses. Mr. Gower remained at the 
settlement on the Falkland Islands till the month of June 
ensuing, when, as it is well known, a squadron consisting qf 
three Spanish frigates, a xebec, and a sloop of war, arrived 
there, and forcibly dispossessed the English, whose whole 

9 

* They were aUe to »Te Irat a yttf amtU qaantitf from die diip, uid even 
that WM contidenblj diminiifaqi hj mice, wl^ch infested them in great mim* 
bcrs. 

f Now Captain White, who has heen employed during the greater part of 
the present war, as regulating officer on the impress service at the port of 
Liverpool. He serwd in the late war on the Lisbon sution, was promoted to 
the rank of commander by Commodore Johnston, and appointed to the Porto 
sloop July 17, 1780. He afterwards commanded the Honnd, and was ordered 
to the East Indies with Vice-Admiral Parker, where he was raised to the nak 
of Post Captain Aug, z%^ 1783, by appointment to the San CarkM. 



26Z BIOGRAPHICAL MlAIOIRf ^ 

etreogth amounted . only to two sloops of war, with their 
crews,, to ^hom were added Mr. Gower and his fellow* 
su^rers, who had served on board die Swift. 
• Almost iipmediatcly after the violent measure just men- 
doned had been taken^ the Favourite sloop was dispatched 
home to England with the interesting intelligence, and Mr. 
/Gower» together with the. crew of the Swift, took their pas- 
sage on' board her ;• it was extremely prosperous and speedy, 
that vessd ha;ving arrived at the Motiierbank on the 22d of 
September, afCtt*^ a voyage of severity days. Mr. Gowcr 
roi^tinued «unchiployed after his arri^val till tlic appointment 
of Sir- George Rodrfey to the Jamaica command, which took 
.place in the year ensuing. : 

. : An instance of. the ill luck, with.respcKS to promotioot 
which [attended Air. Gower on this occasion, is of too sia« 
gular a nature to be passed over unnoticed. He was ap* 
'pointed second lieutenant of the Princess Amelia, which was 
the ship of the commander in chief, so that he consequently 
might be considered in the direft.and certain channel for 
advancement. At the time Sir George first hoisted his 
flag, the late Sir Robert Harland was on the point of pro- 
ceedinc: to the East Indies as commander in? chief of a 
squadron ordered thitherto watch the motions of the French, 
The present Sir John Colpoys, Vice- Admiral of the Red 
Squadron, was at that time third lieutenant of the Nor- 
thumberland, and being ordered out with a party to press 
men for the purpose of manning the squadron, an affray 
took place, in consequence of which a man unfortunately 
lost his life. 

' It then becoming necessary, pro forma^ that the cohduft 
of Lieutenant Colpoys should be legally investigated, he was 
obliged to remain in England for that purpose, and a pro* 
posal was made to Mr. Gowcr, that he should exchange 
situations, as the trial would be over in sufficient time to 
permit Mr. Colpoys to proceed with Sir George Rodney, 
who was not quite ready for sea, to the West Indies, while 
on the other hand, the detention would prevent his accom* 



OF SIR t&ASMUS GOWBR» KNIGHT. 26j 

panying Sir Robert to the East. The chance of* promotion 
which Mr. Gower possessed in his own station, being 
ostensibly so much superior to that which was offered him, 
he naturally rejefted the proposal, and Mr, Colpoys, soon as 
the trial was over,* followed his Admiral* having taken h\% 
passage on board an Indiaman. The event, however, proved 
diredlly contrary to human foresight, one vacancy only hapr 
pened on the West India station during the whole time of 
Mr* Gower*s absence. He consequently experienced no 
farther advancement than from thestatioi^ of second to that of 
first lieutenant, while Mr. Colpoys had the good fortune in 
the same interval of time to be advanced to tl>e rank of Post 
Captain, by commission bearing date August 25, 1773, ap^ 
pointing him to the Admiral's ship the Northumberland. 

Mr. Gower of course returned to England a lieutenant, 
and not having obtained promotion, was obliged to remain 
inadive on half-pay till the month of March 1775. He was 
then appointed first lieutenant of the Levant frigate, com* 
manded by Captain George Murray, uncle to tlie present 
Duke of AthoL He sailed on the 4th of June following, 
and continued during the space of nearly four years on the 
Mediterranean station, under the progressive commands of 
Vice- Admiral Man and Rear- Admiral Duff. The Levant 
was, after the commencement of the American war, ex* 
tremely successful, having captured so considerable a number 
of prizes, that few vessels, perhaps, have ever quitted 
a station with more eclat respedling herself, and more regret 
from the officers and other persons concerned, who derived 
advantage from her good fortune, and the activity of her 
people. 

The Levant having been ordered to England in 17791 
was sent immediately after her arrival, with many other in- 
ferior ships and vessels, under the command of Captain 
Murray, over to Helvoetsluys. The objeft of this errand 
was to escort from thence the packet on board which tii^ 
present Dutchess of Devonshire, with many other personages 



i64 ttdOftA^HlCAL ututtti 

of high nnk, had embarked, and whose passage was rendered 
somewhat precarionS) on account of the many ships belong- 
ing to the enemy which then swarmed in tiie North Sea* 
The Levanti howeter, was prevented from executing this 
service by a contrary wind. 

Sir George Rodney, the former friend and patron of Mn 
Gower, received about this time his well-known appoint- 
ment to the chief command on the West India station, and 
immediately chose Mr. Gower to be his first lieutenant on 
board the Sandwich. The fleet, with a considerable number 
of merchant vessels under its proteftioa, sailed the latter end 
of December, and on the 8th of January had the good for- 
tune to fidl in with a Spanish convoy belonging to the Royal 
Company of Caraccas, bound from St. Sebastian's to Cadiz. 
Of twenty-seven sail which composed this fleets twenty-six 
were captured, seven of which were armed, and completely 
fitted according to their different rates, as ships and vessels 
of war. The Commodore's ship, called the Guipuscoan^ 
mounted 64 guns, and being deemed in every respe£l fit 
for service, was immediately commissioned by Sir George 
as a British ship of the line, and called the Prince Wil- 
liam, Mr. Gpwer being appointed her Captain. 

This commission being confirmed without hesitation by 
tlie Admiralty, Mr. Gower, as some recompence for those 
manifold disappointments he had before experienced, escaped 
passing through the intermediate rank of commander of a 
sloop of war, a circumstance very unusual in the service. 

On the i6th of the same month in which Captain Gower 
met with that well .deserved advancement just mentioned, 
the memorable ad ion took place off Cape St. Vincent be- 
tween the ^ritsb fleet and the Spanish armament, commanded 
by Don Juan de Langara, an event so recent as not to require 
any fartlier account than what has been already given in i^e 
Memoir of Lord Rodney, more particularly as tlic Prince 
William was not fortunate enough to have any interesting 
share in the a&ion. 



OF SIR IltAtMVS •OWlt^ XITIGHT* 26g 

The fleet soon afterwards reached Gibraltar with the 
prizes it had so Successfully made, and efFedually relieved 
that fortress from the famine^ike distress which the hosti-^ 
lities with the Court of Spain, and the dose blockade cbrse*** 
quent to them had necessarily occasioned. During the con- 
tinuance of the fleet in Gibraltar Bay Captain Gower was re- 
moved first into the Porcupine, of 24 guns, secondly into 
the Enterprise of ri8 i and lastly, " on the 14th of February 
1780, into the Edgar, of 74, as Captain under Commodore 
Elh'ot, who hoisted his broad pendant on board that ship, 
being left behind the fleet as commander in chief of a sniall 
force which it was supposed would assist in the defence of the 
fortress. 

It being experimentally found, after a few months coh- 
tiniiance there, that to persist in the same measure, was to 
render so fine a ship nearly useless, * Commodore Elli6t 
returned to England. Captain 6ower continued in the 
same command, sometimes serving under the Co'mmo- 
dore himself, and during his absence, commanding *thd 
Edgar as a cruiser or a (Private ship in the channri 
fleet, till the year 1 78 1, when Mr. Elliot having ^tnick 
his broad pendant and resumed his station of a private 
Captain, Mr. Gower of necessity quitted the Edgar, and 
continued till the month of November 1781, on half- 
pay. He was then appointed Captain of the Medea, a 
frigate, of aJ ^uns, under orders to join the squadron 
fitting out for the East Indies, under the eomAiaild of 
Comitiodore Sir R. Bickertoh; Accidents, however, pre# 
vented Captain Gowet from joining his companions, 
and he accordingly {iroeeeded alone as far as Rio Jkneirb 
on die coast of Brazil, where "he met witii the Sceptre, 
of 6*4 guns, one of the ships composing- the same arma* 
ment. After contiiiiiing at the same port for six weeks^ 
in daily expeftation that the squadrqn which had iailed from 
England three days befbre the Medes^ would arrive, th^ two 
.ships pr6ceeded to India in company ; when on their passagey 
in doubling the Cape of Good Hope, the Medea cap tured» 

HBoL IV. M M 



tS6 BIOGRAPHICAL MIMOIRS 

on the 2ist of May 1782, a large French ordnance storeship, 
bound also to India. This vessel bad parted company only 
on the preceding day from several otliers of the same de* 
scription, under convoy of a small squadron of ships of war. 
The prize proved so dull a sailer as tp retard very consi- 
derably the passage of Captain Gower; the Medea being 
obliged to take her in tow, and continue that measure with- 
out interruption till they jointly arrived at Madras, the 
passage thither was accordingly prolonged to no less a space 
of time than four months. But the tediousness and diffi- 
culty of this operation was fully compensated by the injury- 
the enemy sustained from the capture, not only in the in- 
trinsic value of the cargo, but tlie grievous necessity they 
were under for a considerable part of those articles which 
composed it. The first service in which the Medea was 
employed subsequent to her arrival in India, was to attend 
the army, which was then on the point of proceeding under 
the command of General Sir Eyre Coote, on the expedition 
sent against Pondicherry. This event took place in tlie 
month of September, and the season of the year made it a 
task of the greatest difficulty to fulfil the orders 

Captain Gower, according to his instruftions, used every 
possible endeavour to reach Pondicherry by a limited day. 
His exertion was peculiarly necessary, for the soldiery had not 
been able to carry with them more than a very limited pro- 
portion of provision from Madras, and the monsoon, 
which then blew contrary. to the Medea's intended course, 
threatened very powerfully to impede and prolong her pas- 
sage. What then must have been the . fate of those troops, 
had he not resorted to extraordinary means for their sup- 
port? To have waited for the storeships and vessels which 
he was ordered to prote£l, would but have increased his 
difficulties and his delay ; to quit them was dangerous ; but 
the special emergency determined him to adopt the latter 
measure. He communicated to the General his opinion of 
the small chance there was of his arrival at the place of his 
destination by the limited time, provided he was not freed 
from his incumbrance ; but as. the safety of the ^hqle army 



OF SIR ERASMUS GOWER| KNlCUT. 267 

• 

depended on at least a partial succour. Captain Gower under- 
took to relieve their most pressing necessities by converting 
the Medea herself into a storeship, and leaving the convoy- 
to creep along shore, that it might seize all favourable op- 
portunities of proceeding on its route. 

In order to accomplish the important service be had 
undertaken, he himself, his officers, and all bis crew, were 
obliged to forego every accommodation, and repose them- 
selves in the best manner they could on the deck itself. 
The cabins, the decks, in short the whole ship, was com- 
pletely filled with rice, or other articles of the first necessity, 
and through the most diligent exertions,, actually arrived at 
her place of destination before she was expeded. The ex* 
pedition, however, was unfortunately obliged to be laid aside, 
in consequence of the commander in chief becoming so 
indisposed as to be totally incapable of assuming the com- 
mand, and the officer next in point of rank was under the 
necessity of returning to Madras with the troops* 

On the 29th of September, the Medea was ordered to 
Bengal, having the General, Sir Eyre Coote, on board as a 
passenger, that change of air being considered as indispensa- 
bly necessary to the recovery of his health. Captain Gower 
was ordered to remain afterwards on the coast of Coro« 
mandel, for the better protection of the coasting trade during 
the continuance of the south-west monsoon ; the British 
fleet having proceeded to Bombay in order to avoid that 
tempestuous weather to which the former coast is so ex- 
tremely liable during the three months then ensuing. 

Early in the month of January 1783, the French fleet, 
which was then under the command of the Count de Suf- 
frein, anchored in Ganjara road, one of the northern set- 
tlements on the coast of Coromandel. The Chef d'Escadrc 
intended to continue there for seme time in the hope not 
only of being able to intercept and disturb the Britisli com- 
merce, but of effefting some depredation or confusion 
amohg the settlements in that quarter, and Captain Gower 
entertaining not tlie most distant idea that the enemy were 



SfBRASMUS -«dS^^ COWER KT 



MlOOkAtmCAL MMMOIRS OF 

SIR ERASMUS GOWER, KNIGHT. 

The Heavenly ttaid* with strength divine endued 
Hit darinf toul; there all her powen combin'd : 
Firm oaiMancy» undaunted fertstjude* 
Bpdwing patience» Irm'd his mighty mindt 
Uniriiaf *d in toil9» in dangen undiamay'd. 
% SpzNcia* 

OIR Erasmus Gower is the eldest ' son of Abel Gower» 
Esq. of GlancloTen, in the county of Pembroke, South 
Walesy and Lietitia Lewes Gower, only daughter to the Rev, 
Erasmus Gower, D- D* William Gower, the grandfather 
to Mr. Abel Gower, was representative in Parliament for 
the borough of Ludlow, in the county of Salop, during an 
uninterrupted period of twenty-six years. Sir Erasmus 
having been destined by his father for a naval life, was sent 
to sea at a very early age, under theprote^ion of Captain John 
Donkley, his uncle • ; he served after the death of his relative, 
under a variety of other commanders, on the North Ame- 
rica, the home or channel station, in the Irish, and the 
I^orth Seas- And during the time he continued, according 
to the rules of the service, in the subordinate stations of 
midshipman and mate, acquired the* universal love and 
esteem of all those under whose orders he chanced to be 
placed. In the month of August 1762, being then very 
young, he passed through the necessary examination to 

» 

* Cacptusk Donkley was Ippointed a lientenant in the Navy on the td of 
June 174a, and from that station was promoted to be commander of a aloop of 
war on die 5th of July 1745. We find no subsequent mention made of him for 
tea years after the above time ; at lcngth,.about the month of September 1755, 
he appears to have been commissioned as commander of the Brilliant ; of what 
force or class this veaiel was, does not particularly appear/ but cenainly held no 
higher rate than that of a sloop of war. On the a 7th of March 1756, he was 
promoted to be Captaio of the Nightingale frigate, a» successor to Capuin 
Diggta. In this ship, however, he never proceeded to sea, having been in the 
coarse of the ensuing month, appointed to the Aldborough, a frigate of the 
san^ force, jutt before laancbed. He was some time afterwards removed into 
the Enterprize, and ordered to America, on his return from which station he 
died, having lived only to reach the entrance of the channeli on the 1 7th of 
March 1758. 

;aoL IV. L L 



25S BIOGRAPHICAL MEM0I1.S 

qualify him for the rank of Lieutenant, and was soon 
afterwards selected as one of the officers whom.it was deemed 
expedient to send into the Portuguese service. The station 
allotted to Mr. Gower, was that of second Captain on board 
a ship of the line, an appointment which, considering bis 
youth, certainly reflefted on him the highest honour. 

The apprehension of an attack made on Portugal, or 
some of its transmarine possessions, by a Spanish fleet, 
having been prevented by the assiduity as well as the success 
which marked and attended the different enterprises under* 
taken by the British navy, Mr. Gower, after continuing in 
tedious suspense for the space of five months, returned to 
England. Soon after peace was concluded, as he had not 
obtained that promotion he so well deserved, to the rank of 
Lieutenant, and at the same time disdained to lead an ina£tive 
life, he went on board the Dolphin, of 20 guns, then 
equipping for a voyage of discovery round the globe, under 
the command of Commodore Byron. 

On his return from this fatiguing, and troublesome ser- 
vice in the year 1766, he was at last promoted to the rank of 
Lieutenant, being one of three persons only who were 
seledcd from among the mates or midshipmen belonging to 
the Dolphin, to be honoured with that advancement. He 
was immediately appointed to remeasure nearly the same 
course which he had just concluded, and was sent out 
Lieutenant of the Swallow, commanded by Captain Car- 
teret. The sufferings and distresses experienced by that 
gentleman and his crew, during their perilous voyage, which 
commenced in 1766, and was not concluded till 1769, have 
been already related, though but imperfeflly and faintly, 
in the account jwrittcn by the late Dr. Hawkesworth. On 
the arrival of the ship in port, the journals as well as all 
private memorandums made by the different officers, were 
ordered to be delivered in to the Admiralty Board without 
reserve, and promises of immediate promotion being uni- 
formly held out to all, the commands were most rigidly 
complied with, without hesitation or murmur; these prQ« 

I 



OF 8I& SRASMVS COWER^ R WIGHT. 259 

mises were not fulfilled^ owing to certain causes, which it 
would be irrelevant to the present purpose to repeat here. 
As some alleviation, however, to the disappointment ex- 
perienced by Mr. Gower on this occasion, he was informed 
that the lieutenancy of the Swift sloop, then under orders 
for the Falkland Islands, where she was to continue three 
years, was vacant ; and as the Captain of her was to be the 
commanding officer on that station, if Mr. Gower thought 
proper to accept of the appointment of Lieutenant, he might 
depend on promotion in case of any vacancy taking place 
during his absence ; and that his appointment, whatever it 
might be, should certainly be confirmed by the Board of 
Admiralty as soon as it was known. , 

Mr. Gower closing with this proposal^ accordingly embark- 
cd as Lieutenant of the Swift at the end of the year 1769, and 
arrived at the place of destination very early in the ensuing 
spring. On the 13th of March, the Swift had the misfortune 
to be wrecked in Port Desire, on the coast of Patagonia, a 
misfortune owing to her having grounded on a sunk rock 
just as it was high water. The oiEcers and crew remained 
during the whole of the ebb in the most anxious and dreadful 
state of suspense ; but though their situation was considered 
dangerous when the fatal accident had taken place, no sinister 
subsequent occurrence led them to apprehend the dcstruftion 
of their vessel was so near at hand. At length, however, 
when hope appeared to reanimate each countenance, and 
give the crew almost an assurance of deliverance, the vessel 
suddenly slipped off the rock, overset, and went to the 
bottom in nine fathom wkten 

The greater part of the unfortunate crew were at this 
time nearly naked, as they had been indefatigably endea- 
vouring, though fruitlessly, during the whole of the tide, to 
guard against the very accident which had so fatally befallen 
them. The situation of Mr. Gower himself may serve to 
point out that of his wretched co-sufferers. He had on 
nothing more than his shirt, a waistcoat without sleeves, a 
pair of trowsers, and an old pair of shoes, but neither hat> 



26o BIOGRAPHICAL MBWOIR8 

t 

breeches, nor stockings* In % nearly eqital state of ei{!up« 
ment, with. vtspeGt to appaceL were the whole of the eighty* 
eight unhappy persons composing the crew of the Swiftt at 
the time they might be supposed to consider themseivet fortu- 
nate in reacbing the shore. The sun was within a. few days of 
entering into the winter quarter of that part of the globe : the 
country on which they were thrown was dreary^ desolate, and 
iiihospitabki nnprodn&ive of provisions necessary for their 
sustenance, and destitute even of water *. The same dreary 
scene tmintemiptediy presented itself for the extent of several 
degrees both to the noithward and southward^ Added to 
which' the weather was so cold and inclement, that long 
before these apparently devoted sufferers were enabled to quit 
th^t coast, the ground was uninterruptedly covered vrith 
snow. 

Many 9 long Ung'riag day in lonely valc^ 

Stunn'd with th' eternal turbulence of waves^ 

Lo, with dim eyes that never leani'd to smile. 

And trembling hands, the famish'd sailor craves 

Of Heaven his wretched fare ; shivering in cavesy 

Or drtaty rocks, he pines from day to day ; 

But Science gives the word ; and lo he braves 

The surge and tempest, h'gbted by her ray^ 

And to a happier land wafts merrily away. 

Bbattie, 

Thus fared it with Mr. Gower and his distressed com- 
panions during their continuance of twenty-nine days on 
that wretched spot) almost without clothes or other pro* 
te£lion from the weather, save what they were fortunate 
enough to meet with, in the cavities of the rocks ^ deprived of 
that palliating comfort fire, save what was produced from 
a scanty pittance of the tang or sea-weed torn by the tur- 
bulence of the waves from the rocks, and left oh the 
shore above high- water mark. Added to these accumulated 
circumstances of distress, their store of provisions, parti- 

f. The only tnpply cf this gnwd prcserv9tive of life which these uohsppy 
|>€oplc were capable of procuring, was from two old wells dug by tome per* 
•ons who had fonnerly landed on the same spot. It was bracki^ and so dirty^ 
as to be loathsome in the extreme* 



OP 8IE BftASMVS GOVftfty KKIOHT. S6l 

cttlarly hgtad *, became so soanty. that tfaejr were feduced to 
the wretched aUowance of a biscuit a day for eachman* 

On the X2th of April, however^ their distfiesaea drew ia 
great measure to a close. The Favourite sloop of war ar- 
rived and conveyed them all to Falkland Island in safety. 
This relief was obtained by the very gallant exertions of 
Mr. William White f , the master, who, wiA six voInnteers» 
proceeded in an open boat to the island, tiioogh the distance 
was nearly one hundred and fifty leagues* When the seasoa 
of the year, the tempestuous climate, and the length of the 
r«n, are taken together, and compared with the means pos* 
sessed by these gallant adventurers for the accomplishment 
of their purpose, it will become a diiScult matter, perhapSf 
to decide which is most worthy of admiration, the gaUantry 
of the undertaking itself, or the prudence and skill with 
which it was carried into execution. 

No situation hardly could be more hopeless than that of 
those who remained behind ; they had nearly given up all 
idea of relief from their countrymen at the Falkland Islands^ 
ted had projefted a variety of romantic schemes to further 
their deliverance, none of which probably could ever have 
been carried into execution* The arrival, however, of their 
companions closed at once their fears, their chimerical 
projefls, and their distresses. Mr. Gower remained at the 
settlement on the Falkland Islands till the month of June 
ensuing, when, as it is well known, a squadron consisting q( 
three Spanish frigates, a xebec, and a sloop of war, arrived 
there, and forcibly dispossessed the English, whose whole 

* They were aUe to save bnt a ytrj muSi qaantltr from die ibip, ttd even 
ihit WM coostdcnblx dJmmiihcd hj auce, whicli infcued tbem in great nmn- 
bers. 

t Now Captain White, who has been employed daring the greater part of 
the present war, as regulating officer on the imprest senrice at the port of 
Liverpool. He served in the late war on the Lisbon station, was promoted to 
the rank of commander by Commodore Johnston, and appointed to the Porto 
sloop Jnly 17, 17S0. He afterwards commanded the Hound, and was ordered 
to the East Indies with Vice-Admiral Parker, where he was raised to the tank 
of Post Captain Ang, aS, 17S3, by appointment to the San CarlosL 



^1 BIOGRAPHICAL MBlCOIRf « 

•Irength amounted. only to two sloops ofwar, with their 
crews,, to • whom were added Mr. Gower and his fellow* 
sn&rers^ who had served on board the Swift. 
• Almost immediately after the violent measure just men- 
tioned had been taken^ the Favourite sloop was dispatched 
home to England with the interesting intelligence^ and Mr- 
/Gower> together with the. crew of the Swift, .took their pas- 
sage on' board her ;• it was extremely prosperous and speedy, 
that vessd ha;ving arrived at the Motherbank on the 22d of 
fieprember,aftet^^ a voyage of severity days, Mr. Gower 
continued >unehip)o)red after his arriyal till the appointment 
of Sir- George Rodiiey to the Jamaica commaodi which took 
.place in the year ensuing. • 

. \ An. instanqe of^ the ill luck, with.respoS to promotiont 
which attended 'Mr. Gower on this occasion, is of too sin* 
gular a nature to be passed over unnoticed. He was ap* 
'pointed second lieutenant of the Princess Amelia, which was 
tb& ship of the commander in chief, so that he consequently 
might be considered in the direft.and certain channel for 
advancement. At the time Sir George first hoisted his 
flag, the late Sir Robert Harland was on the point of pro- 
ceeding to the East Indies as commander in: chief of a 
squadron ordered thither to watch ^he motions of the French. 
The present Sir John Colpoys, Vice- Admiral of the Red 
Squadron, was at that time third lieutenant of the Nor- 
thumberland, and being ordered out with a party to press 
men for the purpose of manning the squadron, an affray 
took place, in consequence of which a man unfortunately 
lost his life. 

* It then becoming necessary, pro form&y that the cohduft 
of Lieutenant Colpoys should be legally investigated, he was 
obliged to remain in England for that purpose, and a pro- 
posal was made to Mr. Gower, that he should exchange 
situations, as the trial would be over in sufficient time to 
permit Mr. Colpoys to proceed with Sir George Rodney, 
who was not quite ready for sea, to the West Indies, while 
on the other hand, the detention would prevent his accom- 



OF 8tR S&A8IIU8 GOWBR, KNIGHT* 26j 

panying Sir Robert to the East, The chance of pFomotion 
which Mr. Gower possessed in his owq station, being 
ostensibly so much superior to that which was offered himi 
he naturally rejcfted the proposal, and Mr, Colpoys, soon a3 
the trial was over,* followed his Admiral, having taken hia 
passage on board an Indiaman. The event, however, proved 
dire<3Iy contrary to human foresight, one vacancy only hap^i 
pened on the West India station during the whole time of 
Mr. Gower*s absence. He consequently experienced no 
farther advancement than from the statioi; of second to that of 
first lieutenant, while .Mr. Colpoys had the good fortune in 
the same interval of time to be advanced to the rank of Post 
Captain, by commission bearing date August 25, 1773, ap* 
pointing him to the Admiral's ship the Northumberland- 
Mr. Gower of course returned to England a lieutenant, 
and not having obtained promotion, was obliged to remain 
ina^ive on half-pay till the month of March 1775. He was 
then appointed firsc lieutenant of the Levant frigate, com* 
manded by Captain George Murray, uncle to the prcsciit 
Duke of AthoL He sailed on the 4th of June following, 
and continued during the space of nearly four years on the 
Mediterranean station, under the progressive commands of 
Vice-Admiral Man and Rear- Admiral Duff. The Levant 
was, after the commencement of the American war, ex« 
tremely successful, having captured so considerable a number 
of prizes, that few vessels, perhaps, have ever quitted 
a station with more eclat respecting herself, and more regret 
from the officers and other persons concerned, who derived 
advantage from her good fortune, and the a£tivity of her 
people. 

The Levant having been ordered to England in 1779* 
was sent immediately after her arrival, wirh many other in- 
ferior ships and vessels, under the command of Captain 
Murray, over to Helvoetsluys. The objeft of this errand 
was to escort from thence the packet on board which the 
present Dutchess of Devonshire, with many other personages 



464 lldOtAPRlCAt MBMOItt 

of high rank, had embarked, and whose passage was raiderecl 
somewhat precarious, on account of the many ships belong- 
ing to the enemy which then swarmed in d)e North Sea. 
The Levant, boweYtr» was prevented from executing this 
service by a contrary wind* 

Sir George Rodney, the former friend and patron of Mh 
Gower, received about this time his well-known appoint- 
ment to the chief command on the West India station, and 
immediately chose Mr. Gower to be his first lieutenant on 
board the Sandwich. The fleet, with a considerable number 
of merchant vessels under its proteftion, sailed the htter end 
of December, and on the 8th of January had the good for- 
tune to fidl in with a Spanish convoy belonging to the Royal 
Company of Caraccas, bound from St. Sebastian's to Cadiz* 
Of twenty-seven sail which composed this fleet, twenty-six 
were captured, seven of Which were armed, and completely 
fitted according to their diflTerent rates, as ships and vessels 
of war* The Commodore's ship, called the Guipuscoans^ 
mounted 64 guns, and being deemed in every reaped fit 
for service, was immediately commissioned by Sir George 
as a British ship of the line, and called the Prince Wil- 
liam, Mr. G^wer being appointed her Captain. 

This commission being confirmed without hesitation by 
the Admiralty, Mr. Gower, as some recompence for those 
manifold disappointments he had before experienced, escaped 
passing through the intermediate rank (^ commander of a 
sloop of war, a circumstance very unusual in the service. 

On the i6tli of the same month in which Captain Gower 
met with that well .deserved advancement just mentioned, 
the memorable adion took place off Cape St. Vincent be- 
tween the Pritsb fleet and the Spanish armament, commanded 
by Don Juan de Langara, an event so recent as not to require 
any fartlier account than what has been already given in H^c 
Memoir of Lord Rodney, more particularly as the Prince 
William was not fortunate enough to have any interesting 
share in tlie aAion. 



OF SIR BRASMUS •OVIR^ KITIGHTa t6f 

The fleet soon afterwards reached Gibraltar with the 
prizes it had so Successfully made, and efFe£^ualIy relieved 
that fortress from the famine^Iike distress which the hosti-^ 
lities with the Court of Spain, and the close blockade cbi se^ 
quent to them had necessarily occasioned. During the con- 
tinuance of the fleet in Gibraltar Bay Captain Gower Was re- 
moved first into the Porcupine, of 24 guns, secondly into 
the Enterprise of 28; and lastly, on the 14th <rf February 
1780, into the Edgar, of 74, as Captain under Commodore 
Elliot, who hoisted his broad pendant on board that ship, 
bdng left behind the fleet as commander in chief of a sniall 
force which it was supposed would assist in the defence of the 
fortress. . - , 

It being experimentally found, after a few months con- 
tiniiance there, that to persist in the same measure, was to 
render so fine a ship nearly useless, ' Commodore Eilidt 
returned to England. Captain Gowct continued in the 
same command, sometimes serving under the Cc^nlmo- 
dore himself, and during his absence, commanding *the 
Eldgar as a cruiser or a [5rivate ship in the channd 
fleet, till the year 178 1, when Mr. Elliot having struck 
bis broad pendant and resumed his station of a private 
Captain, Mr. Gower of necessity quitted the Edgar, and 
continued till the month of November 1781, on half- 
pay. He was then appointed Captain of the Medea, a 
frigate, of 2& ^uns, under orders to join the squadron 
fitting out for the East fodies, - under the tomteadd of 
Comitiodore Sir R. Bickertoh; Accidents, however, pre^ 
vented Captain Gower troin joining his companions, 
and he accordingly proceeded alone as far as Rio Janeiro 
on tlic coast of Brazil, where "he met with the Sceptre, 
of 64 guns, one oPthe ships composing^ the saiiie arma- 
ment. After continuing at the same port for six wccks^ 
in daily expe£):ation that the squadrqn which had iailed from 
England three days before the Medea^ would arrive, thi6 two 
.chips proceeded to India in company ; when on their passagei 
jQ doubling the Cape of Good Hope^ the Medea captured^ 

WA. IV. M M 



l66 BIOGRAPHICAL MBMOIRS 

on the 2ist of May 1782, a latge French ordnance storeship, 
bound also to India. This vessel had parted company only 
on the preceding day from several others of the same de« 
scriptioiiy under convoy of a small squadron of ships of war. 
The prize proved so dull a sailer as tp retard very consi* 
derably the passage of Captain Gower ; the Medea being 
obliged to take her in tow, and continue that measure with- 
out interruption till they jointly arrived at Madras, the 
passage thither was accordingly prolonged to no less a space 
of time than four months. But the tediousness and diffi- 
culty of this operation was fully compensated by the injury- 
the enemy sustained from the capture, not only in the in« 
trinsic value of the cargo, but die grievous necessity they 
were under for a considerable part of those articles which 
composed it. The first service in which the Medea was 
employed subsequent to her arrival in India, was to attend 
the army, which was then on the point of proceeding under 
the command of General Sir Eyre Coote, on the expedition 
sent against Pondicherry. This event took place in the 
month of September, and the season of the year made it a 
task of the greatest difficulty to fulfil the orders 

Captain Gower, according to his instrudions, used every 
possible endeavour to reach Pondicherry by a limited day. 
His exertion was peculiarly necessary, for the soldiery had not 
been able to carry with them more than a very limited pro- 
portion of provision from Madras, and the monsoon, 
which then blew contrary. to the Medea's intended course, 
threatened very powerfully to impede and prolong her pas- 
sage. What then must have been the fate of those troop;;, 
had he not resorted to extraordinary means for their sup- 
port? To have waited for the storeships and vessels which 
he was ordered to proteA, would but have increased his 
difficulties and his delay ; to quit them was dangerous ; but 
the special emergency determined him to adopt the latter 
measure. He communicated to the General his opinion of 
the small chance there was of his arrival at the place of his 
destination by the liQsited time, provided he was not freed 
from his incumbrance ; but as. the safety of the vOxoU army 



OF SIR ERASMUS COWER, KNiCIIT. 267 

• 

depended on at least a partial succour. Captain Gower under- 
took to relieve their most pressing necessities by converting 
the Medea herself into a storeship, and leaving the convoy- 
to creep along shore, that it might seize all favourable op- 
portunities of proceeding on its route* 

In order to accomplish the important service be had 
undertaken, he himself, bis officers, and all his crew, were 
obliged to forego every accommodation, and repose them- 
selves in the best manner they could on the deck itself. 
The cabins, the decks, in short the whole ship, was com- 
pletely filled with rice, or other articles of the first necessity, 
and through the most diligent exertions, actually arrived at 
her place of destination before she was expe£led. The ex- 
pedition, however, was unfortunately obliged to be laid aside, 
in consequence of the commander in chief becoming so 
indisposed as to be totally incapable of assuming the com- 
mand, and the officer next in point of rank was under the 
necessity of returning to Madras with the troops* 
. On the 29th of September, the Medea was ordered to 
Bengal, having the General, Sir Eyre Coote, on board as a 
passenger, that change of air being considered as indispensa- 
bly necessary to the recovery of his health. Captain Gower 
was ordered to remain afterwards on the coast of Coro* 
mandel, for the better protedionof the coasting trade during 
the continuance of the south-west monsoon ; the British 
fleet having proceeded to Bombay in order to avoid that 
tempestuous weather to which the former coast is so ex- 
tremely liable during the three months then ensuing. 

Early in the month of January 1783, the French fleet, 
which was then under the command of the Count de Suf- 

 

frein, anchored in Ganjara road, one of the northern set- 
tlements on the coast of Coromandel. The Chef d'Escadrc 
intended to continue there for seme time in the hope not 
only of being able to intercept and disturb the British com- 
merce, but of efFefting some depredation or confusion 
among the settlements in that quarter, and Captain Gower 
entertaining not the most distant idea that the enemy were 



268 BIOGRAPHICAL MBMOlftt 

even in those seas, the Medea came to an anchor a little way 
without them. The night was foggy, but notwithstanding 
the haze, the British frigate was visible from the French 
fleet, in consequence of the latter . being under the land. 
SufFrein being well assured that she did not belong to his 
squadron, very vigilantly formed his plan for securing her 
the next morning. 

Great indeed was the astonishment of Captain Gower and 
his people when tliey discovered, on the approach of day, 
several ships moving towards them, while the appearance of 
others in the ofEng, which had been deuched thither during 
tlie night, .appeared totally to preclude all possibility of es- 
cape. The Medea being, however, a very swift sailer, and 
extremely well managed, was fortunate enough to effeft 
her escape, though at one time within canaon-shot of the 
ships which were in chase of her, and her capture was con- 
sidered by the pursued, as well as the pursuers, inevitable. 

On the i6th of the same month (January) the Medea was 
again chased by a French cruiser, but as the vessel did not 
appear larger than a frigate, Captain Gower ordered the ship 
to be put ab.)Ut, and stood for her. He brought the enemy 
to a£tion in the evening, and after a contest of eighteen 
minutes, had the pleasure of seeing his antagonist surrender. 
The prize proved to be the Chaser, a ship of war, mounting 
20 guns, six pounders, charged with dispatches from the Isle 
of France for the French commander in chief. The Medea 
immediately proceeded to Madras, and dispatched the Chaser 
from thence to Bombay> where the British fleet still coa* 
tinued. with an account that a French armslment was on the 
Coromandcl coast on the 23d of January. 

The Carl of Macartney, who was then Governor of Fort 
St. Gtorge, having received intelligence that three large 
storcships belonging to tbeenemy, and armie enjlute^ were then 
at Goudelour, or Cuddalore as the English term it, a French 
settlement distant about twenty-eight leagues from Madras, 
he immediately communicated this intelligence to Captain 
Gower, who put to sea the same evening, notwithstanding 



or SIK'IRASMVS GOVBft, KMIOHT* t6f 

kis tompleitient of ofScers and seamen was very much re- 
duced in consequence of his having in great measure manned 
the Chaser. He had laid his plan with much care and pre* 
caution, hoping that he should be able to get up with the 
enemy before daylight, and make himself master at least of one 
of them before he should be heard of, or discovered* The 
whole of the plan, however, was unfortunately frustrated by 
the failure of the wind. The Medea, therefore, sheltered 
herself near the coast during the whole day, and the time 
was consumed in assiduously attempting to disguise and 
disfigure the vessel in such a manner that its real charader 
and condition should not be discovered by the enemy. In 
this projeA also Captain Gower had the misfortune to be 
disappointed. The enemy received intelligence of every 
circumstance that occurred, but ignorant of this, and con« 
sidering himself perfe£tly secure, he again made sail as soon 
as it became dark* The wind failed a second time, and 
the Medea was more than three miles distant from the road 
of Cuddalore at the dawn of the day. 

Instead of finding three ships in the road, as the information 
promised, there remained but one, apparently a very large 
vessel, having her topsails loose, and with every other indica« 
tion of being prepared to put to sea. She had a complete tier of 
lower-deck ports hauled up, and was at anchor with springs 
on her cables under the proteAion of the forts \ the vessel had 
Dutch colours hoisted, and began to fire at the Medea the 
instant she arrived within gun-shot. The situation of the 
frigate was critical, the enterprise was extremely arduous^ 
and nothing but the greatest and most prompt exertions 
could render success even probable. 

To have attacked the enemy according to the previously 
proposed plan, by runnings on board her, and entering 
a sufficient number of men, appeared not only dan^ 
gerous but impradicable, first, on account of the high 
state of preparation in'which the ship of the enemy appeared, 
and secondly, from her extreme loftiness or elevation above 
the surface of the water. It was therefore resolved, as the 



/ 



tjm BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOrtS 

only method that could be adopted, desperate as it appeared, 
to run between the forts and the ship> receiving the joint 
fire of both at the same time. The shore was so bold and the 
obje£t of attack lay so near to the batteries, that the shot from 
the latter went through both sides of the Medea ; she re- 
teryed her fire till she got abreast of the enemy's ship, and 
dropped anchor close to her so as to preserve that situation : 
then for the first time did Captain Gower commence his 
cannonade, which was well direfted, and kept up with so 
much animation, that in a very short time vidory declared 
itself completely in his favour. 

The enemy was instantly boarded, and the cables of both 
sbipsr being immediately cut, thoy ran out into the oi&ng, till 
tliey were so far distant from the forts as to be under no 
apprehensions whatever fi*om their fire. ' Here they again 
came to anchor in order to arrange, and set matters to rights 
in the best manner circumstances would admit of. The 
prize proved to be the Vryheid, a Dutch East India ship, 
pierced for 64 guns, but having no more than 32 mounted. 
She had brought a cargo of ordnance stores to CQddalore9 
and was to have quitted it on the very day she was captured, 
being bound for Trincomale in the Island of Ceylon. .The 
lower masts and bowsprit which formerly belonged to a 
French ship of the line, that had been stranded and lost near 
Pondicherry, were secured alongside; the lower-deck guns and 
carriages were some of them on the lower deck of the prize, 
the remainder were in the hold, and those guns with their 
carriages, were fortunately as well fitted and adapted to the 
ports of the prize as though they had been purposely intended 
for her- 

This circumstance would have rendered the Vryheid com- 
pletely eiFeftive as a ship of the line the instant the guns 
were run out of the ports : it was even intended she should 
have joined the French fleet and been stationed as a vessel 
of that class, so that the loss of her must have been 
much felt by the enemy. The merit of the foregoing transr 
aAion, independent of the great inferiority of the Medea's 



OF SIR EtASMXIS GOWKRf KNIGHT* ^Jt 

force in comparison with that of her antagonist, and tlie 
peculiar circumstances and disadvantages under which sh« 
was compelled to commence her attack, was considerably 
heightened by ihe disadvantage of a very short complement^ 
the first lieutenant, together with thirty of the best seamen^ 
having been dispatched to Bombay, as already related, in the 
Chaser. 

The crew had experienced a scarcely less consequential 
diminution, owing to the master, the boatswain, the gunner» 
and many other persons belonging to the ship, being ashore at 
Madras when the intelligence was received : notwithstarKiiiig 
which Captain Gower resolved to put to sea without theai, 
fearing that if he used not the utmost expedition, the enemy 
might receive intelligence of his inteiftion at Cuddalore. 
Wliat must be the anxiety of a commander in so trying a. 
situation with so reduced a number of men ? He had ta 
navigate a ship which was three times the burden of thati 
he commanded^ in addition to his own ; he had more than 
one hundred prisoners to guard, and was to effed his pas- 
sage into Madras Road against the monsoon, with a French, 
fleet to windward of him upon the same coast. The only 
officer that continued in the Medea, exclusive of Captain 
Gower himself, was the Lieutenant of Marines, so that 
these two gentlemen were obliged to take watch and watch 
during the whole passage, which continued five days, and 
Captain Gower hinisclf is said to have scarcely quitted the 
deck for the whole time. 

The conduft of this gentleman on the occasion just men-? 
tioned, as well as his former services, were considered so highly 
meritorious that the Governor and Presidency of Fort St. 
Geoige requested Sir Edward Hughes, the naval commander 
in chief, to convey to him their sincere thanks ; and the 
Lords of the Admiralty themselves, as soon as they became 
acquainted with the different circumstances which attended 
the transaflion, were equally forward in shewingsimilar marks 
of approbation with regard to Captain Gower himself, to* 
gether with the officers and people whom he led to vidory« 



tjt BIOGRAPHICAL UBMOIftI 

The prize, through the possession of which he had vtrf 
justly acquired so much honour, got safe to Madras, where 
the captors were offered the sum of thirty-six thousand 
pounds for the hull and furniture* but Captain Gower fear- 
ing that the proposed purchasers intended, through the 
noxious medium of a neutral power, to resell the vessel im« 
mediately to the enemy, who at that time stood grievously 
in need of some reinforcement, most patriotically rejefied 
the personally advantageous offer. It was then proposed to 
him, that he should permit the vessel to proceed to Bengal 
and bring back a cargo of rice; for this voyage 6000/. were 
offered) with a farther proposal, that as the French fleet was 
then in the neighbourhood, the sum which bad been before 
offered for the purchase of the vessel, should be paid to the 
captors in case she was unfortunate enough to fall into the 
hands of the enemy, or meet with any other untoward ac* 
cident. 

All these offers also were peremptorily rejeded on the 
instant they were made, through an apprehension of the 
same insidious kind of contrivance which Captain Gower 
was fearful of in thf former instance. An account of these 
different offers, together with a description of the vessel 
herself, were immediately conveyed both by sea and land, 
for the purpose of more effcftually securing their arrival, to 
Sir Edward Hughes. It was accompanied by a declaration 
of Captain Gower's opinion, that the vessel in question 
was in every respeft properly adapted for his Majesty's ser- 
vice, and that in consequence of that idea, he would continue 
to decline any proposal whatever that might be made for 
the purchase of it till the pleasure of the commander in 
chief should be fully known. The ship continued for three 
months after this in the possession of the captors^ when a 
squadron of French ships having stood into the Road of Ma- 
dras, merely with a view of insulting that port» and fired a few 
shot at the different vessels which were anchored there, they 
themselves continuing under sail the whole time, the people 
on board the prize were so strongly apprehensive that the at* 



OF 8fR BRABMVS OOWBR, KHIOHT. S73 

tiict: of the enemy was principally intended against their ves- 
«el| which was the ofily one in the road that appeared worthy 
the attention of a foe, that they accordingly veered away the 
cable in the hope of preserving her by getting nearer co the 
shore* 

The appreliension probably was groundless, but the mea- 
sure taken for her preservation was certainly fatal. The 
«hip unfortunately got into the surf and was totally lost. 
Thus did the brave captors, owing to their over zeal for the 
service, lose that valuable and well-earned pecuniary re« 
ward which their gallantry so justly merited* Previous to 
the loss of the Vryheid, the Medea had on the 5th of Fe- 
bruary very narrowly escaped being captured by the French 
Acct herself, when they were on their passage from the 
Ganjam to the southward ; though nearly surrounded she 
was, however, fortunate enough to tScGt her escape. On 
the i6th of March she, for the third time, experienced a 
similar instance of good fortune off Pondicherry. Two 
French frigates, under cover of the night and a thick haze 
which then prevailed, got within bail of the Medea before 
they were discovered. 

Early in the month of May following, owing to the great 
exertions which the French were then making, it became 
natural to expeA that an action must inevitably take place 
between the two fleets, and as the British force consisted at 
'that time of eighteen sail of the line, divided into three 
squadrons, under an Admiral and two Commodores, it was 
strongly recommended to Sir Edward Hughes that he should 
appoint an additional or first captain to his own ship> by way 
of lessening that fatigue of body and mind which be must of 
necessity undergo in case of an aQion, as having so exten* 
sive a command to attend to. This honourable station was 
accordingly offered, as is customary on such occasions, to 
several of the senior Captains ; they declined it in the band- ' 
•somest manner, and at the same time unanimously joined 
in recommending Captain Gower, as the fittest person to 
take upon him so important a trust and office. 

Iltol. IV. n N 



S74 IIOORAPHICAL ll«M#Iltt 

The arrangement was made accordinglyii but tlie appoint- 
ment did not aAualiy take place> owing to the extreme deli^ 
cacy of tlie commander in chief, who, notwithstandiog the 
arduous task which presented itself to him, hesitated to 
comply with his own wishes and inclination, as well as those 
of every person under his orders, because be did not adually 
command at the time thatsufEcient number of ships which, 
according to the rules of the service, would have rendered 
such a measure a mere matter of course* 
• • From the 13th to the 21st of June, both fleets were 
manoeuvred in sight of each other, in tlie mutual hope of 
being able to seize some moment and opportunity pecu- 
liarly favourable to attack ; an aAion certainly appeared 
unavoidable, but the enemy, though they possessed the 
weather-gage, not thinking even that advantage sufficient 
to warrant their hazarding an a£tion, appeared to decline a 
contest till some occasion additionally favourable, should 
pccur. Under these circumstances the engagement was de- 
ferred till the' evening of the irst. During the whole of the 
period in which the two fleets had been in sight of each 
other, the Medea had been uniformly employed during the 
night in watching the motions of Monsieur de Sufl^rein* 

* The service was of the most impo^nt nature, and the risk 
proporUonably great. The squadron of the enemy was ex- 
tremely alert, and the Medea from her situation wa$> un-* 
avoidably, in hourly danger of being captured. 

The unfortunate adion which followed the exertions just 
mentioned, was produ&ive of what the eqemy had never, 
before that time, been fortunate enough to acquire in any 
part of the worid^an advantage over the British fleet with a 
force evidently inferior. This unprecedented event was 
occasioned liot only by the bad condition of several ships 
which composed the British fleet, but also by the dreadful 

• siekness and mortality which then prevailed among the 
crews* The disgrace at least, for the enemy reaped no ad« 
'Vantage whatever but the honour of having obliged the 
British to decline all farther contest^ might have been hap^ 



OF 9IK ERASMUS- CaWERy KNIGHT* Z;jf 

pilj prevmted had the intelligence that the articles ;of peace 
were signed, arrived from England within the time generally 
required to convey it from thence. But though private 
accounts and newspapers, which had reached India over* 
land before the adion took place, all agreed in asserting the 
tame event, yet the official account that tranquillity was re* 
established between the contending nations, did not reach 
Madras till the 31st of August following* 

This interesting intelligence was brought by his Majesty's 
ship Crocodile, and pending her arrival no inconsiderable 
share of address and management bad beea necessary to 
induce M« de Bussy, who then held the supreme command 
of the French naval force in that country, to consent to a 
truce before the pleasing intelligence was officially confirmed. 
His hesitation and demur was the natural consequence of the 
kte advantage which his countrymen had obtained by sea^ 
and the successes which had, for a short time preceding, at* 
tended' their land operations also in the same quarter. So 
that good fortune naturally gave birth to the most imperious 
assumption which haughty pride could diftate. 

The probability of peace being, however, established, the 
Medea was ordered to be dismantled early in the month of 
July, and being converted into a flag of truce, was ordered to 
convey a part of tlie Council of Fort St. George up to Cud- 
dalore, for the purpose of treating with General de Bussy 
as to the farther terms of pacification. Captain Gower being 
commissioned by Sir Edward Hughes to a£k in the same 
capacity, with regard to the naval department, between him- 
self and Monsieur de SufTrein. A common newspaper, 
which had reached India from Europe, was the most au- 
thentic document which Captain Gower possessed in proof 
of tlie treaty of peace being concluded in Europe ; but he 
contrived with the best address to carry his point and pre- 
vent any recommencement of hostilities. This delicate and 
interesting business being concluded, he was next employed 
in negotiating the exchange of prisoners, a species of 



S6l BIOGRAPHICAL MIlfOiRS > 

•trength amounted only to two sloops of war, with their 
crews,, to : whom were added Mr. Gower and his fellow- 
sn^rersy who had served on board the Swift. 

• Almost iipmediately after the violent measure just men« 
tioned had been taken, the Favourite sloop was dispatched 
home to England with the interesting intelligence, and Mr. 
/Gower, together with the. crew of the Swift, took their pas- 
sage on' board her ;• it was extremely prosperous and speedy, 
that vessel having arrived at the Motiierbank on the aad of 

'ft 

ficprember,afcet^i a voyage of severity days. Mr. Gower 
continued ^unetnpioj^ed after his arrival till the appointment 
of Sir* Ge:orge Rodrfey to the Jamaica command} which took 
.place in the year ensuing. : 

• ! An. instanqc of. the ill luck, with .respeft to promotiont 
wbicli'attended Mr. Gower on this occasion, is of too sin* 
gular a nature to be passed over unnoticed. He was ap- 
'pointed second lieutenant of the Princess Amelia, which was 
the ship of the commander in chief, so that he consequently 
might be considered in the direft.and certain channel for 
advancement. At the time Sir George first hoisted his 
flag, the late Sir Robert Harland was on the point of pro- 
ceeding to the East Indies as commander int chief of a 

" •  I- . . 

squadron ordered thitherto watch the motions of the French. 
The present Sir John Colpoys, Vice- Admiral of the Red 
Squadron, was at that time third lieutenant of the Nor- 
thumberland, and being ordered out with a party to press 
men for the purpose of manning the squadron, an affray 
took place, in consequence of which a man unfortunately 
lost his life. 

' It then becoming necessary, pro fotma^ that the cohduft 
of Lieutenant Colpoys should be legally investigated, he was 
obliged to remain in England for that purpose, and a pro- 
posal was made to Mr. Gower, that he should exchange 
situations, as the trial would be over in sufficient time to 
permit Mr. Colpoys to proceed with Sir George Rodney, 
who was not quiie ready for sea, to the West Indies, while 
on the other hand, the detention would prevent his accom- 



O? 5tR t&ASIfUS GOWBR9 KNIGHT* 26$ 

panying Sir Robert to the East. The chance of promotion 
which Mr. Gowcr possessed in his own station, being 
ostensibly so niuch superior to that which was offered hirai 
he naturally rejcfted the proposal, and Mr, Colpoys, soon a;5 
the trial was over," followed his Admiral, having taken hia 
passage on board an Indiaman. The event, however, proved 
direSly contrary to human foresight, one vacancy only hapii 
pened on the West India station during the whole time of 
Mr- Gower*s absence. He consequently experienced no 
farther advancement than from thestatioi; of second to that of 
first lieutenant, while .Mr. Colpoys had the good fortune in 
the same interval of time to be advanced to the rank of Post 
Captain, by commission bearing date August 25, 1773, ap» 
pointing him to the Admiral's ship the Northumberland- 
Mr. Gower of course returned to England a lieutenant, 
and not having obtained promotion, was obliged to remain 
inaAive on half-pay till the month of March 1775. He was 
then appointed first lieutenant of the Levant frigate, com* 
manded by Captain George Murray, uncle to the present 
Duke of AthoL He sailed on the 4th of June following, 
and continued during the space of nearly four years on the 
Mediterranean station, under the progressive commands of 
Vice- Admiral Man and Rear- Admiral Duff. The Levant 
was, after the commencement of the American war, ex* 
tremely successful, having captured so considerable a number 
of prizes, that few vessels, perhaps, have ever quitted 
a station with more ec/at respe£ting herself, and more regret 
from the officers and other persons concerned, who derived 
advantage from her good fortune, and the aftivity of her 
people. 

The Levant having been ordered to England in 17791 
was sent immediately after her arrival, with many other in- 
ferior ships and vessels, under the command of Captain 
Murray, over to Helvoetsluys. The objeft of this errand 
was to escort from thence the packet on board which tlie 
present Dutchess of Devonshire, with inany other personages 



t64 ttdoAA^tttCAt iiiiioitt 

of high rank, had embarked, and whose passage was tendered 
somewhat precarious^ on account of the many ships belong- 
ing to the enemy which then swarmed in the North Sea* 
The Levantf howeter, was prevented from executing this 
service by a contrary wind* 

Sir George Rodney, the former friend and patron of Mr* 
Goweri received about this time his well-known appoint- 
ment to the chief command on the West India station, and 
immediately chose Mr* Gower to be his first lieutenant on 
board the Sandwich* The fleet, with a considerable number 
of merchant vessels under its protedion, sailed the latter end 
of December, and on the 8th of January had the good for-- 
tune to fiillin with a Spanish convoy belonging to the Royal 
Company of Caraccas, bound from St. Sebastian's to Cadiz* 
Of twenty-seven sail which composed this fleets twenty-six 
were captured, seven of which were armed, and completely 
fitted according to their different rates, as ships and vessels 
of war* The Commodore's ship, called the Guipuscoan2(> 
mounted 64 guns, and being deemed in every resped fit 
for service, was immediately commissioned by Sir Geoige 
as a British ship of the line, and called the Prince Wil- 
liam, Mr. Glower being appointed her Captain. 

This commission being confirmed without hesitation by 
the Admiralty, Mr. Gower, as some recompence for those 
manifold disappointments he had before experienced, escaped 
passing through the intermediate rank of commander of a 
sloop of war, a circumstance very unusual in the service* 

Qn the i6th of the same month in which Captain Gower 
met with that well .deserved advancement just mentioned, 
the memorable ad ion took place off Cape St. Vincent be- 
tween the ^ritsh fleet and the Spanish armament, commanded 
by Don Juan de Langara, an event so recent as not to require 
any fartlier account than what has been already given in t];e 
Mefooir of Lord Rodney, more particularly as the Prince 
William was not fortunate enough to have any interesting 
share in tl^ a&ion* 



OF SIR BItASMUS •OWBt^ XITIGHT* 36^ 

The fleet soon afterwards reached Gibraltar with the 
prizes it had so Successfully made, and eiFe3ualIy relieved 
that fortress from the famine*like distress which the hosti-^ 
lities with the Court of Spain, and the close blockade cbrse^ 
quent to them h^d necessarily occasioned. During the con« 
tinuance of the fleet in Gibraltar Bay Captain Gower was re^ 
moved first into the Porcupine, of 24 guns, secondly into 
the Enterprise of 28 j and lastly, ' on the 14th of February 
1780, into the Edgar, of 74, as Captain under Commodore 
Elliot, who hoisted his broad pendant on board that ship, 
being left behind the fleet as commander in chief of a sniatl 
force which it was supposed would assist in the defence of the 
fortress. 

It being experimentally found, after a few months con- 
tinuance there, that to persist in the same measure, was to 
render so fine a ship nearly useless, * Commodore Ellidt 
returned to England. Captain Gower continued in the 
same command, sometimes serving under the Contmo- 
dore himself, and during his absence, commanding *th6 
Edgar as a cruiser or a' (Private ship in the channd 
fleet, till the year 1781, when Mr. Elliot having \struck 
his broad pendant and resumed his station of a private 
Captain, Mr. Gower of necessity quitted the Edgar, and 
continued till the month of November 1781, on half- 
pay. He was then appointed Captain of the Medea, a 
frigate, of 2^ ^uns, under orders to join the squadron 
fitting out for the East Indies, tinder the tomitaand of 
Commodore Sir R. Bickerton; Accidents, however, pre* 
vented Captain Gowet- from joining his companions, 
and he accordingly t)roeeeded alone as iar as Rio Janeirb 
on the coast of Brazil, where he met with the Sc*ptre^ 
of 64 guns, one oPthe ships composing' the same arma* 
ment. After continuing at the same port for six weeks^ 
in daily expedation that the squadrqn which had bailed from 
England three days before the Medeai, would arrive, th<e two 
.chips prOjCeeded to India in company ; when on their pe8eage» 
in doubling the Cape of Good Hope^ the Medea captured^ 

QIoL IV. M M 



V 



%66 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 

on the 2istof May 1782, a large French ordnance storeship^ 
bound also to India. This vessel had parted company only 
on the preceding day from several others of the same de* 
scription, under convoy of a small squadron of ships of war. 
The prize proved so dull a sailer as tp retard very consi- 
derably the passage of Captain Gower ; the Medea being 
obliged to take her in tow, and continue that measure with- 
out interruption till they jointly arrived at Madras, the 
passage thither was accordingly prolonged to no less a space 
of time than four months. But the tediousness and diffi- 
culty of this operation was fully compensated by the injury^ 
the enemy sustained from the capture, not only in the in- 
trinsic yalue of the cargo, but tlie grievous necessity they 
were under for a considerable part of those articles which 
composed it. The first service in which the Medea was 
employed subsequent to her arrival in India, was to attend 
the army, which was then on the point of proceeding under 
the command of General Sir Eyre Coote, on the expedition 
sent against Pondicherry. This event took place in tlie 
month of September, and the season of the year made it a 
task of the greatest difficulty to fulfil the orders 

Captain Gower, according to his instructions, used every 
possible endeavour to reach Pondicherry by a limited day. 
His exertion was peculiarly necessary, for the soldiery had not 
been able to carry with them more than a very limited pro- 
portion of provision from Madras, and the monsoon, 
which then blew contrary. to the Medea's intended course^ 
threatened very powerfully to impede and prolong her pas- 
sage. What then must have been the . fate of those troops, 
had he not resorted to extraordinary means for their sup- 
port? To have waited for the storeships and vessels which 
he was ordered to prote£t, would but have increased his 
difficulties and his delay ; to quit them was dangerous ; but 
the special emergency determined him to adopt the latter 
measure. He communicated to the General his opinion of 
the small chance there was of his arrival at the place of his 
destination by the lio^ited time, provided he was not freed 
from his incumbrance ; but as^the safety of the v^hqle army 



OF S1& SRA8MUS GOWERy KNICUT. 267 

• 

depended on at least a partial succour. Captain Gower under- 
took to relieve their most pressing necessities by converting 
the Medea herself into a storeship, and leaving the convoy 
to creep along shore, that it might seize all favourable op- 
portunities of proceeding on its route* 

In order to accomplish the important service he had 
undertaken, he himself, his officers, and all his crew, were 
obliged to forego every accommodation, and repose them- 
selves in the best manner they could on the deck itself. 
The cabins, the decks, in short the whole ship, was com- 
pletely filled with rice, or other articles of the first necessity, 
and through the most diligent exertions, adually arrived at 
her place of destination before she was expefled. The ex* 
pedition, however, was unfortunately obliged to be laid aside, 
in consequence of the commander in chief becoming so 
indisposed as to be totally incapable of assuming the com- 
mand, and the officer next in point of rank was under the 
necessity of returning to Madras with the troops* 
. On the 29th of September, the Medea was ordered to 
Bengal, having the General, Sir Eyre Coote, on board as a 
passenger, that change of air being considered as indispensa- 
bly necessary to the recovery of his health. Captain Gower 
was ordered to remain afterwards on the coast of Coro« 
mandel, for the better prote&ion of the coasting trade during 
the continuance of the soutb*west monsoon ; the British 
fleet having proceeded to Bombay in order to avoid that 
tempestuous weather to which the former coast is so ex- 
tremely liable during the three months then ensuing. 

Early in the month of January 1783, the French fleet, 
which was then under the command of the Count de Suf- 
frein, anchored in Ganjara road, one of the northern set- 
tlements on the coast of Coromandel. The Chef d'Escadre 
intended to continue there for seme time in the hope not 
only of being able to intercept and disturb the British com- 
merce, but of effefting some depredation or confusion 
among the settlements in that quarter, and Captain Gower 
entertaining not the most distant idea that the enemy were 



t6S BIOORAPRIQAL MBMOI&S 

ev<en iii those seas, the Medea came to an anchor a little way 
ifvithout them. The night was foggjr, but notwithstanding 
the haze, the British frigate was yisible from the French 
fleet, in consequence of the latter . being under the land. 
SufFrein being well assured that she did not belong to his 
squadron, very vigilantly formed bis plan for securing her 
the next morning. 

Great indeed was the astonishment of Captain Gower and 
his people when they discovered^ on the approach of day, 
several ships moving towards them, while the appearance of 
others in the of&ng, which had been deuched thither during 
the night, .appeared totally to preclude all possibility of es- 
cape. The Medea being, however, a very swift sailer, and 
extremely well managed, was fortunate enough to effeft 
her escape, though at one time within cannpn-shot of the 
ships which were in chase of her, and her capture was con* 
sidered by the pursued, as well as the pursuers, inevitable. 

On the i6th of the same month (January) the Medea was 
again chased by a French cruiser, but as the vessel did not 
appear larger than a frigate. Captain Gower ordered the ship 
to be put about, and stood for her. He brought the enemy 
to afiion in the evening, and after a contest of eighteen 
minutes, had the pleasure of seeing his antagonist surrender. 
The prize proved to be the Chaser, a ship of war, mounting 
20 guns, six pounders, charged with dispatches from the Isle 
of France for the French commander in chief. The Medea 
immediately proceeded to Madras, and dispatched the Chaser 
from thence to Bombay^ where the British fleet still coa* 
tinued. with an account that a French armsUnent was on the 
Coromandel coast on the 23d of January. 

The Earl of Macartney, who was then Governor of Fort 
St. Gtorge, having received intelligence that three large 
storeships belonging to the enemy, and armSe enjlutey-vitrt then 
at Goudeiour, or Cuddalore as the English term it, a French 
settlement distant about twenty-eight leagues from Madras, 
he immediately communicated this intelligence to Captain 
Gower, who put to sea the same evening, notwithstanding 



OF SIRB&ASMUS G0VS1« KHIOMT* ^if 

his tompledaent of ofScers and seamen was very much re- 
duced in consequence of his having in great measure manned 
the Chaser. He had laid his plan with much care and pre^ 
caution> hoping that he should be able to get up with the 
enemy before daylight* and make himself master at least of one 
of them before he should be heard of, or discovered* The 
whole of the plan, however, was unfortunately frustrated by 
the &ilure of the wind. The Medea> therefore, sheltered 
herself near the coast during the whole day, and the time 
was consumed in assiduously attempting to disguise and 
disfigure the vessel in such a manner that its real charader 
and condition should not be discovered by the enemy* In 
this projeA also Captain Gower had the misfortune to be 
disappointed. The enemy received intelligence of every 
circumstance that occurred, but ignorant of this, and con<« 
sidering himself perfeftly secure, he again made sail as soon 
as it became dark* The wind failed a second time, and 
the Medea was more than three miles distant from the road 
of Cuddalore at the dawn of the day. 

Instead of finding three ships in the road, as the information 
promised, there remained but one, apparently a very large 
vessel, having her topsails loose, and with every other indica* 
tion of being prepared to put to sea. She had a complete tier of 
lower-deck ports hauled up, and was at anchor with springs 
on her cstbles under the protedlion of the forts \ the vessel had 
Dutch colours hoisted, and began to fire at the Medea the 
instant she arrived within gun-shot. The situation of the 
frigate was critical, tlie enterprise was extremely arduous^ 
and nothing but the greatest and most prompt exertions 
could render success even probable. 

To have attacked the enemy according to the previously 
proposed plan, by running' on board her, and entering 
a sufficient number of men, appeared not only dan^ 
gerous but impradicable, first, on account of the high 
state of preparation in^which the ship of the enemy appeared^ 
and secondly, from her extreme loftiness or elevation above 
the surface of the water. It was therefore resolved, as the 



27# BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOrXS 

only method that could be adopted, desperate as it appeared, 
to run between the forts and the ship^ receiving the joint 
fire of both at the same time. The shore was so bold and the 
objeA of attack lay so near to the batteries,, that the shot from 
the latter went through both sides of the Medea ; she re- 
lerved her fire til! she got abreast of the enemy's ship, and 
dropped anchor close to her so as to preserve that situation : 
then for the first time did Captain Gower' commence his 
cannonade, which was well directed, and kept up with so 
much animation, that in a very short time victory declared 
itself completely in his fiivour. 

The enemy was instantly boarded, and the cables of both 
sbiper being immediately cut, thoy ran out into the 6ffing, till 
tliey were so far distant from the forts as to be under no 
apprehensions whatever fi-om their fire. ' Here they again 
came to anchor in order to arrange, and set matters to rights 
in the best manner circumstances would admit of. The 
prize proved to be the Vryheid, a Dutch East India ship, 
pierced for 64 guns, but having no more than 32 mounted. 
She had brought a cargo of ordnance stores to Cuddalore9 
and was to have quitted it on the very day she was captured, 
being bound for Trincomale in the Island of Ceylon. .The 
lower masts and bowsprit which formerly belonged to a 
French ship of the line, that had been stranded and lost near 
Pondichcrry, were secured alongside^ the lower -deck guns and 
carriages were some of them on the lower deck of the prize, 
the remainder were in the hold, and those guns with their 
carriages, were fortunately as well fitted and adapted to the 
ports of the prize as though they had been purposely intended 
for her- 

This circumstance would have rendered the Vryheid com- 
pletely eiFeftive as a ship of the line xhc instant the guns 
were run out of the ports : it was even intended she should 
have joined the French fleet and been stationed as a vessel 
of that class, so that the loss of her must have been 
much felt by the enemy. The merit of the foregoing trans* 
a£tion, independent of the great inferiority of the Medea's 



OF SIR ERASMUS GOWKR» KNIGHT. 2jt 

force in comparison with that of her antagonist, and the 
peculiar circumstances and disadvantages under which she 
was compelled to commence her attack, was considerably 
heightened by the disadvantage of a very short complement^ 
the first lieutenant, together with thirty of the best seainen, 
having been dispatched to Bombay, as already related, in the 
Chaser. 

The crew had experienced a scarcely less consequential 
diminution, owing to the master, the boatswain, the gunner, 
and many other persons belonging to the ship, being ashore at 
Madras when the intelligence was received : notwithstanding 
which Captain Gowcr resolved to put to sea without them, 
fearing that if he used not the utmost expedition, the enemy 
might receive intelligence of his intention at Cuddaiore. 
What must be theanxiety of a commander in so trying a 
situation with so reduced a number of men ? He had to 
navigate a ship which was three times the burden of tbati 
be commanded, in addition to his own ; he had more than 
one hundred prisoners to guard, and was to efTeft his pas- 
sage into Madras Road against the monsoon, with a French 
fleet to windward of him upon the same coast. The only 
officer that continued in the Medea, exclusive of Captain 
Gower himself, was the Lieutenant of Marines, so that 
these two gentlemen were obliged to take watch and watch 
during the whole passage, which continued five days, and 
Captain Gower hiir.sclf is said to have scarcely quitted the 
deck for the whole time. 

The condnft of this gentleman on the occasion just men- 
tioned, as well as his former services, were considered so highly 
meritorious that the Governor and Presidency of Port St. 
George requested Sir Edward Hughes, the naval commander 
in chief, to convey to him their sincere tlianks ; and the 
Lords of the Admiralty themselves, as soon as they became 
acquainted with the different circumstances which attended 
the transa£lion, were equally forward in shewingsimilar marks 
of approbation with regard to Captain Gower himself, to- 
gether with the officers and people whom he led to vidory. 



tjt BIOCRAFHICAL MSMOIRS 

The prize, through the possession of which he had verf 
justly acquired so much honour, got safe to Madras, where 
the captors were offered the sum of thirty-six thousand 
pounds for the hull and furniture, but Captain Gower fear* 
ing that the proposed purchasers intended, through the 
noxious medium of a neutral power, to resell the vessel im- 
mediately to the enemy, who at that time stood grievously 
in need of some reinforcement, most patriotically rejefied 
the personally advantageous offer. It was then proposed to 
him, that he should permit the vessel to proceed to Bengal 
amd bring back a cargo of rice; for this voyage 6ooo/. were 
offered, with a farther proposal, that as the French fleet was 
then in the neighbourhood, the sum which had been before 
offered for the purchase of the vessel, should be paid to tlie 
captors in case she was unfortunate enough to fall into the 
hands of the enemyy or meet with any other untoward ac* 
cident. 

All these offers also were peremptorily rejeded on the 
instant they were made, through an apprehension of the 
tame insidious kind of contrivance which Captain Gower 
was fearful of in th^ former instance. An account of these 
different offers, together with a description of the vessel 
herself, were immediately conveyed both by sea and land, 
for the purpose of more effeftually securing their arrival, to 
Sir Edward Hughes. It was accompanied by a declaration 
of Captain Gower's opinion, that the vessel in question 
was in every respeA properly adapted for his Majesty's ser- 
vice, and that in consequence of that idea, he would continue 
to decline any proposal whatever that might be made for 
the purchase of it till the pleasure of the commander in 
chief should be fully known. The ship continued for three 
months after this in the' possession of the captors, when a 
squadron of French ships having stood into the Road of Ma- 
dras, merely with a view of insalting that port^ and fired a few 
shot at the different vessels which were anchored there, they 
themselves continuing under sail the whole time, the people 
on board the prize were so strongly apprehensive that the at* 



or SIR BRABMVS GOWBR> KNIGHT* 273 

tuck of the enemy was principally intended against their ves- 
sel, which was the only one in the road that appeared worthy 
the attention of a foe, that they accordingly veered away the 
cable in the hope of preserving her by getting nearer to the 
shore. 

The appreliension probably was groundless, but the tnea* 
sure taken for her preservation was certainly fatal* The 
ship unfortunately got into the surf and was totally lost. 
Thus did the brave captors, owing to their over zeal for the 
service, lose that valuable and well-earned pecuniary re« 
ward which their gallantry so justly merited. Previous to 
the loss of the Vryheid, the Medea had on the 5th of Fe* 
bruary very narrowly escaped being captured by the French 
£eet herself, when they were on their passage from the 
Ganjam to the southward ; though nearly surrounded she 
was, however, fortunate enough to effeA her escape. On 
the 1 6th of March she^ for the third time, experienced a 
similar instance of good fortune off Pondicherry. 7* wo 
French frigates, under cover of the night and a thick haze 
which then prevailed, got within bail of the Medea before 
they were discovered. 

Early in the month of May following, owing to the great 
exertions which the French were then making, it became 
-natural to expe£l that an a£^ion must inevitably take place 
between the two fleets, and as the British force consisted at 
'that time of eighteen sail of the line, divided into three 
squadrons, under an Admiral and two Commodoresi it was 
strongly recommended to Sir Edward Hughes that he should 
appoint an additional or first captain to his own ship^ by way 
of lessening that fatigue of body and mind which he must of 
necessity undergo in case of an a^ion, as having so exten- 
sive a command to attend to. This honourable station was 
accordingly offered, as is customary on such occasions, to 
several of the senior Captains; they declined it in the hand- ' 
•somest manner, and at the same time unanimously joined 
in recommending Captain Gower, as the fittest person to 
take upon him so important a trust and office* 

aol. IV. If N 



S74 BIOORAPHICAX* MBIii«I&9 

The arrangement was made accordingly, but tlie appoint- 
ment did not adually take place> owing to the extreme deli^ 
cacy of the commander in chief, who, notwithstanding the 
arduous task which presented itself to him, hesitated to 
comply with his own wishes and inclination, as well as those 
of every person under his orders, because he did not aftually 
command at the time that' sufficient number of ships which* 
according to the rules of the service, would have rendered 
such a measure a mere matter of course. 
• • From the 13th to the 21st of June, both fleets were 
manoeuvred in sight of each other, in tlie mutual hope of 
being able to seize some moment and opportunity pecu- 
liarly favourable to attack ; an a£tion certainly appeared 
unavoidable, but the enemy, though they possessed the 
weather-gage, not thinking even that advantage sufficient 
to warrant their hazarding an a£tion, appeared to decline a 
contest till some occasion additionally favourable- should 
pccur. Under these circumstances the engagement was de« 
ferred till the' evening of the if st. During the whole of the 
period in which the two fleets had been in sight of each 
other, the Medea had been uniformly employed during the 
night in watching the motions of Monsieur de Suffrein* 
' The service was of the most impo^nt nature, and the risk 
proportionably great. The squadron of the enemy was ex- 
tremely alert, and the Medea from her situation fns^ uih* 
avoidably, in hourly danger of being captured. 

The unfortunate adion which followed the exertions just 
mentioned, was produdive of what the eqemy had never, 
before that time, been fortunate enough to acquire in any 
part of the world^*-an advantage over the British fleet with a 
fbrce evidently inf^ior. This unprecedented event was 
occasioned riot only by the bad condition of several ships 
which composed the British fleet, but also by the dreadful 
siekness and mortality which then prevailed among the 
•crcws. The disgrace at least, for the enemy reaped no ad- 
vantage whatever but the honour of having obliged the 
British to decline all farther contest^ might have been hap« 



OT 9IR ERASMUS- GOW£R» KNIGHT. ZJf 

pily prevented had the intelligence that the articles ;or peace 
were signed, arrived from England within the time generally 
required to convey it from thence. But though private 
accounts and newspapers, which had reached India over- 
land before the a£tion took place, all agreed in asserting the 
tame event, yet the official account that tranquillity was re-* 
established between the contending nations, did not reach 
Madras till the 31st of August following. 

1 his interesting intelligence was brought by his Majesty's 
ship Crocodile, and pending her arrival no inconsiderable 
share of address and management had been necessary to 
induce M. de Bussy, who then held the supreme command 
of the French naval force in that country, to consent to a 
truce before the pleasing intelligence was officially confirmed. 
His hesitation and demur was the natural consequence of the 
kte advantage which his countrymen had obtained by sea» 
and the successes which had, for a short time preceding, at* 
tended their land operations also in the same quarter. So 
that good fortune naturally gave birth to the most imperious 
assumption which haughty pride could diftate. 

The probability of peace being, however, established, the 
Medea was ordered to be dismantled early in the month of 
July, and being converted into a flag of truce, was ordered to 
convey a part of tlie Council of Fort St. George up to Cud* 
dalore, for the purpose of treating with General de Bussy 
as to the farther terms of pacification. Captain Gower being 
commissioned by Sir Edward Hughes to aft in the same 
capacity, with regard to the naval department, between him* 
self and Monsieur de Suifrein. A common newspaper, 
which had reached India from Europe, was the most au- 
thentic document which Captain Gower possessed in proof 
of the treaty of peace being concluded in Europe ; but he 
contrived with the best address to carry his point and pre- 
vent any recommencement of hostilities* This delicate and 
interesting business being concladed, he was next employed 
in negotiating the exchange of prisoners^ a species of 



^t BZOGRAPHICAL MIMOIRS ^ 

Strength amounted: only to two sloops of war, wiih their 
crewsy. to whom were added Mr. Gower and his fellow- 
snSerers^ who had served on board the Swift. 
' Almost immediately after the violent measure just men- 
tioned had been taken, the Favourite sloop was dispatched 
home to England with the interesting intelligence, and Mr. 
/Gower, together with the. crew of the Swift, took their pas- 
sage on board her ;' it was extremely prosperous and speedy, 
that vessel ha;ving arrived at the Motherbankon the sad of 
$>eptemhcr,affev^ a voyage of severity days. Mr. Grower 
rotilinued 'unehiptoyied after his arrival till tiie appointment 
of 8ir> George Rodifey to the Jamaica coinmandi which took 
.place in the year ensuing. 

. '. An- instanqe of. the ill luck, wjth.respe£t to promotioni 
which: attended Air. Gower on; tliis occasion, is of too sia« 
gular a nature to be passed over unnoticed. He was ap- 
pointed second lieutenant of the Princess Amelia, which was 
the ship of the commander in chief, so that he consequently 
might be considered in the direft.and certain channel for 
advancement. At the time Sir George first hoisted his 
flag, the late Sir Robert Harland was on the point of pro- 
ceeding to the East Indies as commander in? chief of a 
squadron ordered thitherto watch ^he motions of the French, 
The present Sir John Colpoys, Vice- Admiral of the Red 
Squadron, was at that time third lieutenant of the Nor- 
thumberland, and being ordered out with a party to press 
men for the purpose of manning the squadron, an affray 
took place, in consequence of which a man unfortunately 
lost his life. 

' It then becoming necessary, pro forma^ that the cohduft 
of Lieutenant Colpoys should be legally investigated, he was 
obliged to remain in England for that purpose, and a pro- 
posal was made to Mr. Gower, that he should exchange 
situations, as the trial would be over in sufficient time to 
ptrmit Mr. Colpoys to proceed with Sir George Rodney, 
who was not quite ready for sea, to the West Indies, while 
on the other hand, the detention would prevent his accom* 



OF 8tR CRAIMUS GOWBR, KNIGHT. 2$$ 

panying Sir Robert to the East. The chance of procnotioa 
which Mr. Gowcr possessed in his own station, being 
ostensibly so niuch superior to that which was offered him, 
he naturally rejcfted the proposal, and Mr, Colpoys, soon as 
the trial was over,' followed his Admiral, having taken hia 
passage on board an Indiaman. The event, however, proved 
direfily contrary to human foresight, one vacancy only hapii 
pened on the West India station during the whole time of 
Mr- Gower*s absence. He consequently experienced no 
fartlier advancement than from the statioi^ of second to that of 
first lieutenant, while .Mr. Colpoys had the good fortune ia 
the same interval of time to he advanced to the rank of Post 
Captain, by commission bearing date August 25, 1773, ap* 
pointing him to the Admiral's ship the Northumberland. 

Mr. Gower of course returned to England a lieutenant, 
and not having obtained promotion, was obliged to remain 
inactive on half-pay till the month of March 1775. He was 
then appointed first lieutenant of the Levant frigate, com- 
manded by Captain George Murray, uncle to the present 
Duke of Athoi. He sailed on the 4th of June foJlowing, 
and continued during the space of nearly four years on the 
Mediterranean station, under the progressive commands of 
Vice- Admiral Man and Rear- Admiral Duff. The Levant 
was, after the commencement of the American war, ex* 
tremely successful, having captured so considerable a number 
of prizes, that few vessels, perhaps, have ever quitted 
a station with more eciat respecting herself, and more regret 
from the officers and other persons concerned, who derived 
advantage from her good fortune, and the a£livity of her 
people. 

The Levant having been ordered to England in 1779^ 
was sent immediately after her arrival, with many other in- 
ferior ships and vessels, under the command of Captain 
Murray, over to Helvoetsluys. The object of this errand 
was to escort from thence the packet on board which the 
present Dutchess of Devonshire, with many other personages 



1(^4 tIdCtAFtlieAL MltCOltt 

of high rank, had embarked, and whose passage was rendered 
somewhat precariouS) on account of the many ships belong- 
ing to the enemy which then swarmed in Ae North Sea. 
The Leranti however, was prevented from executing this 
service by a contrary wind. 

Sir George Rodney, the former friend and patron of Mr. 
Goweri received about this time hit welUknown appoint- 
ment to the chief command on the West India station, and 
immediately chose Mr. Gower to be hit first lieutenant on 
board the Sandwich. The fleet, with a considerable number 
of merchant vessels under its protedion, sailed the latter end 
of December, and on the 8th of January had the good for- 
tune to fidl in with a Spanish convoy belonging to the Royal 
Company of Caraccas, bound from St. Sebastian's to Cadiz. 
Of twenty-seven sail which composed this fleet, twenty-six 
were captured, seven of which were armed, and completely 
fitted according to their different rates, as ships and vessels 
of war* The Commodore's ship, called the Guipuscoan^ 
mounted 64 guns, and being deemed in every respect fit 
for service, was immediately commissioned by Sir George 
as a British ship of the line, and called the Prince Wil- 
liam, Mr. GQWer being appointed her Captain. 

This commission being confirmed without hesitation by 
the Admiralty, Mr. Gower, as some recompente for those 
manifold disappointments he had before experienced, escaped 
passing through the intermediate rank of commander of a 
sloop of war, a circumstance very unusual in the service. 

0;i the i6th of the same month in which Captain Gower 
met with that well .deserved advancement just mentioned, 
the memorable adion took place off Cape St. Vincent be- 
tween the ^ritsb fleet and the Spanish armament* commanded 
by Don Juan de Langara, an event so recent as not to require 
any fartlier aceount than what has been already given in t)}e 
Memoir of Lord Rodney, more particularly as the Prince 
William was not fortunate enough to have any interesting 
share in the aftion. 



or SIR tRASMOS OOWBlt^ KVIGHT* t6f 

The fleet soon afterwards reached Gibraltar with the 
prizes it had so successfully made, and efFe£tuaily relieved 
that fortress from the famine^like distress which the hosti-^ 
lities with the Court of Spain, and the close blockade cbrse*'* 
quent to thetn had necessarily occasioned. During the con- 
tinuance of the fleet in Gibraltar Bay Captain Gower was re<^ 
moved first into the Porcupine, of 24 guns, secondly into 
the Enterprise of 285 and lastly, on the 14th of February 
1780, into the Edgar, of 74, as Captain under Cbmmodore 
Elh'ot, who hoisted his broad pendant on board that ship, 
being left behind the fleet as commander in chief of a small 
force which it was supposed would assist in the defence of the 
fortress. 

It being experimentally found, after a few months con- 
tintiance there, that to persist in the same measure, was to 
render so fine a ship nearly useless, ' Commodore Elliot 
returned to England. Captain 6ower continued in the 
same command, sometimes serving under the CoWmo- 
dore himself, and during his absence, commanding *thd 
Eldgar as a cruiser or a: {Private ' ship in the channd 
fleet, till the year 1 781, when Mr. Elliot having Struck 
bis broad piendant and resximed his station of a private 
Captain, Mr. Gower of necessity quitted the Edgar, and 
continued till the month of November 1781, on half- 
pay. He was then appointed Captain of the Medea, a 
frigate, of 2^ ^uns, under orders to join the squadron 
fitting out for the East fndies, * tinder the itomftiaild of 
Comiiaodore Sir R. Btckerton; Accidents, however, pre* 
vented Captain Gower from joining his companions, 
and he accordingly {iroceeded alone as far as Rio JkneirO 
on die coast of Brazil, where be met widi the Sciptrey 
of 64 guns, one oPthe ships composing' the same arma- 
ment. Aft^r continiiing at the same port for six weeks^ 
in daily expe6:ation that the squadrqn which had iailed from 
England three days beibre the Mede^ would arrive, thie two 
.chips profceeded to India in company $ when on their passag^i 
in doubling the Cape of Good Hope, the Medea captured^ 

tool. IV. M M 



1 



Z66 BIOG&AFBICAL MBMOIIS 

on the 2ist of May 1782, a large French ordnance storeship, 
bound also to India* This vessel had parted company only 
on the preceding day from several others of the same de- 
scription, under convoy of a small squadron of ships of war. 
The prize proved so dull a sailer as tp retard very consi- 
derably the passage of Captain Gower; the Medea being 
obliged to take her in tov\r, and continue that measure with- 
out interruption till they jointly arrived at Madras, the 
passage thither was accordingly prolonged to no less a space 
of time than four months. But the tediousness and diffi- 
culty of this operation was fully compensated by the injury 
the enemy sustained from the capture, not only in the in- 
trinsic value of the cargo, but die grievous necessity they 
were under for a considerable part of those articles which 
composed It. The first service in which the Medea was 
employed subsequent to her arrival in India, was to attend 
the army, which was then on the point of proceeding under 
the command of General Sir Eyre Coote, on the expedition 
sent against Pondicherry. This event took place in tlie 
month of September, and the season of the year made it a 
task of the greatest difficulty to fulfil the order/ 

Captain Gower, according to his instructions, used every 
possible endeavour to reach Pondicherry by a limited day. 
His exertion was peculiarly necessary, for the soldiery had not 
been able to carry with them more than a very limited pro- 
portion of provision from Madras, and the monsoon, 
which then blew contrary. to the Medea's intended course, 
threatened very powerfully to impede and prolong her pas- 
sage. What then must have been the fate of those troops, 
had he not resorted to extraordinary means for their sup- 
port? To have waited for the storeships and vessels which 
he was ordered to protect, would but have increased his 
difficulties and his delay ; to quit them was dangerous ; but 
the special emergency determined him to adopt the latter 
measure. He communicated to the General his opinion of 
the small chance there was of his arrival at the place of his 
destination by the lixnited time, provided he was not freed 
from his incumbrance ; but as. the safety of the y(tioU army 



OF Sit SRA8UUS GOWER, KNiCUT. 267 

depended on at least a partial succour. Captain Gower under- 
took to relieve their most pressing necessities by converting 
the Medea herself into a storeship, and leaving the convoy 
to creep along shore, that it might seize all favourable op- 
portunities of proceeding on its route. 

In order to accomplish the important service he had 
undertaken, he himself, his officers, and all his crew, were 
obliged to forego every accommodation, and repose them* 
selves in the best manner they could on the deck itself. 
The cabins, the decks, in short the whole ship, was com- 
pletely filled with rice, or other articles of the first necessity, 
and through the most diligent exertions, adually arrived at 
her place of destination before she was expeded. The ex* 
pedition, however, was unfortunately obliged to be laid aside, 
in consequence of the commander in chief becoming so 
indisposed as to be totally incapable of assuming the com- 
mand, and the officer next in point of rank was under the 
necessity of returning to Madras with the troops* 
. On the 29th of September, the Medea was ordered to 
Bengal, having the General, Sir Eyre Coote, on board as a 
passenger, that change of air being considered as indispensa- 
bly necessary to the recovery of his health. Captain Gower 
was ordered to remain afterwards on the coast of Coro* 
mandel, for the better proteftionof the coasting trade during 
the continuance of the south-west monsoon ; the British 
fleet having proceeded to Bombay in order to avoid that 
tempestuous weather to which the former coast is so ex- 
tremely liable during the three months then ensuing. 

Early in the month of January 1783, the French fleet, 
which was then under the command of the Count de Suf- 

 

frein, anchored in Ganjaro road, one of the northern set- 
tlements on the coast of Coromandel. The Chef d*Escadrc 
intended to continue there for seme time in the hope not 
only of being able to intercept and disturb the British com- 
merce, but of efFefting some depredation or confusion 
among the settlements in that quarter, and Captain Gower 
entertaining not the most distant idea that the enemy were 



t6S BIOORAPBIQAL MEMOI&t 

ev«n in those seas, the Medea came to an anchor a little way 
ifvithout them. The night was foggy » but notwithstanding 
the haze, the British frigate was visible from the French 
fleet, in consequence of the latter . being under the land. 
SufFrein being well assured that she did not belong to his 
squadron, very vigilantly formed bis plan for securing her 
the next morning. 

Great indeed was the astonishment of Captain Gower and 
his people when they discovered^ on the approach of day, 
several ships moving towards them, while the appearance of 
others in the offing, which had been detached thither during 
the night, .appeared totally to preclude all possibility of es- 
cape* The Medea being, however, a very swift sailer, and 
extremely well managed, was fortunate enough to effe£k 
her escape, though at one time within cannpn-shot of the 
ships which were in chase of her, and her capture was con* 
sidered by the pursued, as well as the pursuers, inevitable. 

On the i6th of the same month (January) the Medea was 
again chased by a French cruiser, but as the vessel did not 
appear larger than a frigate, Captain Gower ordered the ship 
to be put about, and stood for her. He brought the enemy 
to a£tion in the evening, and after a contest of eighteen 
minutes, had the pleasure of seeing his antagonist surrender. 
The prize proved to be the Chaser, a ship of war, mounting 
20 guns, six pounders, charged with dispatches from the Isle 
of France for the French commander in chief. The Medea 
immediately proceeded to Madras, and dispatched the Chaser 
from thence to Bombay, where the British fleet still coa* 
tinued. with an account that a French armament was on the 
Coromandel coast on the 23d of January. 

The Earl of Macartney, who was then Governor of Fort 
St. George, having received intelligence that three large 
storeships belonging to theenemy, and artnee enjlute^ were then 
at Goudelour, or Cuddalore as the English term it, a French 
settlement distant about twenty-eight leagues from Madras, 
he immediately communicated this intelligence to Captain 
Gower, who put to sea the same evening, notwithstanding 



OF SIRBRASMUS GOWBK9 KNIOHn ^69 

his bompIeAent of officers and seamen was very much re- 
duced in consequence of his having in great measure manned 
the Chaser. He had laid his plan with much care and pre^ 
caution, hoping that he should be able to get up with the 
enemy before daylight, and make himself master at least of one 
of them before he should be heard of, or discovered. The 
whole of the plan, however, was unfortunately frustrated by 
the failure of the wind. The Medea, therefore, sbelteied 
herself near the coast during the whole day, and the time 
was consumed in assiduously attempting to disguise and 
disfigure the vessel in such a manner that its real charader 
and condition should not be discovered by the enemy. In 
this projeA also Captain Gower had the misfortune to be 
disappointed. The enemy received intelligence of every 
circumstance that occurred, but ignorant of this, and con« 
sidering himself perfectly secure, he again made sail as soon 
as it became dark. The wind failed a second time, and 
the Medea was more than three miles distant from the road 
of Cuddalore at the dawn of the day. 

Instead of finding three ships in the road, as the information 
promised^ there remained but one, apparently a very large 
vessel, having her topsails loose, and with every other indica* 
tion of being prepared to put to sea. She had a complete tier of 
lower-deck ports hauled up, and was at anchor with springs 
on her cables under the protedion of the forts \ the vessel had 
Dutch colours hoisted, and began to fire at the Medea the 
instant she arrived within gun-shot. The situation of the 
frigate was critical, the enterprise was extremely arduous^ 
and nothing but the greatest and most prompt exertions 
could render success even probable. 

To have attacked the enemy according to the previously 
proposed plan, by running' on board her, and entering 
a sufficient number of men, appeared not only dan^ 
gerous but impradicable, first, on account of the high 
state of preparation in'which the ship of the enemy appeared^ 
and secondly, from her extreme loftiness or elevation above 
the surface of the water. It was therefore resolved, as the 



27« BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIXS 

only method that could be adopted, desperate as it appeared, 
to run between the forts and the ship, receiving the joint 
fire of both at the same time. The shore was so bold and the 
objeA of attack lay so near to the batteries, that the shot from 
the latter went through both sides of the Medea ; she re- 
lerved her fire till she got abreast of the enemy's ship, and 
dropped anchor close to her so as to preserve that situation : 
then for the first time did Captain Gower commence his 
cannonade, which was well direfted, and kept up with so 
much animation, that in a very short time vidory declared 
itself completely in his favour. 

The enemy was instantly boarded, and the cables of both 
ship^ being immediately cut, thoy ran out into the OfEng, till 
tliey were so far distant from the forts as to be under no 
apprehensions whatever from their fire. ' Here they again 
came to anchor in order to arrange, and set matters to rights 
in the best manner circumstances would admit of. The 
prize proved to be the Vryheid, a Dutch East India ship, 
pierced for 64 guns, but having no more than 3a mounted. 
She had brought a cargo of ordnance stores to Cuddalorcy 
and was to have quitted it on the very day she was captured^ 
being bound for Trincomale in the Island of Ceylon. .The 
lower masts and bowsprit which formerly belonged to a 
French ship of the line, that had been stranded and lost hear 
Pondicherry, were secured alongside; the lower -deck guns and 
carriages were some of them on the lower deck of the prise, 
the remainder were in the hold, and those guns with their 
carriages, were fortunately as well fitted and adapted to the 
ports of the prize as though they had been purposely intended 
for her. 

This circumstance would have rendered the Vryheid com* 
pletely efieftive as a ship of the line the instant the guns 
were run out of the ports : it was even intended she should 
have joined the French fleet and been stationed as a vessel 
of that class, so that the loss of her must have been 
much felt by the enemy. The merit of the foregoing transr 
a£lion, independent of the great inferiority of the Medea's 



or SIR EtASMXJS GOWF.Ry KNIOHT* ^Jt 

force in comparison with that of her sntagonht, and the 
peculiar circumstances and disadvantages under which she 
was compelled to commence her attack, was considerably 
heightened by the disadvantage of a very short compleaieat^ 
the first lieutenant, together with thirty of the best seameuy 
having been dispatched to Bombay, as already related^in the 
Chaser. 

The crew had experienced a scarcely less consequential 
diminution, owing to the master, the boatswain, the gunner* 
and many other persons belonging to the ship, being ashore at 
Madras when the intelligence was received : notwithstanding 
which Captain Gower resolved to put to sea without tbein, 
fearing that if he used not the utmost expedition, the enemy 
might receive intelligence of his inteiftion at Cuddalore. 
Wliat must be the anxiety of a commander in so trying a 
situation with so reduced a number of men ? He had ta 
navigate a ship which was three times the burden of thati 
he commanded, in addition to his own s he had more than 
one hundred prisoners io guard, and was to effeft his pas- 
sage into Madras Road against the monsoon, with a Frencli 
fleet to windward of him upon the same coast. The only 
officer that continued in the Medea, exclusive of Captain 
Gower himself, was the Lieutenant of Marines, so that 
these two gentlemen were obliged to take watch and watch 
during the whole passage, which continued five days, and 
Captain Gower hiaiself is said to have scarcely quitted the 
deck for the whole time. 

The conduft of this gentleman on the occasion just men** 
tioned, as well as his former services, were considered so highly 
meritorious that the Governor and Presidency of Fort St* 
George requested Sir Edward Hughes, the naval commander 
in chief, to convey to him their sincere tlianks ; and the 
Lords of the Admiralty themselves, as soon as they became 
acquainted with the different circumstances which attended 
the transadlion, were equally forward in shewingsimilar mavks 
of approbation with regard to Captain Gower himself, to- 
gether with the officers and people whom he led to viftory. 



tjt BIOORAPHICAL MBUOI&I 

The prize^ through the possession of which he had verf 
justly acquired so much honour, got safe to Madras, where 
the captors were offered the sum of thirty-six thousand 
pounds for the hull and furniture> but Captain Gower fear- 
ing that the proposed purchasers intended, through the 
noxious medium of a neutral power, to resell the vessel im- 
mediately to the enemy, who at that time stood grievously 
in need of some reinforcement, most patriotically rejefied 
the personally advantageous offer. It was then proposed to 
him, that he should permit the vessel to proceed to Bengal 
and bring back a cargo of rice; for this voyage 6ooo/. were 
offered, with a farther proposal, that as the French fleet was 
then in the neighbourhood, the sum which had been before 
offered for the purchase of the vessel, should be paid to the 
captors in case she was unfortunate enough to fall into the 
hands of the enemy, or meet with any other untoward ac- 
cident. 

All these offers also were peremptorily rejefted on the 
instant they were made, through an apprehension of the 
tame insidious kind of contrivance which Captain Gower 
was fearful of in th? former instance. An account of these 
different offers, together with a description of the vessel 
herself, were immediately conveyed both by sea and land, 
for the purpose of more effeftually securing their arrival, to 
Sir Edward Hughes. It was accompanied by a declaration 
of Captain Gower's opinion, that the vessel in question 
was in every respcA properly adapted for his Majesty's ser- 
vice, and that in consequence of that idea, he would continue 
to decline any proposal whatever that might be made for 
the purchase of it till the pleasure of the commander in 
chief should be fully known. The ship continued for three 
months after this in the' possession of the captors, when a 
squadron of French ships having stood into the Road of Ma-> 
dras, merely with a view of insulting that port, and fired a few 
shot at the different vessels whichi were anchored there, they 
themselves continuing under sail the whole time, the people 
on board the prize were so strongly apprehensive that the at* 



OV SIR BRA8MVS GQWBR> KNIOHT* 875 

tSuck of the enemy was principally intended against their vcs- 
telf which was the only one in the road that appeared worthy 
the attention of a foe, that they accordingly veered away the 
cable in the hope of preserving her by getting nearer to the 
shore. 

The appreliension probably was groundless, but the mea* 
sure taken for her preservation was certainly fetah The 
ship unfortunately got into the surf and was totally lost. 
Thus did the brave captors, owing to their over zeal for the 
service, lose that valuable and well*earned pecuniary re- 
ward which their gallantry so justly merited. Previous to 
the loss of the Vryheid, the Medea had on the 5th of Fe- 
bruary very narrowly escaped being captured by the French 
Reel herself, when they were on their passage from the 
Ganjatn to the southward ; though nearly surrounded she 
was, however, fortunate enough to tScSt her escape. On 
the i6th of March she, for the third time, experienced a 
similar instance of good fortune off* Pondicherry. Two 
French frigates, under cover of the night and a thick haze 
which then prevailed, got within bail of the Medea before 
they were discovered. 

Early in the month of May following, owing to the great 
exertions which the French were then making, it became 
natural to expe£t that an action must inevitably take place 
between the two fleets, and as the British force consisted at 
^that time of eighteen sail of the line, divided into three 
squadrons, under an Admiral and two Commodores, it was 
strongly recommended to Sir Edward Hughes that he should 
appoint an additional or first captain to his own ship, by way 
•of lessening that fatigue of body and mind which he must of 
necessity undergo in case of an a^ion, as having so exten- 
sive a command to attend to. This honourable station was 
accordingly offered, as is customary on such occasions, to 
several of the senior Captains ; they declined it in the hand- ' 
^somest manner, and at the same time unanimously joined 
in lecomniending Captain Gower, as the fittest person to 
take upon him so important a trust and office. 

Ool. IV. ^ n 



£74 BIOGRAPHICAL MBM«IRt 

The arrangement was made accordingly^! but tlie appoint- 
ment did not aAually take place> owing to the extreme deli* 
cacy of the commander in chief, who, notwithstanding the 
arduous task which presented itself to him, hesitated to 
comply with his own wishes and inclination, as well as those 
of every person under his orders, because he did not aftually 
command at the time that* sufficient number of ships which^ 
according to the rules of the service, would have rendered 
such a measure a mere matter of course. 
• • From the 13th to the 21st of June, both fleets were 
manoeuvred in sight of each other, in tlie mutual hope of 
being able to seize some moment and opportunity pecu- 
liarly favourable to attack ; an aAion certainly appeared 
unavoidable, but the enemy, though they possessed tlie 
weather-gage, not thinking even that advantage sufficieoC 
to warrant their hazarding an a£tion, appeared to decline a 
contest till some occasion additionally favourable, should 
pccur. Under these circumstances the engi^ement was de« 
ferred till the' evening of the if St. During the whole of the 
period in which the two fleets had been in sight of each 
other, the Medea had been uniformly employed during the 
night in watching the motions of Monsieur de Sufl^rein* 

* The service was of the most iropo^nt nature, and the risk 
proportionably great. 1 he squadron of the enemy was ex- 
tremely alert, and the Medea from her situation wasj un« 
avoidably, in hourly danger of being captured. 

The unfortunate adion which followed the exertions just 
mentioned, was produdive of what the eqemy had never, 
before that time, been fortunate enough to acquire in any 
part of the world^^an advantage over the British fleet with a 
force evidently inferior. This unprecedented event was 
occasioned riot only by the bad condition of several ships 
which composed the British fleet, but also by the dreadful 

• sickness and mortality which then prevailed among the 
•crews* The disgrace at least, for the enemy reaped no ad- 
vantage whatever but the honour of having obliged the 
British to decline all fifuther contesti might have been hap- 



OF 9I& BRASMU9 CaW£R, KNIGHT. IJf 

pily prevented had the intelligence that the articles ;of peace 
were signed, arrived fram England within the time generally 
required to convey it from thence. But though private 
accounts and newspapers, which had reached India over* 
land before the aftion took place, all agreed in asserting the 
same event, yet the official account that tranquillity was re- 
established between the contending nations, did not reach 
Madras till the 31st of August following* 

1 his interesting intelligence was brought by his Majesty's 
ship Crocodile, and pending her arrival no inconsiderable 
share of address and management had been necessary to 
induce M* de Bussy, who then held the supreme command 
of the French naval force in that country, to consent to a 
truce before the pleasing intelligence was officially confirmed. 
His hesitation and demur was the natural consequence of the 
kte advantage which his countrymen had obtained by sea^ 
and the successes which had, for a short time preceding, at* 
tended their land operations also in the same quarter. So 
that good fortune naturally gave birth to the most imperious 
assumption which haughty pride could diftate. 

The probability of peace being, however, established, the 

 

Medea was ordered. to be dismantled early in the month of 
July, and being converted into a flag of truce, was ordered to 
convey a part of the Council of Fort St. George up to Cud* 
dalore, for the purpose of treating with General de Bussy 
as to the farther terms of pacification. Captain Gower being 
commissioned by Sir Edward Hughes to ad in the same 
capacity, with regard to the naval department, between him- 
self and Monsieur de SufTrein. A common newspaper, 
which had reached India from Europe, was the roost au- 
thentic document which Captain Gower possessed in proof 
of the treaty of peace being concluded in Europe ; but he 
contrived with the best address to carry his point and pre« 
vent any recommencement of hostilities. This delicate and 
interesting business being concluded, he was next employed 
in negotiating the exchange of prisoners^ a species of 



26z BIOGRAPHICAL MBAfOIRf « 

Btreogth amovnted . only to two sloops of war, with their 
crews,, to  whom were added Mr. Gower and his fellow- 
siifficrer€> who had served on board the Swift* 
• Almost iipmediatcly after the violent measure just men- 
tioned had been taken^ the Favourite sloop was dispatched 
home to England with the interesting intelligence^ and Mr. 
/Gowef) together with the. crew of the Swift, Jtook their pas- 
sage on' board her ;i it was extremely prosperous and speedy, 
that vessel ha;ving arrived at the Motherbankon the 22d of 
fieptembcr,- afOfJa voyage of severity days. Mr. Gower 
tTonTinued <unehiployed after his arriyai till tiie appointment 
of Sir George Rodntoy to the Jamaica command) which took 
.place in the year ensuing. : 

> : An instanqe of. the ill luck» witfa.respefl to promotiont 
wbicli'iattended Mr. Gower on this occasion, is of too sia* 
gular a nature to be passed over unnoticed. He was ap- 
pointed second lieutenant of the Princess Amelia, which was 
the ship of the commander in chief, so that he consequently 
might be considered in the direft.and certain channel for 
advancement. At the time Sir George first hoisted his 
flag, the late Sir Robert Harland was on the point of pro- 
ceeding to the East Indies as commander in; chief of a 
squadron ordered thitherto watch t^he motions of the French, 
•The present Sir John Colpoys, Vice- Admiral of the Red 
Squadron, was at that time third lieutenant of the Nor- 
thumberland, and being ordered out with a party to press 
men for the purpose of manning the squadron, an affray 
took place, in consequence of which a man unfortunately 
lost his life. 

• It then becoming necessary, pro forma^ that the conduct 
of Lieutenant Colpoys should be legally investigated, he was 
obliged to remain in England for that purpose, and a pro- 
posal was made to Mr. Gower, that he should exchange 
situations, as the trial would be over in sufficient time to 
permit Mr. Colpoys to proceed with Sir George Rodney, 
who was not quite ready for sea, to the West Indies, while 
on the other hand, the detention would prevent his accom- 



OF SIE I&A8I1U8 GOWBR9 KNIGHT. 25j 

panying Sir Robert to the East. The chance of promotion 
which Mr. Gowcr possessed in his own station, being 
ostensibly so much superior to that which was offered himi 
he naturally rejefted the proposal, and Mr, Colpoys, soon 33 
the trial was over,' followed his Admiral, having taken hi9 
passage on board an Indiaman. The event, however, proved 
diredUy contrary to human foresight, one vacancy only hapr 
pened on the West India station during the whole time of 
Mr, Gower's absence. He consequently experienced no 
farther advancement than from thestatioi^ of second to that of 
first lieutenant, while .Mr. Colpoys had the good fortune in 
the same interval of time to be advanced to tlie rank of Post 
Captain, by commission bearing date August 25, 1773, ap* 
pointing him to the Admiral's ship the Northumberland. 

Mr. Gower of course returned to England a lieutenant, 
and not having obtained promotion, was obliged to remain 
inactive on half-pay till the month of March 1775. He was 
then appointed first lieutenant of the Levant frigate, com- 
manded by Captain George Murray, uncle to the present 
Duke of AthoL He sailed on the 4th of June following, 
and continued during the space of nearly four years on the 
Mediterranean station, under the progressive commands of 
Vice- Admiral Man and Rear- Admiral DuiF. The Levant 
was, after the commencement of the American war, ex- 
tremely successful, having captured so considerable a number 
of prizes, that few vessels, perhaps, have ever quitted 
a station with more ec/at respefting herself, and more regret 
from the officers and other persons concerned, who derived 
advantage from her good fortune, and the adtivity of her 
people. 

The Levant having been ordered to England in 1779, 
was sent immediately after her arrival, with many other in- 
ferior ships and vessels, under the command of Captain 
Murray, over to Helvoetsluys. The objeft of this errand 
was to escort from thence the packet on board which tlie 
present Dutchess of Devonshire, with many other personages 



i64 tidoftA^niCAL iitMOifti 

of high rank, had embarked, and whose passage was ivndered 
somewhat precariousi on account of the many ships belong- 
ing to the enemy which then swarmed in tiie. North Sea. 
The Levant) bowettr» was prevented from executing this 
service by a contrary wind* 

Sir George Rodney, the former friend and patron of Mn 
Gowerf received about this time his well-known appoint- 
ment to the chief command on the West India station, and 
immediately chose Mr. Gower to be his first lieutenant on 
board the Sandwich* The licet, with a considerable number 
of merchant vessels under its proteAion, sailed the latter end 
of December, and on the 8th of January had the good for- 
tune to fill in with a Spanish convoy belonging to the Royal 
Company of Caraccas, bound from St. Sebastian's to Cadiz* 
Of twenty-seven sail which composed this fleet, twenty-six 
were captured, seven of vAich were armed, and completely 
fitted according to their different rates, as ships and vessels 
of war* The Commodore's ship, called the Guipuscoan^ 
mounted 64 guns, and being deemed in every respe£l fit 
for service, was immediately commissioned by Sir George 
as a British ship of the line, and called the Prince Wil- 
liam, Mr. Gpwer being appointed her Captain. 

This commission being confirmed without hesitation by 
the Admiralty, Mr. Gower, as some recompence for those 
manifold disappointments he had before experienced, escaped 
passing through the intermediate rank of commander of a 
sloop of war, a circumstance very unusual in the service. 

Qn the x6th of the same month in which Captain Gower 
met with that well .deserved advancement just mentioned, 
the memorable ad ion took place off Cape St. Vincent be- 
tween the ^ritsb fleet and the Spanish armament, commanded 
by Don Juan de Langara, an event so recent as not to require 
any fartlier account than what has been already given in t^e 
Memoir of Lord Rodney, more particularly as the Prince 
William was not fortunate enough to have any interesting 
share in the aftion. 



OF tIR BRASMVS •OWBK^ KITIGMTi. s6; 

The fleet soon afterwards reached Gibraltar with the 
prizes it had so successfully made, and efFeduaily relieved . 
that fortress from the famine-like distress which the hostr* 
titles with the Court of Spain, and the close blockade cbi^se*'*' 
quent to them had necessarily occasioned. During the con- 
tinuance of the fleet in Gibraltar Bay Captain Gower was re« 
moved first into the Porcupine, of 24 guns, secondly into 
the Enterprise of 28 i and lastly, on the 14th df February 
1780, into the Edgar, of 74, as Captain under Cbmrhodortt 
Elliot, who hoisted his broad pendant on board that ship, 
being left behind the fleet as commander in chief of a small 
force which it was supposed would assist in the defence of the 
fortress. 

It being experimentally found, after a few months con- 
tiniiance there, that to persist in the same measure, was to 
render so fine a ship nearly useless, ' Commodore Elliot 
returned to England. Captain Cower continued in the 
same command, sometimes serving under the Co'nlmo- 
dore himself, and during his absence, commanding ""the 
Edgar as a cruiser or a: {Private ship in the channel 
fleet, till the year 1 781, when Mr. Elliot having >strudc 
his broad pendant and resumed his station of a private 
Captain, Mr. Gower of necessity quitted the Edgar, and 
continued till the month of 'November 1781, on half- 
pay. He was then appointed Captain of the Medea, a 
frigate, of 29 ^uns, under orders to join the squadron 
fitting out for the East Indies, tinder the tomAiaild of 
Commodore Sir R. Bickerton; Accidents, however, pre* 
vented Captain Gower froAi joining his companions, 
and he accordingly proteeded alone as far as Rio JUneirO 
on the coast of Brazil, where he met with the Sc^ptrcy 
of 64 guns, one oP the ships composing* the same arma- 
ment. Aft^r continuing at the same port for six weeks^ 
in daily expefVation that the squadron which bad bailed from 
England thnee'days befbre the Medea^ would arrive, tl»e two 
.chips proceeded to India in company ; when on their passagei 
in doubling the Cape of Good Hope, the Medea captotedi 

tmoL IV. M M 



t66 BIOGRAPHICAL MIMOIRS 

on the list of May 1782, a large French ordnance storeship, 
bound also to India. This vessel had parted company only 
on the preceding day from several others of the same de« 
scription, under convoy of a small squadron of ships of war. 
The prize proved so dull a sailer as tp retard very consi* 
derably the passage of Captain Gowerj the Medea being 
obliged to take her in tov^, and continue that measure with- 
out interruption till they jointly arrived at Madras, the 
passage thither was accordingly prolonged to no less a space 
of time than four months. But the tediousness and diffi-> 
culty of this operation was fully compensated by the injury 
the enemy sustained from the capture, not only in the in* 
trinsic value of the cargo, but tlie grievous necessity they 
were under for a considerable part of those articles which 
composed it. The first service in which the Medea was 
employed subsequent to her arrival in India, was to attend 
the army, which was then on the point of proceeding under 
the command of General Sir Eyre Coote, on the expedition 
sent against Pondicherry. This event took place in tlie 
month of September, and the season of the year made it a 
task of the greatest difficulty to fulfil the orders 

Captain Gower, according to his instru£lions, used every 
possible endeavour to reach Pondicherry by a limited day. 
His exertion was peculiarly necessary, for the soldiery had not 
been able to carry with them more than a very limited pro- 
portion of provision from Madras, and the monsoon, 
which then blew contrary. to the Medea's intended course, 
threatened very powerfully to impede and prolong her pas- 
sage. What then must have been the fate of those troop.<;, 
had he not resorted to extraordinary means for their sup- 
port? To have waited for the storeships and vessels which 
he was ordered to proteA, would but have increased his 
difficulties and his delay ; to quit them was dangerous ; but 
the special emergency determined him to adopt the latter 
measure. He communicated to the General his opinion of 
the small chance there was of his arrival at the place of his 
destination by the liqiited time, provided he was not freed 
from his incumbrance ; but as. the safety of the lyhole army 



OF SIR BRA8MUS GOWER, KNlCUT. 267 

depended oh at least a partial succour. Captain Gower under- 
took to relieve their most pressing necessities by converting 
the Medea herself into a storeship, and leaving the convoy 
to creep along shore, that it might seize all favourable op- 
portunities of proceeding on its route* 

In order to accomplish the important service be had 
undertaken, he himself, his officers, and all his crew, were 
obliged to forego every accommodation, and repose them- 
selves in the best manner they could on the deck itself. 
The cabins, the decks, in short the whole ship, was com- 
j)letely filled with rice, or other articles of the first necessity, 
and through the most diligent exertions, adually arrived at 
her place of destination before she was expe£ted. The ex- 
pedition, however, was unfortunately obliged to be laid aside, 
in consequence of the commander in chief becoming so 
indisposed as to be totally incapable of assuming the com- 
mand, and the officer next in point of rank was under the 
necessity of returning to Madras with the troops* 
. On the 29th of September, the Medea was ordered to 
Bengal, having the General, Sir Eyre Coote, on board as a 
passenger, that change of air being considered as indispensa- 
bly necessary to the recovery of his health. Captain Gower 
was ordered to remain afterwards on the coast of Coro* 
mandel, for the better protefiion of the coasting trade during 
the continuance of the south*west monsoon ; the British 
fleet having proceeded to Bombay in order to avoid that 
tempestuous weather to which the former coast is so ex- 
tremely liable during the three months then ensuing. 

Early in the month of January 1783, the French fleet, 
which was then under the command of the Count de Suf- 
frein, anchored in Ganjara road, one of the northern set- 
tlements on the coast of Coromandel. The Chef d'Escadrc 
intended to continue there for seme time in the hope not 
only of being able to intercept and disturb the British com* 
snerce, but of effefting some depredation or confusion 
among the settlements in that quarter, and Captain Gower 
entertaining not the most distant idea that the enemy were 



t6$ BIOOEAPHIQAL MBMOl&S 

e¥«n in those 8eas> the Medea came to an anchor a little way 
Tvithout them. The night was foggy, but notwithstanding 
the haze, the British frigate was visible from the French 
fleet, in consequence of the latter . being under the land. 
SufFrein being well assured that she did not belong to his 
squadron, very vigilantly formed bis plan for securing her 
the next morning. 

Great indeed was th^ astonishment of Captain Gower and 
his people when they discovered^ on the approach of dzjy 
several ships moving towards them, while the appearance of 
others in the of&ng, which had been detached thither during 
tlie night, .appeared totally to preclude all possibility of es- 
cape. The Medea being, however, a very swift sailer, and 
extremely well managed, was fortunate enough to effeft 
her escape, though at one time within cannpn-shot of the 
ships which were in chase of her, and her capture was con- 
sidered by the pursued, as well as the pursuers, inevitable* 

On the i6th of tlie same month (January) the Medea was 
agaih chased by a French cruiser, but as the vessel did not 
appear larger than a frigate. Captain Gower ordered the ship 
to be put about, and stood for hen He brought the enemy 
to a£tion in the evening, and after a contest of eighteen 
minutes, had the pleasure of seeing his antagonist surrender* 
The prize proved to be the Chaser, a ship of war, mounting 
20 guns, six pounders, charged with dispatches from the Isle 
of France for the French commander in chief* The Medea 
immediately proceeded to Madras, and dispatched the Chaser 
from thence to Bombay, where the British fleet still coa* 
tinued. with an account that a French armiUnent was on the 
Coromandel coast on the 23d of January. 

The Earl of Macartney, who was then Governor of Fort 
St. Gtorge, having received intelligence that three large 
storeships belonging to the enemy, and armee enjlutfj were then 
at Goudeiour, or Cuddalore as the English term it, a French 
settlement distant about twenty-eight leagues from Madras, 
he immediately communicated this intelligence to Captain 
Gower, who put to sea the same eveningi notwithstanding 



OP 8lft-BRASMU8 GOWS&t KHIOHT* «6f 

hU tompledaent of officers and seamen was very much re- 
duced in consequence of his having in great measure mannect 
the Chaser. He had laid his plan with much care and pre^ 
caution, hoping that he should be, able to get up with the 
enemy before daylight, and make himself master at least of one 
of them before he should be heard of» or discovered. The 
whole of the plan, however, was unfortunately frustrated by 
the failure of the wind. The Medea, therefore, sheltered 
herself near the coast during the whole day, and the time 
was consumed in assiduously attempting to disguise and 
disfigure the vessel in such a manner that its real charader 
and condition should not be discovered by the enemy. In 
this project also Captain Gower had the misfortune to be 
disappointed. The enemy received intelligence of every 
circumstance that occu'rreds but ignorant of this, and con« 
iidering himself perfeftly secure, he again made sail as soon 
as it became dark. The wind failed a second time, and 
the Medea was more than three miles distant from the road 
of Cuddalore at the dawn of the day. 

Instead of finding three ships in the road, as the information 
promised, there remained but one, apparently a very large 
vessel, having her topsails loose, and with every other indica* 
ijon of being prepared to put to sea. She had a complete tier of 
lower-deck ports hauled up, and was at anchor with springs 
on her cables under the proteAion of the forts \ the vessel had 
Dutch colours hoisted, and began to fire at the Medea the 
instant she arrived within gun-shot. The situation of the 
frigate was critical, the enterprise was extremely arduous^ 
and nothing but the greatest and most prompt exertions 
could render success even probable. 

To have attacked the enemy according to the previously 
proposed plan, by running' on board her, and entering 
a sufficient number of men, appeared not only dan-r 
gerous but impraifticable, first, on account of the high 
state of preparation in^which the ship of the enemy appeared^ 
and secondly, from her extreme loftiness or elevation above 
the surface of the water. It was therefore resolved, as the 



27« BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOrXS 

onlj method that could be adopted, desperate as it appeared, 
to run between the forts and the ship» receiving the joint 
fire of both at the same time. The shore was so bold and the 
objeA of attack lay so near to the batteries, that the shot from 
the latter went through both sides of the Medea ; she re- 
vtrved her fire till she got abreast of the enemy's ship, and 
dropped anchor close to her so as to preserve that situation : 
then for the first time did Captain Gower' commence his 
cannonade, which was well direfted, and kept up with so 
much animation, that in a very short time victory declared 
itself completely in his fiivour. 

The enemy was instantly boarded, and the cables of both 
ship^ being immediately cut, thoy ran out into the 6ffing, till 
tliey were so far distant from the forts as to be under no 
apprehensions whatever from their fire. Here they again 
came to anchor in order to arrange, and set matters to rights 
in the best manner circumstances would admit of. The 
prize proved to be the Vryheid, a Dutch East India ship, 
pierced for 64 guns, but having no more than 32 mounted. 
She had brought a cargo of ordnance stores to Cuddalore^ 
and was to have quitted it on the very day she was captured, 
being bound for Trincomale in the Island of Ceylon. The 
lower masts and bowsprit which formerly belonged to a 
French ship of the line, that had been stranded and lost hear 
Pondicherry, were secured alongside; the lower -deck guns and 
carriages were some of them on the lower deck of the prize, 
the remainder were in the hold, and those guns with their 
carriages, were fortunately as well fitted and adapted to the 
ports of the prize as though they had been purposely intended 
for her. 

This circumstance would have rendered the Vryheid com. 
plctely effeAive as a ship of the line tlie instant the guns 
were run out of the ports : it was even intended she should 
have joined the French fleet and been stationed as a vessel 
of that class, so that the loss of her must have been 
much felt by the enemy. The merit of the foregoing transr 
a£iion, independent of the great inferiority of the Medea's 



OF SIR EtASMXJS GOWF.R, KNIGHT, 9jt 

force in comparison with that of her antagonist, and the 
peculiar circumstances and disadvantages under which she 
was compelled to commence her attack, was considerably 
heightened by the disadvantage of a very short complemeAt^ 
the first lieutenant, together with thirty of the best seamen^ 
having been dispatched to Bombay, as already related, in the 
Chaser. 

The crew had experienced a scarcely less consequential 
diminution, owing to the master, the boatswain, the gunner, 
and many other persons belonging to the ship, being ashore at 
Madras when the intelligence was received : notwithstanding 
which Captain Gower resolved to put to sea without them, 
fearing that if he used not the utmost expedition, the enemy 
might receive intelligence of his inteifkion at Cuddalore. 
What must be the anxiety of a commander in so trying a 
situation with so reduced a number of men ? He had to 
navigate a ship which was three times the burden of thati 
be commanded, in addition to his own ; he had more than 
one hundred prisoners to guard, and was to effeA his pas- 
sage into Madras Road against the monsoon, with a Frencti 
fleet to windward of him upon the same coast. The only 
ofEcer that continued in the Medea, exclusive of Captain 
Gower himself, was the Lieutenant of Marines, so that 
these two gentlemen were obliged to take watch and watch 
during the whole passage, which continued five days, and 
Captain Gower hiir.scif is said to have scarcely quitted the 
deck for the whole time. 

The conduft of this gentleman on the occasion just men-^ 
tioned, as well as his former services, were considered so highly 
meritorious that the Governor and Presidency of Fort St. 
George requested Sir Edward Hughes, the naval commander 
in chief, to convey to him their sincere tJianks ; and the 
Lords of the Admiralty themselves, as soon as they became 
acquainted with the different circumstances which attended 
the transadlion, were equally forward in shewingsimilar mavks 
of approbation with regard to. Captain Gower himself, to- 
gether with the officers and people whom he led to vidory. 



tjt llOGRirHlCAL MBMOIftt 

The prize, through the possession of which he had verf 
justly acquired so much honour, got safe to Madras, where 
the captors were ofiered the sum of thirty^six thousand 
pounds for the hull and furniture, but Captain Gower fear« 
ing that the proposed purchasers intended, through the 
noxious medium of a neutral power, to resell the vessel im« 
mediately to the enemy, who at that time stood grievously 
in need of some reinforcement, most patriotically rejefied 
the personally advantageous offer. It was then proposed to 
him, that he should permit the vessel to proceed to Bengal 
and bring back a cargo of rice ; for this voyage 6ooo/. were 
offered, with a farther proposal, that as the French fleet was 
then in the neighbourhood, the sum which had been before 
offered for the purchase of the vessel, should be paid to the 
captors in case she was unfortunate enough to fall into the 
hands of the enemy, or meet with any other untoward ac- 
cident. 

All these offers also were peremptorily rejefted on the 
instant they were made, through an apprehension of the 
same insidious kind of contrivance which Captain Gower 
was fearful of in th^ former instance. An account of these 
different offers, together with a description of the vessel 
herself, were immediately conveyed both by sea and land, 
for the purpose of more effeftually securing their arrival^ to 
Sir Edward Hughes. It was accompanied by a declaration 
of Captain Gower's opinion, that the vessel in question 
was in every respeft properly adapted for his Majesty's ser- 
vice, and that in consequence of that idea, he would continue 
to decline any proposal whatever that might be made for 
the purchase of it till the pleasure of the commander in 
chief should be fully known. The ship continued for three 
months after this in the possession of the captors, when a 
squadron of French ships having stood into the Road of Ma- 
dras, merely with a view of insolting that port, and fired a few 
shot at the different vessels which were anchored there, they 
themselves continuing under sail tlie whole time, the people 
on board the prize were so strongly apprehensive that the at« 



or SIR BRA8MVS GOWEIt» KltlGHT. 2J$ 

tuck of the enemy was principally intended against their ves- 
sely which was the otily one in the road that appeared worthy 
the attention of a foe, that they accordingly veered away the 
cable in the hope of preserving her by getting nearer to the 
shore. 

The appreliension probably was groundless, but the niea* 
sure taken fur her preservation was certainly fatal. The 
ship unfortunately got into the surf and was totally lost. 
Thps did the brave captors, owing to their over zeal for the 
service, lose that valuable and well-earned pecuniary re- 
ward which their gallantry so justly merited* Previous to 
the loss of the Vryheid, the Medea had on the 5th of Fc» 
bruary very narrowly escaped being captured by the French 
Heet herself, when they were on their passage from the 
Ganjam to the southward $ though nearly surrounded she 
was, however, fortunate enough to tScdt her escape. On 
the i6th of March she^ for the third time, experienced a 
similar instance of good fortune off Pondicherry. Two 
French frigates, under cover of the night and a thick haze 
which then prevailed, got within bail of the Medea before 
they were discovered. 

Early in the month of May following, owing to the great 
exertions which the French were then making, it became 
-natural to expeft that an a^ion must inevitably take place 
between the two fleets, and as the British force consisted at 
'that time of eighteen sail of the line, divided into three 
squadrons, under an Admiral and two Commodores» it was 
strongly recommended to Sir Edward Hughes that he should 
appoint an additional or first captain to his own ship> by way 
•of lessening that fatigue of body and mind which he must of 
necessity undergo in case of an a^ion, as having so exten- 
sive a command to attend to. This honourable station was 
accordingly offered, as is customary on such occasions, to 
several of the senior Captains; they declined it in the hand- 
*some8t manner, and at the same time unanimously joined 
in recommending Captain Gower, as the fittest person to 
take upon him so important a trust and office. 

mm. IV. K N 



S74 BlOQRAPHtCAL MBlf^IRt 

The arrangement was made accordingly^ but tlie appoint- 
ment did not aAualiy take place> owing to the extreme deli* 
cacy of the commander in chief, who, notwithstanding the 
arduous task which presented itself to him, hesitated to 
comply with his own wishes and inclination, as well as those 
of every person under his orders, because he did not adually 
command at the time that sufficient number of ships which^ 
according to the rules of the service, would have rendered 
such a measure a mere matter of course. 
• . From the 13th to the 21st of June, both fleets were 
manceuvred in sight of each other, in the mutual hope of 
being able to seize some moment and opportunity pecu- 
liarly favourable to attack ; an aAion certainly appeared 
unavoidable, but the enemy, though they possessed tlie 
weather*gage, not thinking even that advantage sufficient 
to warrant their hazarding an a£tion, appeared to decline a 
contest till some occasion additionally favourable, should 
pccur. Under these circumstances the engagement was de« 
ferred till the' evening of the iTst. During the whole of tlie 
period in which the two fleets had been in sight of each 
other, the Medea had been uniformly employed during the 
night in watching the motions of Monsieur de Suflrein* 
' The service was of the most important nature, and the risk 
proportionably great. 7'he squadron of the enemy was ex* 
tremely alert, and the Medea from her situation wu, un« 
avoidably. In hourly danger of being captured. 

The unfortunate adion which folfowed the exertions just 
mentioned, was produAive of what the ei^emy had never, 
before that time, been fortunate enough to acquire in any 
part of the world^an advantage over the Bcitisli fleet with a 
force evidently inferior. This unprecedented event was 
occasioned riot only by the bad condition of several ships 
which composed the British fleet, but also by the dreadful 
sickness and mortality which then prevailed among the 
crews* The disgrace at least, for the enemy reaped no ad- 
vantage whatever but the honour of having obliged the 
British to decline all farther contest) might have been hap* 



OF SIR IRA9MU9 GOVER» KNIQHT. IJf 

pWj prevemed had the intelJigence that the articles ;of peace 
were signed, arrived from England within the time generally 
required to convey it from thence. But though private 
accounts and newspapers, which had reached India over* 
land before the a£tion took place, all agreed in asserting the 
tame event, yet the official account that tranquillity was re* 
established between the contending nations, did not reach 
Madras till the 31st of August following. 

l^his interesting intelligence was brought by his Majesty's 
ship Crocodile, and pending her arrival no inconsiderable 
share of address and management had been necessary to 
induce M. de fiussy, who then held the supreme command 
of the French naval force in that country, to consent to a 
truce before the pleasing intelligence was officially confirmed. 
His hesitation and demur was the natural consequence of the 
kte advantage which his countrymen had obtained by seat 
and the successes which had, for a short time preceding, at* 
tended their land operations also in the same quarter. So 
that good fortune naturally gave birth to the most imperious 
assumption which banghty pride could diftate* 

The probability of peace being, however, established, the 
Medea was ordered to be dismantled early in the month of 
July, and being converted into a flag of truce, was ordered to 
convey a part of the Council of Fort St. George up to Cud* 
dalore, for the purpose of treating with General de Bussy 
as to the farther terms of pacification. Captain Gower being 
commissioned by Sir Edward Hughes to a£t in the same 
capacity, with regard to the naval department, between him* 
self and Monsieur de SufFrein. A common newspaper, 
which had reached India from Europe, was the most au- 
thentic document which Captain Gower possessed in proof 
of the treaty of peace being concluded in Europe ; but he 
contrived with the best address to carry liis point and pre« 
vent any recommencement of hostilities. This delicate and 
interesting business being concluded, he was next employed 
in negotiating the exchange of prisoners, a species of 



176 BIOORAYHICAL MBIIOIftS 

diplomatic occupation in which he was equally as successfot 
as he had been in the former instance. 

On the 8th of September he sailed from India in the 
Medea, being chosen by the commander in chief to be the 
bearer of his duplicate dispatches for the Admiralty Boards 
together with his letters for the Secretary of State ; the 
originals had been sent away three weeks before^ but the 
Medea having arrived at the Cape on. the 25th day of Ofto* 
ber she there overtook them. No material or interesting 
occurrence took place with regard to Captain Gower, who 
continued his voyage to England, till the 17th of December, 
when the Medea being off the Western Islands, had the mis- 
fortune to encounter a most dreadful gale of wind, in which 
she not only lost her main and mizen-masts, but was in 
other respefis so materially injured, as to be in the most 
perilous state. An event took place on this occasion which 
IS far too interesting, too instructive to mankind, in respcA 
to that providential care which so frequently snatches them 
from the very jaws of death, and preserves them safe and 
unhurt in the ^ midst of a myriad of surrounding perils, to 
be omitted in this place. 

At the time the masts went overboard there were thirty- 
six of the crew employed aloft, every man of whom were, as 
a natural consequence, instantly pr<ecipitated into the sea* 
but were all of them taken up without having sustained 
the smallest injury, one person only excepted. The ship 
being refitted as well as circumstances would permit, as soon 
as the gale bad in some degree moderated, she proceeded on 
her course to England, and had the good fortune to arrive 
at Spithead without having met with any other sinister 
accident, on the 7th of January 1784. Notwithstanding the 
delay occasioned by the misfortune just related, which had 
so nearly proved fatal to Captain Gower and all his crew, 
he had the satisfadlion to find that he preceded the original 
dispatches, which did not reach England till three weeks 
after bis arrival. }n 1785 Captain Gower had the honour 



Of aiR «rA8IIUs govbil^ knight. 277 

%f being nominated by die late Earl Howej at that time first 
Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty, to go to India with a 
broad pendant as senior officer of a squadron consisting of 
five ships of the line, but with only those emoluments at« 
tached to a Commodore who has not a Captain under him 
on board his own ship* 

Captain Gower was kept for a considerable time in a state 
of suspense, no equipment of the ships in question taking 
place. At length, Commodore Elliot being in 1786 ap- 
pointed governor and commander in chief on the New* 
foundland station, the solicitation made by the latter that 
Captain Gower would accompany him thither as his Captain, 
put an -end to the embarrassment. The Admiralty Board 
being immediately informed of the proposal consented to his 
accompanying his friend thither, and were more particu- 
larly induced to comply with the request, the service being 
considered so nearly allied to the home station as to afford 
an opportunity to the Board of recalling, and sending him. 
into any other quarter, provided it should be deemed ex* 
pedient and necessary at a notice extremely short. 

' An appearance, however, of some commotion or disturb- 
ance in the East Indies, rendered it expedient to send out an 
officer of higher rank in the service than that which Captain 
Gower then held, so that he continued in his* station, and 
continued to serve under Mr. Elliot, who was afterwards 
promoted to a flag, long as he himself retained his appoint- 
ment, which he did till the month of November 1788 ; 
when the Salisbury, 'which was the Admiral's ship, waia 
paid off. * During the time he was thus engaged, the id^ of 
sending out an ambassador to China had suggested itself to 
the British Government. It was after some debate and de- 
liberation positively determined on. Colonel Cathcart was 
the person at that time fixed upon to fill this diplomatic 
chara&er, and he having held various conversations with 
Captain Gower on the subjeA, conceived, from his manner 
Qf expressing himself, that the command of the ship intended 

4 



tyt BIOGRAPHICAL MCMOltt 

to be employed on that occasion, wauld be an appointmbtlt 
hj no means disagreeable to hiin. 

The business had proceeded ao far that the Vestal fngafes 
was ordered to be equipped for the service, and Captain 
Gower was not only nominated to the command, bvt a 
gentleman for whose nomination to the station of lieu« 
tenant under him ht had intended to solicit, received that 
commission. Affairs being in this situation it was resolved 
to send out a vessel (o Newfoundland, where Captain Gower 
then was, ih order that he might return to England^ and 
enter upon the duties of his funftion. 

Farther consideration caused, however, as much of the 
plan as related to Captain Gower to be abandoned. Such 
•xpedition was used in fitting the ship, that it was found 
she would be ready for sea long before he could return to 
England, and as it was conceived that nothing would con- 
tribute to the success of the plan so much as the prompt 
execution of it, lest other nations taking the alarm should 
use means to frustrate the intention, the aipbassador was 
induced, for the purpose of saving time, to consent to the 
appointment of another gentleman as Captain. It would 
ceruinly have been immaterial to relate this circumstance, had 
Bot the singularity of his commission in the same line of 
service five years afterwards, sanctioned the recital* Lord 
Macartney being then nominated ambassador to China, CapU 
Gower took, upon him the command of the Lion^ of 64 guns, 
which ship was ordered to be equipped for the purpose of 
conveying his Lordship to the scene of negotiation. 

Previous to his departure he was honoured by his Majesty 
with knighthood, as well, perhaps, in testimony of the sense 
which was entertained of those services which the objed of 
the honour had rendered to his country, as to stamp a 
consequence on the embassy itself. The Lion sailed in 
the month of OAober following, and proceeded to the Yellow 
Sea, distant from the city of Pekin, wheie the Emperor of 
China frequently xesides, about one hundred and twenty 



^ or sift B&AftUVS GOWBfty KMIGHT. Iff 

miles. On their outward yoyagr tbey called at Madeira, and 
the remarks made by this gentleman relative to their passs^ 
thither, with other particiUlars, are too interesting and cnriout 
to be omitted. 

All ships bound from Europe for the Island of Madeira irill dis- 
cover that their way is influenced by a current, or set from the 
Western Ocean Into the Bay» formed between Ushant and Cape 
Finisterre, and into the Mediterranean ; and as well as the observation# 
made by Captain Gower, in five visits to Madeira, could enable him 
to ascertain, that current should be estimated as setting south-east 
about eleven miles in fifty leagues. 

AH ships bound for the Island of Madeira should endeavour to 
Boake or steer for Porto-Santo» and then proceed for the Brazen Head^ 
or eastern point of the Road of Funchal, the capital of the island, by 
going between it and the Desertas, off the northernmost of which is 
a high rock that is frequently mistaken for a sail* The passage is 
about nine miles wide but without soundings, except in very deep 
water close to Madeira. The htitude of the Road is thirty-two de« 
grees, thirty-seven minutes, thirty seconds North, and the longitude^ 
ascertained by several eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter, and aa 
eclipse of the sun on the ^.th of June 17S8, is seventeen degree% 
thirty-five minutes West of Greenwich. The compass has eighteen 
degrees thirty-five minutes variation to the westward of the Pole. 
The tide flows, at the full and change of the moon, north- north west« 
and south-south-east ; spring tides rise perpendiculai4y seven feeu- 
The flood sets to the eastward* The regulations of the port nequire 
all ships, before, or iounedtately on anchoring, to send to acquaint 
the Governor of the Island with an account of what they are, and 
their reasons for stopping there* Men of war are not to send thdr 
boats to vessels coming into the Road, until they are visited by the 
pratique* boat, or boat whose business it is to inquire, lest any in* 
ft£doat disorder should be on board* The same is to be observed 
respe&ing vessels th^t are departing, which are not to be boarded 
after the visiting ofibxr has beea to search for natives leaving the 
Island clandesunely, and for prohibited goods. English men of war 
salute with thirteen guns, after receiving an assurance of the return of 
an equal number. 

Ships' boats may land on the beach during the summer months ; 
but when there is no landing of goods to make it necessary, it is better 
to be avoided at all seasons, both for the safety of the boats, which 
are driven by a vicdent surge upon a shingly shore, and for preventing 
the otnmoD meu from having the opportooity of frequenting the 



ltd BlOCRA^RtClL MEMOIRS 

dtsordcily houses In the neighhourbood of the beach^ and drinkiW 
the pernicious qpirituous liquors vended thereabouts. The landing 
near the Loo Rocky being defended from the surgCi is very safe and 
easy ; and though there are cottages near to it, the boats' people 
may be easily kept from them. Caution is necessaryi likewise* 
against the boats coming on boardi under pretence of selling fish, 
fowls, and vegetables, for their chief obje6l is the sale of the worst 
spirituous liquors, and often concealed goods. Fresh beef, water« 
and vegetables, are to be procured here for the ship's company, and 
are sent on board in boats belonging to the place. The British - 
Government allows the contrador five shillings a ton for water, and 
sixpence a pound for beef, for the use of the crews of his Majesty's 
ships of war. The contrad wine is of a weak quality, and will not 
keep; and the price is l61. for a ton, containing one hundred and 
twenty galloas. A fleet of twenty sail of men of war may be amply 
supplied with refreshments here, if their stay should not exceed ten 
days. 

The Road is open from the west to the south-south-east* The 
vnnds blow strongest here from south-west to south-east. Ships 
t>bliged to anchor in the winter in Funchal Road, should be very at. 
tentive to the dark gloomy appearance of the weather to the south- 
ward, with a swell setting in ; for it is>ery dangerous remaining at an« 
«hor with these prognostics. 

4 

The Lion proceeded afterwards to TcneriiFe, St. ]^Of one 
of the Cape de Verde islands, Rio Janeiro, the Capital of 
Brazil, the Tristan d'Acunha Islands, hardly ever touched 
at, and but little known by Europeans ; the extraordinary 
island of Amsterdam ; the Straits of Sunda, Banca, Formosa ; 
the eastern extremity of Asia; and lastly, the Yellow Sea* 
None of the navigation from Chusan to the extreme point of 
the voyage bad ever been traversed before by Europeans^ 
and as these enterprising men received no assistance what* 
ever from the Chinese, who were extremely astonished at the 
attempt, the particulars of this tedious passage cannot fail to 
prove extremely interesting. 

The YeDow Sea is bounded by China, Tartary, and the peninsula 
9f Cotea* It takes its name from the prodigious qiuintities of 
yeUowish mud which is brought into it by the Wbang^Hop or Yellow 
River of China. Beyond the Chtisaa Islands, the whole of this sea» 
for about ten degree^ of htitode and sis of longitude^ was before thi» 



CP tlK IftAtMOS COVlK» IVIOHT. ^Il 

eicpedition utterly unknown to Europeans ; and it may be considered 
«s no trifling advsitage gained by the Embassyf that it afforded an 
opportunity of exidoringy without giving ofience or exciting suspt* 
cton^ even under the guidance of those .who were constantly em- 
ployed in its navigation) a trad of so considerable eateut. 

At Chusauy the mandarin had compelled two native pilots to unde^ 
take the care of t^ Lion and Hindostan. Though forced into 
this service, they appeared, when on board the ships, extremely ready 
to perform as well as they were able. 

.On the 9th of July 1793, the squadron, under Sir ErumusCrower 
entered this sea. The weather was dark and cloudy. A thick fog 
covered the horizon. A heavy swell came from the east- south east* 
The departure* or pomt whence the progress of the squadron is to be 
computed* is the isle called Patch-Cock, lying in twenty-nine degfcoi 
^y-two minutes north latitude, and one hundred and twenty degrees 
iifty-two minutes east longitude. The ships when sailing in six 
fathoms water, drew up the mud in such quantities, that each left m 
her wake a streak of yellowish brown for near half a mile. A cir- 
cumstance which, to persons not apprtced of it, woald be apt to create 
alarm, lest it should -denote a sudden shoaling of water. 

Wednesday the loth of July. Thick haty weather, and a constant 
heavy swell firom the eastward. In the morning two isknds were 
perceived, which the pflots called Tchin-San and Shoo-Tong-Yang, 
bearing north-west by west, distant eight or nine leagues. Soundinga 
from thirty- two to thirty- seven fathoms; bottom fine sand. 

Thursday the f ith of July. Light liirs and calms during the first 
part of the day. In the evening a breeze sprung up from the south- 
ward. At five in the momf ng two new i^nds, small and rocky, were 
discovered to the westward, seven or eight leagues distaat. The pilot 
cafied ^ose islands Pa*Tcha-San and Te-Tchong. 

On Friday the 12th of July, the pilots observed that the squadron 
was then opposite the Chinese province of Kiang-Nan ; and that ki 
the ndghboUThood were large shoals, the approach to wlilc)i was an- 
nounced by the bottom being sandy. In the morning the &>g be- 
came so thick that it Svas scarcely possMe to see firom one end of the 
Lion to the other. - h may be difficult to exphiiii ^hy ar shlUow sea 
generafly has tlie atmosphere over it foggy ; but the fad hai been 
observed likewise upon the banks of Newfinindbnd, and other places 
covered with little water. Another circanstaace took pbee dttoit 
as difficult, perhaps* to be accouated fbr« In the shallowest partst 
but where no land was visible above water, swarms of the dragpo iiy 
suddenly appeared 4boat the dupt» whichi in deeper watert qujeklj 
disappeared* 

tllloLXV, 00 



ttl . BIOCULTHI^AL IIIMOIM 

Efforts were made to keep the ships together during the hgt bf 
firing guns in the way of fog -signals ; notwithstanding whichy the 
Hindostan was separated this day from the rest of the squadron. 
Shortly afterward she perceived three krge Chinese yeasdsy which by 
choice or accident had deviated from the usual system' among them 
' of sailing near the coast. The soundings hereabouts were found by 
all the squadron to vary so frequently and suddenly, that* notwith* 
standing the presence of the pilots, it was thought expedient to pro* 
cced with uncommon caution, and even sometimes to lie to. The 
soundings throughout (his sea never exceeded forty-two fathoms ; in 
the deepest water the bottom was usually muddy, and was generaDy 
sound where the water shoaled. The pilots observed that the thickest 
fegs accompanied the south-east winds, which generally lasted four or 
five days at a time. 

On Saturday the wind and fog continued as before. In the mora* 
ing the fog being for a time dispelled, several land birdf appeared, 
smd sea- weed and bamboos were seen floating Qpo9 the water ; Xom 
gether with other indications of being near laml. 

The £ndeavour, which had called at Chusan, biought frojn thence 
such a pilot as was first offered to the squadron. He conduded her 
dose to the shore with little danger to ^e ^ndeavour^ as she drew 
but a few feet water. She passed near the island of.Tsung-MinS* 
opposite the river Kiang. This islandj unlike those of Chusan, is 
very low, and to all appearance) formed of earth which is brought 
down by the current of the river, between the mouth of which and the 
island, the water is extremely shallow. Ilie land seemed to be gain- 
ing upon tlie water very fest ; and it is not unworthy of notice, that 
in the map preserved in the Dupal Palace of Venjce, supposed to be 
taken, so far as relates to China* in great measure, from the draught 
made by the celebrated traveller of that city in the thirteenth century, 
Marco Polo, no traces are found of the Island Tsuog-Ming,. though 
those of Chusan, not much to the southward of it, ,are distin^y 
marked; whether it was at that period so small as not to be thought 
woithy of notice, or so low as to remain unobserved, is uncertain. 

The Lion kept to the eastward of the track of the Hindostan^ and 
nearer, though not ia sight, of the western coast of the peninsula of 
Corea^ which stretches from Tartary in a southern dirc^ion. The 
peaiosula of Shan-Tung extends from the maii^ contioQ^ of Chiiia so 
far to the eastward, as to reduce the breadU^ of the Yellow Sea tp 
about forty leagues or thereabouts, between th^ i;asterA extremity of 
Shao-Tung and the opposite part of the peuinsiila.of Cqrea« 
. ^Bqth divisions of the .squadron had oo tbe/i5l;b'a wind.-finooi the 
southward, attended, during part of the dayi with a fog*. While it 



OF SIR VM»MV$ OOVE&» KKICHT, 2$^ 

was dear the Hiodottan perceived m small conc*8hapd) idand, caDed 
by the pilot Ka-Te-Noo ; and on the next day came In alght of the 
rugged land of Shan-Tung promontory, as well as of a small island to 
the southward of it. At this place a slight current was ohserved to 
aet to the northward. The longitude here was 122 degracsy forty 
minutes east. The bcitude was thirty-five degrees ten minutes 
nocth. From hence the Lion steered north-west hy compass, until 
she got into the latitude of thirty- six degrees twenty minutes north* 
The water then began to shoal rapidly from forty to sixteen, four* 
teen, and twelve fathoms, there being a difference of two fathoms 
every quarter of an hour ; the bottom sandy. Such a sudden shoaling 
of the water naturally pccasioned apprehension. It was, howeverp 
calmed, more by the reports of the brigs which were kept goin^ 
a-head, and constantly heaving the lead, than by the assertions of the 
pilots, whose ignoram^e of the English language made them some* 
times to be considered as unacquainted with their business* 

On the i6th, the island which the Hindostan observed to the 
north-east, appeared at the same time from the Lion being to the 
eastward, to the north-west* . The ships and brigs all joined on 
Wednesday the 17th. They perceived on that day two headlands, or 
capes, which, together with the island above mentioned, are likely to 
he the first lands made by ships navigating diiecUy froni the south* 
ward toward the gulif of Pekin ; it was thought desirable, thereforCi 
by Sir Erasmus Gower, to ascertain their situation with exa^nesst 
and to give each a name* These three points of landi with their 
latitude^ and longitude^ are as follow ; 

t r Cape Macartney, 36* 54 1 , f '*** "' I 5^ ^'^^ of •«« * moon. 
^1 *^ '' •* ^^ 1 1 1 laa ao J By timc-piccc. 

I< CapeGowcr, 3^ 57 [U !" '5 J By »ud aDdmoon. 

S| "^ • J j< /Ai lai aj { By cime-piece. 

I / SlMjmton\ Itland, 36 47 | S / "* 9 1 ^f •"« and moon. 
«L •'* yj Li»»'X7 jBytime-piecc. 

Cape Macartney, when bearing from north-north«east to north- 
wotj has. a remarkable appearance of six pointed peaks. Within this 
Cape is an inlet, in, which sevenl froall vessels were descried at anchor. 
Near Cape Gower is a reef of rocks running out from a neck of land* 
The ground being foul^ it was deemed prudent not to approach too 
near ; but a snog hatbour appeared to be ,within the Idw point, the 
entrance to which was. between Cape Gower and the reef already 
mentioned. A grreat number of vessels were perceived within the 
liarbour, behind which was seen a town of considerable extent. 

Thursday the i8th of July. The wind was for the most part eastetly,' 
•nd the weather foggy* In tlie course of the afternoon, the squadA>n 
passed aaoChe^ harbour^ whick waa^Acious, and contained several 



Sl4 BIOORAfHlCAL MBMOlIt 

large junks* At th» time the tiortherntifioft extremity of &hxn* 
Tung promontory bore north by wc»t ^about tight leagues. When 
seen from this 'situation^ the highest and moct projtffting point of 
hnd appears in the form of an obkte cone» with its vertex elongatedf 
as if on the summit were ere^cd a spire or pagoda, and it was iami- 
Harly compared to a mandarin's bonnet. Between Cape Macartney 
and the above point the coast in general is bc^d ; the mountains ap* 
pearing to extend hr into the country* They were interspersed with 
beautiful vallies along the shore^ highly cultivated» with inlets fit for 
the reception asid security of flat-bottomed vessels, such as^ those of 
the Chinese. 

Friday the 19th of July. The wind from east-south-east to 
north ; the weather hazy. The squadron now considering itself as 
suiEciently clear of the Shan-Tung peninsula, and having romided 
the extreme eastern land of China, steered west by north. At mid* 
night there was so thick a fog that it was thought advisable to Ge 
to ; when in the course of the following morning it cleared upf the 
chips and brigs found themselves close upon a small rocky island^' 
bearing south-east, half east, two miles» and from a point upOn the 
contfTifrnt within it, south-east, half east, five miles. Here is an ap- 
pearance of a convenient harbour, at least for vessels not drawing 
much water. Soundings, three miles from the Aore, sixteen and 
eighteen fethoms ; bottom soft mud. 

The weather being now perfe^ly dear the squadron made sail and 
stood to the westward, in a course parallel to the coast, at the 
distance of five or six miles, it'rom' the small island last mentioned, 
the westenimost visible point of land is a remarkable cone-shaped hill» 
which terminates a range of broken mountains, distant from the 
island about eight leagues west by south. Part of this coast is rocky 
and barren, but in general it is level cultivated ground, termsnating in 
a sandy beach* As soon as the last conical point was doubled by 
the squadron, a second came in sight, having neai it a small h^ with 
a knob upon its top. Between these two points, a course was steered 
nearly due west, within two or three miles of the shore, in seven or 
eight fathoms waters Vast crowds of people were here assembled 
on the risinj^ grounds to aee the European vessels pass. Beyond the 
last point, the squadron got into a deep bay, v^ich the pilots were 
understood to say was the harboiir they hiid mentioned before they 
left Chusan, as fit to receive the aquadmn ; but it was soon di»* 
covert d by means of the^ople whom cariosity had attrad^i h^m 
the shore, that this was the. Bay of Ki-San-Seu $ and that the bar- 
boar of 'Mi^A^tau was m fm isikad'idttta&t ifte.n leagues farther to the 
westward^ aqd diffenAg in lautude a few milea only to the northward* 



or sit l&AtM«t COf#U» XSICHT. 



aSf 



The Bi7 of Ki-Sfin«Stu is •padoQSi ind vrA sbebered from cvciy 
"Wind, except firom cae(*nartli»east to CMt^southi^ast) being the direc* 
lion of the entrance into the Bay* It is shut in to the northvrard hj 

, a group of ten or twelve small islands* and a 'number of large rocks j 
and is inclosed by the continenit on the vrestem and southern tides* 
This Bay extends from east to west at least ten milesy and nearly as 
much frostt north to south. Within it are two harbours | one behind ^ 
a high bhifp point* called Zeu* A^Tau* which has four fathoms depth 
of water, and had in it a great nuntber of Chinese vessels ; the other 
behind a small projeding tongue of land on the south-east side of the 
Bay, in the mouth of a river called Ya«Ma*Tao. The number of 
junks perceived in . ahnost every, bay along this coasti indicates a con« 
siderable interchange of commoditieji between this and other provincei 
of China. Such a circumstance» beside adding to the population by 
the many who are necessarily employed in carrying on this intercourse^ 
introduces more of the movement andbustk of busy life than is 
generally observed among the quiet though industrious cultivators of 
the soiL Across the mouth of the Ya-Ma*Tao is a baiy over which 

. are only two fathoms and a half of water* but immediately withqnt 
it are four aad five &thoms ; the width of the river from a quarter to 
half a mile* The country immediately behind the Bay» though oot 
very mountainous* has yet a barren a^d* and the inhabitants bear 
strong marks of poverty* Between ZeuA^Tau point* and one of 

, the islands to the eastward^ forming the group already mentioned^ 
there is a narrow passage* lying diredlly north and south, leading out 
of the Bay of ELi-San-Seu* and through which there are eight* nine^ 
and ten fathoms water close to the shore on either side ; but near the 
eastern islands of the same group there are smallsandy keys or bankv 
which are observed only when they are very near^ as they are almost 
even with the surface of the water. The bluff point* or Cape of 
Zeu- A-Tau* is the extremity of a small but bold and rugged penin* 
sula* stretching to the northward. Along the centre of the great 
peninsula of Shan-Tung* in the diredion of east and west* ran a high 
range of mountains* the sides of which consist in great measure of a 
perpendicular and naked mass of granite. 

A day was consumed in the Bay of Ki-Sao-Seu ; but on Sunday 
the 2 1 St* the squadron* after being provided with new pilots* stood 
out through the passage between Cape Zeu-A-Tau and the islands* 
keeping nearer to the former than to the latter. A little to the 
westward of the most northern point of Zeu«A-Tau* was a bay* into 
which several vessels were seen entering ; and upon the original map 
«f Chin«b on a very large scalca construflcd with great apjjarent 



^86 BteOHAffHlGAL MSMOf^t 

iccuracjf aud now' in the posaessioa of a great and fevered pd^. 

•osage^ a convenient and safe harbour ia here laid down. 

The course> after clearing the east ^int^ waa north-north-wett-lbr 
fwo miles, then north-west by uorth> north-west and westf keeping 
the coast well on board all the way. After cdntiuuing thus till the 
cveoing, the squadron hauled round a proje^ing headland^ Tciy 
aimilar to that of the entrance of Ki*SaxwSeu« Here ako« all the 
fising grounds were covered with spectators. The kills behind the 
coast, along which the ships sailed this day» had a peculiar cbara^er^ 
and appeared to he rather the. work of art than of nature. Their 
aides were rounded off as with a spade, and on the summit of each 
stood, a small heap of earth in form of a barrow^ or ancient burying 
flace; 

' After having hauled round the last proje^ing Keadhnd, another 
bluff point appeared due west from the fenner, and about eight aules 
distant from it.. I'he shore between these two points formed a kind 
4^ bay» called Ttn-Chqo-Foo Bay> which is open to the east and west^ 
but partly sheltered in the northern quarter by groups of smaU 
iBhmdsy scattered about at different distances, from five milesrto twice 
as' many leagues off the main shore. These islands extend two>thirda 
•f the breadth of the sea in this part, leaving only a stveight between the 
opposite projeding point of the province of Le-A-Tung, and the 
fiorthernmost clunter of those islands. Among these are two idkts 
remai'kable for the regularity of their form, as truncated cones, and 
looking like glass-houses rising from the sea. They were, most 
probably, produced by the explosion from volcanoes of matter of ao 
light weight, and impelled with so moderate a forcCf as to continue 
where first it fell ; and thus gradually rising into a heapi and assum* 
ing the regular figure just mentioned* 

The squadron came to anchor in seven fathoms water, in the Bay 
of Teu-Choo-Foo, within two or three miles north-east of the city 
of that name. The anchorage was foul, with hard ground and sheSs* 
The road was found so unsafe, that little apprehension being enter- 
tained of the possibility of changing for the worse, the determination 
was taken of entering without farther delay into the gulf of Pekln. 

In the evening of the 23d of July, the wind being easterly, and 
the weather moderate, clear, and pleasant, the squadron made sail|^ 
keeping the Mi-A-Tau islands on the right. On Thursday the a5tb 
the squadron stood'to the westward under easy sail, inclining a h'ttle to 
the southward, to keep clear of the low islands. The depth of water 
regularly decreased from fifteen to seven fathoms, when another small 
low illand apjKaredj bearing northj and distant about six miles. 



OF flK IKASMUS GOWBR) KKIOHT. t%f 

Vhe ^oadroD stood on a weKern course (roth tb^ncfe tiH md^ 
nighty when, though t^e Lion's depth of water was six fathoms^ 
the Qbrence made the signal' of danger* The ships consequendj 
hauled their wind to the south-east, and deepened the water to ten 
fiithoms I standing on thb course ahout four miles, and then bearing 
away west- north-west four miles morei the depth of water was die- 
creased to six fathoms and a half, when they came to anchor. 

On reaching the gulf^ it was found that no secure harbour was tv 
be expeded upon»its shores; A good harbour is generally found br 
the means of massy rocks, or at least of considerable mounds of 
compa6^ earth, thrust forward by some irregular operation or in some 
convulsion of nature, and leaving within them an. inlet of the sea* 
which those proje£ling points may proted from the violence of the 
winds and waves ; whereas the country which terminates this gulf 
is utteily devoid of any solid and elevated masses capable of becomiag 
a bulwark, behind which there might be a safe retreat for shippiag** 
Instead of such a bulwark nothing is seen but a low and level surface* 
the natural eficA of a gradual deposition of soil washed down from tbe 
interior of the mountains, which soil fills up every original inequality* 
and meets afterwards ia a regular line the open sea, where no shelter 
is afibrdcd. A part, no doubt, of the waters falling, from the 
jDOuntains, is ooUedled into Atreams which swell by their union into 
rivers } but the motion which had been acquired by such waters in 
their descent from the heights* will, in some degree, be afterwards 
retarded according to the extent of flat country which those rivers 
have to traverse. The land here appearing to gain gradually upo* 
the sea, and consequently the extent of flat country being upon the 
increase,' the river (the Pei-Ho) may be supposed to lose somewhijt 
of the force with which \t used to carry and disperse into the gulf the 
earth it had brought with it from the mountains. This earth is at 
length accumulated a little below the river's mouth, and forms the 
bar which crosses it completely. 

The mandarins, upon being informed that the English ships could 
not cross the bar, immediately conceived their size to be ]mmens<^ 
and formed a proportionate idea of the quantity of presents necessary 
to fill thcnu- They gave orders for preparing junks to bring these 
presents, as well as the passengers and baggage, on shore. A cpn* 
siderable building near the river's mouth, was provided for the recep- 
tion of the Embassador, where it was expedled he would remain 
some days to recover from the fatigues of so long a voyage. 

The Lion returned to England in the month of Septem« 
ber 1794, and Sir Erasmus had the satisfaftion of bringing 
home widi bim in safety, a valuable convoy of ships from 



tSt VfOQKAPRlClL MIMOIRS 

China and the East Indies, whose cargoes were valued at 
five millions sterling. Late in the month of- November 
following, he was appointed to command the Triumph, of 
J4 guns, in which ship he afterwards joined the Grand or 
Channel Fleet, then under the orders of the late Elarl Howe. 
Sir Erasmus afterwards served in the same station with Lord 
Bridport, who, on the retirement of that nobleman, suc- 
ceeded to the important trust. The Triumph was one of 
the small detached squadron, consistifig of five ships of the 
line and two frigates, under Admiral Cornwallis at the time 
he made his masterly retreat on the 17th of June 1795* in 
the face of a French annament, composed of thirteen sail of 
the line, fourteen frigates, two brigs, and two cotters, 
which pursued, and had it aAually in. their power to bring 
the British ships to aftion from nine o'clock in the morn- 
ing, when the firing commenced, till eight at night, when 
they abandoned all farther contest against so judicious and 
determined a foe. 

The conduft of Sir Erasmus on this very trying occasion 
was so highly meritorious, as to draw the following very 
justly deserved encomium from the commander in chief: 
^ The Mars and Triumph," says he, *' being the sternmost 
ships, were of course more exposed to the enemy's fire ; and 
I cannot too much commend the spirited conduft of Sir 
Charles Cotton and Sir Erasmus Gowcr, the Captains of 
those ships ;*' and again, ** The Triumph has shifted and 
repaired some of her sails, but any damage she has received 
is so trifling, at least in her Captain's eye, that Sir Erasmus 
Gower has not thought it worth reporting; indeed, the, 
cool and firm conduft of that ship was such, that it appeared 
to me the enemy's ships dared not come near her»" Sir Eras- 
muSf with the Admiral, and the rest of the officers, received 
the thanks of both Houses of Parliament for their great , 
gallantry and good conduct on the foregoing occasion. 

When the dreadful mutiny at the Nore broke out in ' 
1798, Sir Erasmus quitted the Triumph, and hoisted hk 
broad pendant on board the Neptune, of 98 guns> in the riv^r 



OP 8IK BKAIMUS GOVia» KNIGHT* 28^ 

Thames, and took upon him the commancl ' o? all his Ma- 
jesty's ships and vessels, amounting to at least fiftV) that 
were equipped or equipping to z& Against the mutineers. 
The insurreAion having happily terminated without 
bloodshed, he continued second in command in the same 
(quarter^ under the orders of Vice Admiral Sir Thomas 
Pasleyi Bart, in which capacity he tried sixty>eight of the 
mmineers. That duty beting ended, he struck his broad 
pendant, and served in the grand or channel fleet, as > 
private captain in the same 6hip, the Neptune, until he was 
promoted, on the 14th of February 1799) to the rank of 
kear-Admiral of the White. He has not held any aftive 
employment since he became a Flag-OiEcer. 

^' Of bis gallantry and very meritorious public services, tlic 
foregoing detail has been sufficiently illustrative; of his 
private yirttfeS, all who have ever been connefted with him 
in service, either in a subordinate or superior station, uni* 
formly render the most unequivocal testipiony. Few ar^ 
thfipcrsoiis, however corre^ their condud aiid complacent 
their behaviour may be, who are fortunate enough to pass 
through liie without attraAing die malignity or obloquy of 
the envious ; and though aspersion may be considered as no 
proof of r^l demerit, yet it certainly stands forth as no 
slender mark of worth, never to have in the slightest degree 
incurred it* 



Hnvktc Particukrt rdathe to Sir Eeasaivs Govsr. 

H/br. Gower, Either to the suljeft of the present Meinoint bad by 
htf wife, I^aetitta X^ewes Cower, nineteen cbildiea^ ten of whom were 
tons, and the reowinder daughters. Of the former six are now 
BviDg, sind of the latter five. Sir Erasmus is, at present, unmarried* 

AftMt.] Azure, a chewon, between three woWct heads eravd Cr* 

«♦ <«.»■• .», , 

CacsT,] A woift head, erased Or. 

tBoLlV. »F 



C »90 ] 

0^ TBB MARITIME CHARACTMIt 69 
THE MODERN GREEKS. 

[Concluded iiroiii Pjige 480, VeL IIL] 

T TOMER, who was the first to lay all nature under contribu* 
-*--"• tioHi in order to furnish that crowd of images which arc 
dispersed over his works ; did not forget the fishes. Describing the 
defeat of Penelope's suitors, he represents them after the combat^ 
** scattered upon the ground and panting for breath, like fishes taken 
from the net> just thrown upon the shore. Laid in heaps on the drj 
sand," says Homer, ^^ the finny race thirst for the nooist element 
which they so recently enjoyed. They palpitate in every part, from 
the heat and aridity of the air, just ready to destroy them. Thus 
fell the lovers of Penelope : Thus they found one common 
grave *." Homer then mentions the fishing with nets, which 
pTa<^)ce was very ancient in Greece and in Egypt* But the Greeks* 
according to Athenxus,' existed some time before they could eat 
fish* And Mad. Dacier observes, that at the time of the siege 
of Troy, warriors abstained from the use of fish, as a food of 
too delicate a nature for men of that profession* Menelaus, in the 
Odyssey, excuses his companions who remained with him at the island 
of Pharos, for fishing with the line ; by saying, that hunger carried 
them such lengths, they were to eat whatever they could find f « 

After the Greeks had adopted the art of fishing, they brought it to 
the greatest perfe<?tion. Pollux has been more particular than even 
Theocritus, in his account of the utensil necessary for carrying on 
this employment. But you will, I hope, excuse me from displaying 
my erudition on this occasion. I shall only observe, that they had 
nazes wherein the fish were snared. They also made of rushes or 
netting, a sort of circulasindosure.in order to keep the fish alive, in 
the same manner that cattle are shut up in a fold. And here we find 
the ongtn of our maaraquei for the tunny fishery, cleariy explained* 
L<t us follow these Greeks to Marseilles^ and confine ourselves to that 
fishery, which is the most remarkable in nature* 

Oppian has not omitted noentioning the fishery for the xiphias» or 
sword-fish, carried on by the people oT Marseilles* He calls this the 
Bacred City. Next to the xiphias and the pilchard fishery, carried 
on by the Greeks in the Black Sea ^, there is no species of fishing 

• ,Od7»iey, I. aa. 

f Ibid. 1. 4- 1. i. p. 198. Tradudion de Madame Dacier. 

% S. BatiL orat. 7* in Arist S. Hat. Anini. cap. 13. Kittenh. bilSeiit. This 
fichery cannot fail to be very abundant, because it eompriaes the fish of that 
sea, as well at thoic of the rivers which empty thcmieWes into it. It was inlqi 



CHAHACTtft OP THE MODERN QRVECS. tgl 

- . 

more ancwDt than that for the tunny. They were esteemed the best 
and the largest fish of the sea. They appeared fonneily in shoals * ; 
and according to Pliny, a company of ihem once pursuing the ships 
of Alexander, his whole fleet were seized with terror, and formed 
themselves into a line at if atUcked by an enemy +. 1 have indeed 
observed that the tunny fish delights in foDowing ships ; which, in 
•ome degree accounts for the decline of that fishery upon our coasU 
since the war with England* 

This fish was in as great estimation among the ancients as now with 
the moderns. They were served at the best tables ; and the Romans, 
like ourselves, greatly esteemed the flavour of them. According to 
Aulus Gellius, our pickled tunny J, and botargo, are more ancient 
than we imagine. 

Formerly, as at present, there was a certain season for the capture 
of this fish ; and the days were fixed on which it should commence 
and finish. We cannot be surprised that the Bseotians should sacri- 
fice their largest eels to the gods ; seeing that our people of the tunny 
fitliery, after drawing their nets, offer one of their fish to Neptune f • 
This sacrifice was called $i;fyXaro». They had also oblations which 
they preferred to the Sovereign of the sea at the commencement of 
the season, imploring his assistance to keep their nets dear of the 
tword-fish, which never failed to tear and destroy them. 

The tunny-fish still continue to pass through the Straits of Gi* 
braltar in large companies, about the commencement of spring* 
There is a great fishery of them at a village called Conil, about seven 
leagues from Cadiz. Particular days are fixed for the captures;' and 
the spedators, who are generally numerous, consider themselves 
fortunate to be present, I have been assured that the Duke of Me* 
dina Sidonia draws from that village and its environs, \hf. clear sum of 
eighty thousand ducats yearly « by means of this fishery alone ; not- 
withstanding the tunny is a fish in no great repute with the Spaniards. 

this circumstance tlut an ancient author oiakei the fish speak, and mutually 
xHTite each other to a rendesYous in the Euxine sea \ under an assurance of 
Ibding the water more soft and agx^eable than the water of other seas. 
* £t pavidi magno fagientct agmine thyiui. Ovid, haiicait. 
\ PliD. Hist. L 9. c. 3. 

% Porr6 Thunnorum abdomlna sallta (Gred i (Mrttfi^fwi) apud Teteres in 
deliciis habita sunt. Id. facile int«lUgas, ex/ I^ucilii veriibus apud Nonnium^ 
St Aul. Gell, L 10. c. s. 

Ad ceenam adducanii tt primum hie abdomlna Thunni, - 
AdvenientibttS priva dabo ; 
Poatar^ue, salsamentum pisciam ; U^f^x^^t 
JSuft Jepwwtt nJ»h *i talth 
J*A^isn.l. t7*c« 297. 



2^2 ON THB MARITIUE CHARACTIR OP 

» . ' • 

It is generally bigger and coarser in Spain and Portugal tlian in 
Prove ocey but not so subtle, and therefore easily taken. The water 
o^ the Mediterranean is supposed to purge off those oily particles^ 
which comnnunicate bad flavour. The tunny is still poorer about the 
island of Sardinia than in Provence; but by the tinie it has reached 
the Black Sea it becomes fat, and often of a ^ery inupid itavour. 

The tunny fish pass the Dardanelles into the Black Sea early in the 
apriijg. Like the -sword- fish« t) ey avoid the adverse stream, there, 
fore come with the currents in the early part of the year, and follow 
those in their return at autumn* l^hey are caught in Urge nets; with, 
which they are surrounded during the night. 

Diodorus, speaking of the Ichthyophagi» a people who inhabited 
the country from Caramania and Gedr6sta» to the borders of the 
Black Sea, gives this account <of them : 

'< Their houses," says he ** are situated near the sea ; inter^sened 
with deep vallies, precipices, slopes, and hollows, naturally oblique* 
The inhabitants, profiting by the disposition of the country, stop alt 
the outlets of the vallies and precipices with great stones, thus pre- 
venting the retreat of the fish, which the sea may have poured ia 
up'onthena.'* 

The same historian proceeds with an account of ,the progress of 
that infant fishery ; and gives a very ample description of. an inveit* 
tiony since brought to great perfed^ion. 

*« On the coasts of Babylon," says Djodorus, ** is a country well 
cultivated, and enriched with trees* I'he inhabitants have such a^i 
abundance of fish, that they find it difficult to preserve them^ Tbey 
stibk an innumerable quantity of reeds into the earth, along the bankjs 
of the sea, which appear like nets spread on the ground. In this 
fence are a great number of doors, in form like a hurdle, which are 
easily opened and shut. When the tide comes fn, it opens them, and 
at "its return they naturally close; by which means the fish thrown 
in from the sea are detained in these mclosures* At low water, you 
may see an immensity of the finny tribe panting in heaps in the snare. 
The people draw great profit from this fishery, and those whose huts 
are distant from the sea make trenches, which admit the fish up to the 
verj doors of their houses, 

** ^rhey stop this trench with a door made of willows, which they 
open wlien' the tide comes in, and shut again as soon as it begins to 
ebb, ' The water escaping through the doors, leaves the fish behind *. 
This method was made use of by the northern people, according to 
Pliny, to supply themselves with that article of life f.'* 

• Diod. 1. 3, , 

f Fugientesqae cum mari pisces circum, Tuguria Tenantnr. Djod* 1« i6. c^ i«r 



THB MpDIM. GREEKS. 2g|. 

The Greeks were not the last to adopt tlvt manjier of catchinr 
and detaining the inhabitants of the watery elen^ent ; and thej have,, 
continued Uiat, like most of their eustomsi to this d^y. (See Toume- 
fort on that head.) At SalincBy a port, in Naxos, an island of the. 
Archipelago, they liave a great fishery for eels and mullet, by the 
means of snares made of reeds, and manufactured into a certain fonQ« 
Tliose snares are very pliable, and so disposed, that the fish once 
lodged in them, cannot get out. Tlie Pr6ven9a]s make use of the 
99xae kind of machines in the canal of Martiques; but their's aie 
much larger and stronger. The invention is very ancientt as you have 
already seen. 

We find the sanoe praftice among the Cossacks. The. Coosapltt.. 
have a fishery at Citchon in Circassia i and, according to Mf P^- 
aohntl, are called SacrunaSf and.subjeft to the Cham of Tartary^ 
They follow this employment jfirom the beginning of May to th( laBt. 
day in Oclober. It is not practicable the rest of the year, by reasott 
that the river Kouban is generally frozen daring that interval* Aa. 
the opening of the fishery every year, the Bey gives a great entertain- 
ment. The sturgeon fishery is also carried on in a very singular 
manner. An inclosure of willows, with a door, being placed in the. 
water, is so contrived as to admit all the fish that come that way« witb* 
out the possibility of their getting out again *^. 

You will see by th^ description I shall give you of our MaJraquef^ 
to what a degree of perfection it is brought by the MarseilUans, for 
the capture of the tunny, and all other species of fish that swim lA 
•hoala. 

The inhabitants of the coasts, and the shepherds themselvesy who 
live near the borders of the sea or great rivers, we may easily suppose^ 
might aicquire a "knowledge in the art of fishing, by which meant 
their families were more easily supported ; in those places where the 
tide brings up the fish, their first care must have been to find some 
method of detaining them ; and they accordingly formed a dosct 
much resembling the folds used for enclosing cattle in the middle of a 
field. The Greeks had the ^strtic idea^ and have preserved it* 
Mandra in Greek, signifies a stable or fold, and froin the words (acu^^ 
and ajM, we undoubtedly derive the Provencal term Madraque» 
originally received from the Greeks. Thus, in tlpe word alone we 
find the history of the thing. Originally, the Madraque was nothing 
more than an inclosure, which being placed in the waterj received the 

• Let. 5. v. L p. 148. 

f Manuscript Memoirs m the Ports an4 Commerce of the Blsdk Sea. 



t94 ^^ ^"^ MAItrriME ClfA&ACTBlt OF 

SAf and prfvented tbeir escape* There cannot be a doubti but tlufr 
was first formed upon the model of the mandra» or sheep-fold* 

A remark made by M. Hardion *, upon the lOth ufyttium of Theo* 
critus, confirms this opinion : " There is,*' says he, " in the Greek* 
the word fMu^fetf which signifies a stable or sheep-fold. The Italians 
lave retained this word in their language. Sannazar has the same 
word in his Arcadia, And Tasso use^ it both in hit Amintai, and 
fcis Jerusalem Delivered." 

Compare our fishery with that which Oppian bas so tninutdj 
described : ** The tunny-fish,*' says he, ** press in multitudes to thfc 
acts laid for them, and into the snares, from whence they can never 
withdraw +• They leave the great ocean in the ^ring, when they 
fait eur seas* The haughty Spaniard waits for them at Xkt Straits^ 
and gets the first draughts. S009 after they become the prey of the 
Celts', who live near the mouth of the Rhone. And then to the 
MarscxRians, a race descended firom the ancient Fhocians* At length 
they reach the Sicilian shore* and serve to fatten the inhabiunts of' 
the Tyrrhenian coasts. 

'* The arrival of this Temal animal is matter of Joyfot intelh'gence 
to the fishermen. They wait for them on the ooatts, and choose a 
aitoation neither too much confined, nor greatly exposed to the wind 1 
some kind of open bay* The person appointed to watch their ar- 
livad, gets on the top of a neighbooriag mountain %^ and as soon as be 
pesccives them, a concerted signal is given* The nets beibg akeady 
spread,, form, as it were, apartments in the sea ; for you will find a 
porch resembling the entrance of a house, rooms within, and at the 
bottom another chamber f «" 

You will, perhaps, not be displeased with Oppian's elegant vciso 
on the tunny fishery. The beautiful translation of Maria &dviA^ 
will, at least, make them worthy your attention ; 

Dc Tonni h progenie I ^tai M t^sf^ 
OoetnOy ed all* ppre del mar noatr^ 
X)i primavcra Marciano a furore, 
Quanda astiio di noaze tie li punge. 
QucBti prcudoDo in pria nel mar Ibero^ 
Kominl Iberi per valor superbi. 
A bocca pol di Rodano i caccianti 
Ceiti, cgli abitatori di Focca, 
Aattcameott nnosiati } e in tcrzo 

* Men. de TAcad. des Inscrtpt. 

f Cupient irremcabilium intidiarum uruere latibnlom. Opp • L ^ 

% dvnfiif xe«ac, Thunois pes. 

S 1 he fifhcrmcn of ManeiUes call it ttrptu. 



THE MDDimV mtlKt. 2^^ 

<}«oqo prendougli qusoti in b Triiucria, 
Itola a&ci^gaoo, del mar Tefreno 
NeUe oBdc ; quindi in infiniti foodi 
^Joesti, e queUi di qui, di la, si tpargonoj 
£ coki empioa tutto quanto il mare. 
Molca, e ttupcada caccia i apparecchlaUf 
Ai petcatori, ^uando le ne ▼iete^ 
Di Tonni alia «ta^on di primaTora 
L'ctercjto. ti^paeaein primo toago 
Dtaegaav* del nar ne moko anguato 
Sotto «BibMse rmcre, -ne aaeo molto 
Corsa da Teoti, e a lor carriere atpoiu^ 
Ala ohe tenesfe m se gtotte intiure . 
Tfa*l aereno icopcrto, ed il bacl«. 
Allora in pria sorr'erto edalto coUe 
"SaTf il perito spiator di Tonni, 
Cfie de diveni'brandhi \k vemita. 
Conoacc e quali em ai aiciio, e q«aiiC^ 
£d k compagni ai porge awiao.. 
Ora tulle le reti, di cittad^' 
A quisa, iu pe' flutti ne caminaaf . 
Avvi recetti, ed avvi poste, ed avrS 
Trof«nde gallerie ed atrii e cotti ; 
<}iielti ▼eloomcncein tchiere mnotonu^ 
Come falaagi d'aooaiat cbe flurcin* 
Scbicnti, 4u. 

Voa may sec at any time tbe madraque of Oppian upon' oiir coasts. 
Which, however; we did not borrow from him> but received from tht 
Greeks our ancestors. There is this difference only between as, that 
tht look-out 18 from a baiic a-head of the madraque, instead of being 
made from the mountain. The dexterity with which the sailors seize 
the lish would astonish you ; and the moment fish are in the fold they 
turn it, whereby the fish lose their force insensibly. This ingenious 
nanceuvre wotild, I am certain, afford you great entertainment. 

You willy probably, doubt the truth of this derivation of the mm^. 
JraqiUf unless accompanied by some corrobotattng circumstances, to 
show that the terms io general made use of by the professors of tliis 
art, are derived from the Greek. Tlie names of the several sptcies of 
fish in the Proven9aI language^ are evidently taken from the Greeks 
aa are most of the Latin words for the same particulars. I foresaw 
that I should not be able to follow our Greek friends to Marseilles, 
without writing in the Provencal, before the conclusion of my letter* 
You may talji: on this subjedi to our philosophers in the lar»guage of 
Frovenccj they will certainly understand you^ anid take it fur Greek. 



r *9« 3 

\ 

MXOGRAPHKAt ANMCDOTE^ Of 

NAVAL 0F)F1CERS 

mo BATE ■XTBB^TO PASItD HEARLT UNMOTICED BT BTSTORIAllfe 



-Ml. 



[We commenced our promised Pablictf ioit of inch CircvmitBnces as could be 
gtthered reUtire to enuflen^ MaTal Officen hitherto nearly winoticed, 
with some Memoirs of Lcrd CliHtqii, Mme time Lotil High Admiral of 
Bogland, from the Colleton o{ BiogrtphkaL TraAt by Mr. Lodge, 
Xduicaiter Herald, lately pnbliahed, Urith BartolDsXl'a fine Imhations of 
Holbein's Portraits, in the Rojal Cabinet. We sow beg leare to otfer Xxf 
•or Readers the Life of Fitswilliam ^arl of Southalbptoo, taken from the 
mme magnificent Work.] 

WILLIAM FitzwSltam, Earl of Soutbampton^ and Knight of 
the Garter, descended from a very ancient and powerful 
northern fam3y» and vm the second of the two 6on8x>f Sir Thomas 
Fitzwilliam» of Aldwarke in Yorkshire, Knight, and Lucy, daughter 
and co*heire88 of John Neville, Marquis Mountacute. Some short time 
before the death of his elder brother, who was slain at Flodden-field^ 
ke was introduced at the Coiirt of Henry VIII. who appointed hioir 
one of the Esquires f^r the body, which o£ce w^ confirmed to hinv 
fox life, by a patent dated I5i3t .. The. fashion of that day requiring: 
that a courtier's education should be finished in a campaign against 
France^ Fittwilliam accordingly obtained some respedUhle situation 
ilk the fleet which sailed thither in the folluwin^ year^ and received ^ 
severe wound in an aAion near Brest, where, as well as at the siege of 
Toumay^ he gave such proofs of his galla itry and di&cretion» that 
^enryi at his return, conferred the honour of Knighthood upoi^ 
bim, and made him Vice-Admiral, in which chara^er he commanded 
the squadron which attended the King to Boulogne in 1523* He 
was soon after sent Ambassador upon some matters of no great im« 
|KirtaBce to Paris, fromi whence, as Lord Herbert informs us» he re« 
turned in 1523, to take the command of a strong fleet, destined to* 
proteA the English merchant ships in the channel, as well as to supbort 
the Earl of Surrey, General of the Forces, at Calais, in concert with 
whom he made a predatory descent on the coasts of Normandy an<} 
tritanny. In the beginning of the foIIoAving year, he was made Ad« 
niral of the fleet, which was sent to intercept the Duke of Albany^ 
who had projed^ed the invasion of Scotland with a French army ; and 
in 1525 went on a second embassy to France, to receive the Queea 
Regent's ratification of the treaty lately concluded with England* 
He is named about this time as Captain of the Castle of Guisnes^ 
tad Treasurer of the Royvl Household; but the date of those ap* 
pointmenta are not known* 



i 



Anicdotes op. natal opriCE&fl» t97 

• 

The private life of an eminent EngKahman of that day affords us 
but little worthy^ of note. , The gallant Fkzwitliam returned from 
his embassy probably 'to become the silent spe&tor of balls and 
toumaments» since for ten years after that period, we have scarcely 
any intelligence from history concerning himt except that in 1550 
hesubsctibed the articles against the CardinaL . In 15369 however^ 
he was once more sent to Parisi with the Duke of Norfolk and Dr« 
C0X9 to treat of a league between England and France^ which was 
to have been cemented by the marriage of the Duke of Angouleme, 
third son to Francis, with the Princess I*h*zabeth4 In the ensuing 
year he was constituted Admiral of £ngland» Wales, Ireland, Noiv 
mandy, Gascony, and Aquitain ; on the i8th of O^ber 15389 he 
obtained the Earldom of Southampton, and was soon after appointed 
Lord Privy Seal. 

In the autumn of 1545, ^^ com(nanded the vanjguard of the army 

then sent against Scotland under the Duke of Norfplk, and assisted 

in the management of a treaty at York, by which the Scots had vainly 

hoped to avoid the terrors of Henry's resentment, but the negotiation 

proving abortive, Southampton' marched on with Us power to New- 

castlcrUpon-Tyne, where he died after a short illness, having ordered 

by his will that his body should be interred at Midhurst, in Sussex, 

. in a chapel, for the building whereof he allotted five hundred marks* 

" The grciat Earl married Mabel, daughter of Henry Lord Clifford^ 

'axfd sister to Henry, the. first Earl of Cumberland of that &mily, by 

' whom having no issue, the daughters of his deceased brother* 

•Margaret, wife of Godfrey Foljambe, and Alice, wife of Sir Jamet 

Poljambe, Knight, became his heirs. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE XLIII. 

THIS Plate represents the BVitish Fleet, consisting of two sail of 
the line, three of fifty guns, besides frigates, under the command of 
ReatwAdmlral fiarrington, at anchor across the mouth of the Bay of 
the Groful Cul de Sac, in the Island of St* l4ucia, on the 15th of Dec* 
1778* The French Fleet, in number twelve sail of the line, under 
the command of the Count d'Estaing, bearing down with an inteui* 
tion of breaking the English line to cut out the transports then at 
anchor in the Bay. The leading ship of the Enemy finding she could 
not succeed in her attempt on the British line, is Represented standiui^ 
off; the rest of the fleet followed her example *• 

% 

• For Admkai Barrington's offioal Ascovut of the abovs Adiao, mm 
page 18 f of chU Yoliuacw 

Qttd» IV. Q^<^ 



t «9« 3 

NAVAL LITERATURE. 



Tifi Naval Guarwak, in Two Folumu, iy Charlea Fletch«v 
M. D, Author of ** A Maritime State considered at to the Health of 
Siomen^^ ISe. 03aH}0t iSoo. Price 1^9. Chapman* ^ 

npO giv€ our readm a thorough idea of the nature of the work 
^ before us» it will only be necessary to observe that it is formed 
upon the model of those miscellaneous sketches of life and manners 
which have been called Periodical Papers^ and among which the 
GuAauiAN appears to have furnished the foundation of its title; 
the plan of adapting this sort of composition to naval readers must 
be confessed a very happy one ; and Dr« Fletcher has certainly pro* 
duced upon it a book of considerable information and ami^sement. 
Having embraced every subjed^ that can be interesting to seafaring 
^persons, whether as matter of instrudion or of curiosity, his pages wiQ 
.afford a valuable supply of knowledge ; and the manner in which it is 
written, the agreeable form of correspondence, and the enlivening 
iatrodudtion of narrative and poetry, will render it one of the moat 
pleasing books to which an intelligent man can resort for an hour's 
amusement. Dr. Fletcher has contrived to weave much moral dis* 
^uisition into several parts of his work» and is always as much the 
friend of virtue as of seamen. His aqcount of the mental and cor* 
^oral progress of man, will greatly attraft his teaderst and we caa 
justly mention a judicious sele6tion of anecdote, much naval criticism^ 
history, and animadversion, as forming the ptindpal features in his work. 
All plans relating to the Navy are noticed, various improvements 
proposed^ and many subjedbof dissatlsfadion discussed in a conciliating 
manner. From among the papers of this latter description we shall 
make an extrad that will at once serve as a specimen of the- work 
Wider review, and form an interesting article among the contents of 
our own Pubh'cation. The passage we are about to present belonga 
to the service professionally ; we could with pleasure, did our. limits 
permit, transcribe many articles of a lighter kind ; and even refrainiogy 
as we are compelled to doi from this indulgence, we cannot turn over 
the page without reciting one spirited remark. Speaking of the 
dishonesty with which Europeans are but too well known ta 
deal with other nations, and to the experience or well-founded 
apprehension of which, among other important causes, he justly attri« 
butes the coolness manifested by the Chinese Government to the 
vittues of the British, he observies^ that << When men are in the 
habit of taking advant^e of each other, when at home and amon£ 



NATAL tlTtHATUftf* 299 

themtelrefl, and which, I am sorry to say^ is but too much. the case* 
«uch dealers will not scruple to carry the like principles to foreiga 
inarkets ; so that) when I have seen an advertisement in a Pap^r an- 
nouncing an Aiiociaiion for the Proie^cm of Trade againtt SwlndUrs, 
it has often occurred to me, that there should be formed a similar 
Jstodatton for the FrotcSion of the Public dgatnst Swindlers in Traded* 
p* 2ia« voU ii. 

Wc now subjoin the extraft which we have already anticipated. 

On the due ofm JJeutatant who was broke on the mgk Teeiimony of 

Us Ctiptain* 
« I have said that you had almost persuaded me to be a convert oa 
the side of the Navy, as to superiority of moral conduA; but the 
following circumstance should rather incline me to recant} and wear 
ship about) to run foul of breakers* 

** The case I allude to is that of a Court*Marttal» held a few 
days past upon a Lieutenant of the Navyy for having given the lie to 
bis Captain friniatelj. This Court*Martial is said to have been 
instituted at the suit of the Lords of the Admiralty^ as prosecutors^ 
on complaint preferred by the Captam ; when the Lieutenant, upon 
the sole testimony of the former, was broke ; and this case being, it 
ghould seem, without a precedent, will stand upon record as one in all 
iiiture cases of a like nature. 

** In this case, it is alleged, by the friends of the defendant, thn 
liaving been treated with the most galling indignities, they could not 
be brooked by so spirited a young man as he was ; and that the case, an 
before observed, being moreover without precedent, the punishment^ 
at was «aid, exceeded the offence. - 

« Upon thb extraordinary affiur, and as a subjeft of farther dis- 
cussion for your little academy on board, of which, by the way* I 
request to be admitted an honorary member $ I shaU beg leave, with 
all deference, to ofier a few remarks. First, I shall even suppose that 
the commanding officer or captain^ had treated his Ueutenant in 
father a rigorous mamftr, by putting him upon unnecessary duties, 
and for the express purpose of degradation ; yet, was such mode of 
redress proper or compatible with the dignity of the 8ervice» which 
points at Courts- Martial for relief in cases of cruelty and oppiession ? 
Did not such condu6t likewise go dire^Uy to the infra6lion of ^ that 
article of war which states, * That any man in or belonging to the 
lleet, who shall use provoking speeches or gfestures, tending to pro. 
mote qaarrel, every such person, being convlfted thereof, shall, &Ct ?• 
If such is the prohibition among thdse of equal rank, how much 
snore is it to be understood of an insult offered by such means to a 
fuperior cAcei^ whHe in the execution of his o£ce ? For it appears 



300 MAVAL tlTIRATVlB, 

t 

I ' » - 

.that this covert off vrzA done in the great cabini when the comtnandm^ 
officer is consequently supposed upon guar J or duty ; and when sqch 
condud was likewise destrufUve to the issuing of all orders of com^ 
snands. 

^ Let us now suppose this scene to have taken place on board a 
ship of war having a separate command upon a foreign station ; that 
the commanding ofHcer had accepted the challenge couched under this 
abusive language ; that he had also fallen, and that the lieutenant, as 
second in commandi had succeeded to the same ship ; with what 
sentimentSf I ask^ would that ship's company look up to such an 
officer, thus stained witli the blood of his predecessor ? Oo what 
kind of order or subordination^ could be espe^ed from a man so 
principled ? Or, lastly, with what feelings could the Lords of the 
Admiralty confirm such a one in his post ? Nay* rather let us suppose 
that the Board of Admiralty, disgusted with such condud, would 
upon this occasion, by instituting a Court 'Martial, become his pro* 
secutors ; in which case, could there remain a doubt of the justice 
of that Court who should sentence such an officer to be broke ? 

*< But still it is contended by the fi^ends of the defendant, that 
being without proof or precedent, a Court* Martial is incompetent to 
take cognizance of the matter* With regard, however, to the ]atter> 
or the precedent, it must be obvious that the same might once have 
been said of every existing law, as well as the continued extension or 
creation of laws throughout the kingdom, which, for the good of the 
whole, the multiplied crimes, trespasses, or misdemeanors of indi- 
viduals render necessary, as in the present case under consideration ; 
with regatd to the former, or proof, it is to be recoll<ded, that 
though, indeed, the case may stand without a precedent, and though 
the testimony of bye-standers would have rendered it more plain, yet 
peihaps, from the frequency of the crime, and of the complaints 
thereof to the Admiralty, the latter, from a sense of its pernicious 
consequences to the Navy, might have thought it eipeditnt to en- 
deavour to check that mode of revenge so much in violation of the 
rights of Courts-Martial, by submitting it at once to their authority. 

** But, farther, there are not wanting instances of oifences hcing 
admitted upon single testimony on oath, especially where society may 
be deteriorated, as in the case of rape ; and even strong circumstances, 
as in the case of murder^ in which not the individual alone, but the 
society at large is supposed to suffer a deep stab, are accounted suffi. 
cient to convid. 

« It must likewise occur to thought, that a British Naval Conw 
mander must feel himself placed in a very awkward situation by such 
treatment before he can bring himself to prefer a complaint ^ tlM 



KATAX. LITEHITIJ&I. 30X 

Kni; yet being m a high state of respotisibflity tahis country^ ai^d 
DO shadow of want of coutage attaching to his person from choosing 
to decline a challenge so couched by an inferior ofHcer, he conse- 
quently stands without any alternative of redress from daily insults gf 
the kind. 

«' Upon the whole then, it is to be presumed^ that as the bare 
testimony of the captain would not be considered by the Court at 
sufficient ground of co»dem:iauon, witliout some collateral circum- 
stances in proof of the fa6l; sucl as the chara6ter in which he stood 
with his officers and men» together with seme traifs of general liism 
respeSt on the side of the* lieutenant ; I say, that if such circum* 
stances can be substantiated in favour of the commander, and whick 
leading questions must, I think, have been put, then it follows, that 
there is something more ikaxi prtsumftti e proof of guilt in this case; 
and that, as it is highly improbs^lc that any undue advantage would 
be taken by a superior to crush an ofRcer who might be obnoxious 
to him, by such arrangement^ in his fat^our, and as such mode of 
redress on the side of the lieutenant mu8t be admitted as unfair, il- 
liberal, and by no means aboveboard, there consequently seems no 
great grounds for murnmring or discontent upon such case going into 
precedent. 

'* Or, lastly, if the justice of a Court cmdd be arraigned for sucb 
sentence by saying that, had the case been tried by lieutenants, or 
thos^ of his own corps^ he would have got off more leniently, or by a 
reprimand ; then, such need only turn over to the numerous instances 
of Courts- Martial upon Captains and Admirals now upon record, hk 
order to convince them of their erroo by proof of the impartiality 
of such process. 1 ht^ very recent circumstance of a captain, who 
having while on shore at Portsmouth, abused his surgeon in a very 
gross manner, and who having been caned by said surgeon, and a 
court of inquiry, being tlie result ; the latter, all the circumstances 
duly considered, was acquitted by the Court, and a very severe re- 
primand to the captain implied in said acquittal. 

*' To these remarks I shall just add, that this unhappy afiair 
having, it is said^ originated in an order to the lieutenant to superin* 
tend the issuing of grog to the people ; and this duty being usually 
assigned to the mate^ the office was considered by the lieutenant as 
degrading, and resented in the manner above-mentioned ; but might 
it not have been possible that the mate at such time being absent 
from sickness or otherwise, and irregulatities in the distribution of it 
having occasioned such degree of murmuring among the ship's com* 
papy, as to have rendered it necessary for the good of the service 
sbat Uie lieutenant shouldj pro tempore, superintend that duty. If 



502 STATE fAft%$ RBLATITB TO tHB 

such was the caK, and the purity of motive farther ennccd \^ «. 
•uavity or gentleness in the delivery of the order ; then, it is only 
to be lamented that the contmanding officer had not waited for a more 
smnple proof of disaffccUon in his officer ; and which such a Yindi£live 
spirit must soon have afforded. 

** On the other hand, if the lieutenant was really aggrieved by the 
imposition of any humiliating duty, and this was farther confirmed hj 
the manner of enforcing it ; then, it is only to be equally regretted that 
he had not remonstrated in an amicable manner upon the hardship of 
the case ; and if, after such remonstrance^ a similar treatment ^ould be 
persisted in^ it is to be presumed that a commanding officer so adling 
would have committed himself; and that the lieutenant, instead of 
having preferred so unwarrantable, so disorganizing a revenge> might- 
have gone into Court for %a/ redress." Vol. i. p. 379* 



m 



STATE PAPERS 

BBLATITB TO THB DISPUTE BBTWBBH 

ENGLAND AND DENMARK. 



THE differences between these two powers relative to the affair 
of the first Danish frigate, taken by the English in the neigh* 
fcotirhood of Gibraltar, but which have since been a^gusted, in conse- 
tequence of a due explanation on the part of the Court of Denmark, 
ISC thus stated to have arisen, by Mr. Merry, the British Minister at 
Copenhagen, in the following letter addressed to Comit Bemstorff^ 

** Cepeniageitt JfrU 10, i8oo» 
^ The importance which the Danish Court must necetsarOy attach 
to the event which happened in the month of December last, in the 
aeighbourhood of Gibraltar, between some frigates of the King and 
the frigate of his Danish Majesty, named Haufersen, commanded by 
Captain Van Dockum, and the orders which, in consequence, have 
been sent me by my Court upon this point, impose upon me the 
painful duty of repeating to you» in writing, the complaint which I 
had the honour to make to you upon this point by word of mottth» 
in the audience which you had the goodness to grant me for this 
purpose three days ago. 

^ The fa6k8 of this affair are in themselves Tery sin^e, and I think 
that we are already agreed on them. The fa£b are, that the English 
frigates met the Danish frigate in open sea, having under her a con- 
^y of tesscls. The English .commaoderi thinking it proper !• 



WtTVrt BSTWtBH BKOLAKD AKO DBNUAIIIC. JCJ 

I 

«xerciie tbe right of TLiting this coriToy, sent on l)oard the banisk 
frigatei demanding from the captain his destination. The latter 
faaWng aniwered that then he was going to Gibtaltar> it was reph'ed, 
that since he was going to stop ia that bay, no visit should be paid to 
his convoy, but that if he did not mean to cast anchor there, the visit 
should be paid. Captain Van Dockum then infornVed the officer 
who went on board him, that he would make resistance to such a st^« 
Upon this answer^ the £nglish commander made the signal for ex« 
amining the convoy* A boat from the Emerald frigate was proceed- 
ing to execute this order : a Bre of moskctfy from the Danish frigatd 
fell upon them* and one of the English sailors was severely wounded. 
This fngrate also took possession ora boat belonging to the English 
frigate the Florai and did not release it till after the English commaRder 
bad given Captain Van Dockum to understand that if he did not im. 
mediately give it up he would tommence hostilities. Tlie Danish 
' frigate then went with her convoy into the Bay of 'Gibraltar. There 
some discussion took place on this afiair, between Lord Keith, 
Admiral and Commander in Chief of his Majesty's Naval Forces in 
the Mediterranean, and Captain Van Dockum, whom Lord Kcrtk 
could not but consider as personally responsible, and guilty of the 
injury done to one of the King's 'Bubje6ls» not thinking it possible 
that this captain could have bee« authorised by instfofUons from his 
Court. To clear up this point* Admiral Keith sent an officer to 
Captain Dockum to entreat him to sliow, and to explain tlie nature 
of his instrudlions ; but he said to the officer, that they were in sub* 
stance, that he should not permit his convoy to be visited, and that, in 
firing upon the boatSi he bad only discharged his orders* The same 
captain afterwards made a similar reply, upon his word of honour, in 
•peaking with Lord Keiths and in the pretence of the Governor of 
Gibraltar, but he promised at the same time to appear before the 
Judge, and to ^vt security for his appearanee, and upon this promise 
he was told th^t he might return on board. Having entered his 
boat, he sent a letter to the Admiral, in which he refused to give the 
necessary security. These discussions were terminated by a declnra* 
tion which Lord Keith made to Captain Van Dockum, that if lie 
failed to surrender himself, thus wishing to frustrate justice, the aSair 
should be represented to his Court. 

w Such, Sir, is the state of fafts which have given rise to the com- 
plaint that I am commissioned to urge to the Danish Government. 
I flatter myself that you will find it con eft and conformable to wliat 
is stated in the Correspondence between Lord Keith and C^tain Van 
Dockum, of whichj as you did me the honour to tell me, you are ia 
possession* 



304^ tTATB rAPEAS &BLAT1TI TO THS 

*' The nght cf visiting and examhitiig merchant ships in opes tetf 
of whatever Nation they may be, and whaUver may be their cargoe» 
and destination, is considered by the British Government as the in- 
contestible right of every Nation at war— a right founded on the 
T.SLW of Nations, and which haa been generally admitted and re- 
cognised. It follows, therefore, that the resistance of a Commander 
of a ship of war, offered by a Power at amity, mnst necessarily be 
considered as an a6i of hostility, and such as the King persaades him- 
aelf cannot be enjoined to the Conunanders of the ships of war of hit 
Danish Majesty in their instrudiions. His BriUnnic Majesty there- 
fcre entertains no doubt that, his Danidt Majesty will have fdt much 
displeasure at hearing of thia violent and insupportable condufl on 
the part of an officer in his service ; and the King is persuaded of the 
alacricy with which his Danish Majesty will afford him that formal 
Disavowal and that Apology which he has so good a right to ezped 
in such a case, together with a Reparation proportioned to the nature 
«f the offence committed* 

" I am specially commissioned, Sir, to demand of you this DIs- 
svDwal, Apobgyy and Heparation. The confidence which I mast 
feel in the known justice of his Danish Majesty, leads me to hope that 
this simple and amicable vepreientation will be sufficient to obtain it 
with that dispatch which to important a case requires ; but I must 
not at the same time conceal from you, that great and sincere ^s 19 
the desire of the King* my Master, to maintain and cultivate the most 
•tri£l harmony and friendship with the Court of Peumark^ nothing^ 
shall induce him to dq^rt from this just demand* 

(Signed) *^ Anth. MfiaaiT*** 

Reply of the Danish Minuter to the above Note oj Mr. MeRR v. 

<< BOTH custom and treaties have no doabt conferred on the 
peUigerent Powers the right of searching neutral vessels, not under 
convoy, by their ships of war, 5cc. but as this right is not a natural 
one, but merely conventional, its effe^ cannot be arbitrarily extended 
beyond, what is agreed to and con'ceded, without violence and .in- 
justice. None, however, of the maritime and independeni Powers of 
£urope, as £ur as the undersigned has observed^ have ever acknpw- 
ledged the right of permitting neutral ships to be searched, when 
escorted by one or several ships of war i and it is .evidcut they could 
not do so without exposing their flag to degradation, and without 
fQrfeiting a certain essential proportion of their own rights. 

** Far froin acquiescing in these pretensions, which at present are 
90 longer acknowledgedi moet of thoK Powers have been gf opio]o% 

4 



D18PUT|| B^TW^fll ((CpliAKD AirO DINMARK. JQJ 

iiace t^ quQBttoo h^ bceo 9timd» that they ought to hold out an 
opposite pf incxpl^ in all their cooYcntions respedUng objeds of thif 
nature, m confbrmltj with a number of treaties concluded betweei) 
the moet fesjpedable Courts of Europet which contain proofs of the 
propriety of fidhering to that prijiciple* 

*< The distindion ^Uemptcd to be established between shipi 
X9ith and without convoy« is moreover equally just and natural^* 
for the ^nper caaaot ht stti^osed to be in the same predicament as 
the latter. 

^ The sfanph mif^ uppi^ by the pnirateers or state ships of tho 
Belligerent Ppweri, frit}^ respe^ to neutral bottoms not acoompam'ed 
by CQovoyy is ibuadcd on the right of acknowledging their flag, and 
of exvnioing their papers* The on|y question is to ascertain their 
partiality and the regularity of their instxudioos. When the papery 
of these ships are fopnd in strift orderi no fiirther eumination can be 
legdly enforced i and i^ ^ consequently the authority of the Govern- 
ment! in whose name these documents have been drawn up and issuedf^ 
that procures for the BeUigerent Power the required security* 

'«"But a aeutnil Goverraneat, escottiag by the armed ships o£ 
Ac state the commcroial shifts of the sab^eA* thereby alone holds 
out to the BeUigerent Powers a more authentic and poaiiif e pledge 
^n that which is .furnished by the documents with vfhich these ships 
4re furnished. Nor can a Neutral Governmentf without incurring^ 
dishonour and dii^pracef adput^ in this respe&» the least doubt or sus« 
piciqn, ^hic}^ mu^t be as injurious to that Government as thef 
would be unjust on the part of those who should entertain or ttanu, 
£est iheip. 

<< AgaiUf if it were to be admitted as a pnnciplei that the convoy 
ffranted by a Sovereign does not secure ships of his subjefb fron% 
^eing visited by the state ships or privateers of foreigners, it would 
follow that the most fonaidable squadron should not have the nght 
of relieving from a search the ships entrusted to its prote£iion» if that 
search was exaded by the most pitiful privateer. 

*^ But it cannot be reasonably supposed that the En^ish Govern* 
menty which has uniformly, and on the most just groundsy shewn a 
^barked jeidousy for the honour of its flag, and who in the maritime 
vars, in which it has taken no party has nevertheless asserted with 
vigour the rights of neutrality, would ever consent, should such 
circumstances occur, to an humiliating vexation of that nature ; and 
the King of Denmark reposes too much confidence in the equity and 
justice of his Britannic Majesty, to harbour a suspicion that it is his 
intention to arrogate a right which, under similar circumstances^ he 
^irobld not grant to any other independent power* 



3o5 STATB PAPSKS FtlATtTS TO TSB 

t 

*' It seefns sufficient to apply to the ta£^ in question, the natural 
result of these observation Sy in order to make it evident that th^ 
Captain of the King'> frigate, by repulsing a violence which he had 
Do nght to exped, lias done no more than his duty ; that it was 
on the part of the English frigates, that a violation of the rightt of 
a neutral Sovereign, and of a power fnendly to his Britannic Majesty, 
das been committed. 

** The King has hesitated to signify any formal complaint on this 
hcadi as long as he regarded it as a misconception which might have 
been done away by amicable explanations between the respe^ive 
Commanders of the naval force which the two Grovemments kept up 
In the Mediterranean ; but seeing himself, much to his regret, dis- 
appointed in that hopCy he has only to insist oo the reparation that ft 
due to him, and which the justice and the friendship of his Britannic 
Majesty seem justly to be called upon, to seaire to him. 

(Signed) ♦« C. BfiRNSfoaFr-'* 



Iteply of Lard GamviLis to the Note of tht Coma Db W»d9l Jarm« 
BOUAO9 his Datuib Majiity't Mmtttrf twtft^n^ tbi C^jfiare ofth^ 
Freya Frijaig. 

« THE Undersigned, his Majesty^s Principal Secretary of Statt 
for Foreign Affairs, has had the honour to lay before the King the 
ijotc which he received yesterday from Count Wedel Jarlsbourg, 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary from the King oF 
Denmark. 

<* It was with the greatest surprise and concern that his Msgesty 
received the first accounts of the transa^on to which that note re- 
btes. Studiously desiring to maintain always with the Court of 
Copenhagen those relations of friendship and alliance which had so 
long subsisted between Great Britain and Denmark, his Magesty has^ 
during the whole course of his reign, given repeated proofs of these 
dispositions, which, he had flattered himself, were reciprocally en* 
tertained by the Government of his Danish Majesty. Notwith- 
standing the expressions made use of in Count Wedel*8 note, his Bfa- 
jesty cannot even yet persuade himself that it is really by the ordenr 
of the King of Denmark, that this state of harmony s(nd peace has 
l:»een thus suddenly disturbed, or that a Danish officer can have a6le<l 
conformably to his instruAions, in actually commencing hostilities 
against this country, by a lyanton and unprovoked attack upon a 
British ship of war, bearing his Majesty's flag, and navigating the 
British seas. 

*^ The impressions which such an event has natunlly excited ra hit 
Majesty's breast h^ve recciycd additiooal force from the perusal of 4 



l>I8i^0tC BITWSIN BNOLANO AND DINMAtK, jO/ 

l^ott, in which satis&AIon and reparation arc claimed as due to the 
aggressors from those who have sustained this insult and injury. 

** His Msgesty allowing for the dIfiBculty in which all Neutral 
Nations were pku:ed by the unprecedented condu^ and peculiar 
diara£ker of his enemyf has on many occasions, during the present 
war, fbrbori^e to assert his rights, and to claim from the Danish Go- 
vernment the impartial discharge of the duties of that neutrality which 
it professed a disposition to maintain. But the deliberate and open 
jaggression. which he has now sustained cannot be passed over in a 
similar manner* The lives of his brave seamen have been sacrificed, 
the honour of his flag has been insulted* almost in sight of his own 
coasts I and these proceedings are supported by caOing in question 
those indisputable rights founded on the clearest principles of the 
Law of Nations, from which his Majesty never can depart, and tho 
temperate exercise of which is indispensably necessary to the aiaintea- 
ance of the dearest interests of his empire. 

** The Undersigned has, in all his reports to his Majesty, rendered 
■full justice to the peraonal dispositions which he has uniformly found 
on the part of Count Wedel, to remove all grounds of misunderstand- 
ing between the two countries'. He cannot, therefore, now forbear 
to urge htm to represent this matter to his Court in its true light, to 
do away those false impressions, under which (if at' all) a conduct so 
injurious to his Majesty can have been authorised ; and to consult the 
interests of both countries, but especially those of Denmark, by bear- 
ing his testimony to the dispositions with whiclv his Majesty's Go* 
vernment is animated ; and by recommending to his Court, with all 
that earnestness which the importance of the occasion both justifies 
and requires, that these dispositions may, in so critical a conjundlure, 
find an adequate return ; and that a speedy and satisfadory answer 
may be given to the demand which his Majesty hasdireHed to be made 
in his name at Copenhagen, both of reparation for w^at is past, and 
of security against th^ repetition of these outrages. 

*< In order to give the greater we^ht to his Majesty^s representa* 
tions on this subje^ and to afford at the same time the means of such 
explanations re8pe£king it, as may avert the necessity of those ex« 
tremities to which his Majesty looks with the greatest relu6laace, his 
Majesty has charged Lord Wbitworth with a special mission to the 
Court of Denmark, and that Minister will immcdiattiy sail for his 
destination. 

** That Court cannot but see in this determination a new proof of 
the King^s desire to conciliate the preservation of peace with th^ 
maintenance of the fundamental rights and interests of his empire. 

(Signed) ** GJtENVii*LE.'A 

July 30, 1 8oo, 






.t 308 3 

JttGHTS 

or 

THE BRITISH FLAG* 

AS tills subjeft, wtich has lately agitated all ranks of society, mnrf 
be pvculiarly interesting to all concerned in the Navy, the fol- 
lowing observations have been co11e6led from the best authors and from 
authentic records, in order to point out the antiquity, the exercise^ 
and the recognition of the Rights of the British Flag by 
the Commercial States of Europe : — Rights, tvhich, after a full, 
clear, and impartial investigation, we are convinced it is the bounden 
duty of Britons to maintain and support inviolate : 

When Caesar intende^l the invasion of tliis island, he summoned the 
Gauls who dwelt in the sea-ports, to inform him of the shores, havens» 
&c. imagining their information might accelerate his conquest* The 
4ea faring men answered, *^ that all •commerce and traffic was intjer- 
did^ed before licence had, nor could any but merchants enter the British 
ports *•" This is a sufficient proof that the antient Britons possessed 
traffic and commerce, and also the power of proteAing it. The very 
first classical author who speaks of Britain, says, that when the Romans 
became masters of this island, they, in conjundtion with the Britons, 
built a fleet, and frequently ' sailed round it, making every nation 
tributary for several centuries, and commanding their obedience f • 

As the view of thia disquisition is candour and truth, it must be 
acknowledged that the immense power of the Romans at this period 
was fully sufficient to produce such an effi:d. That mighty empire, 
in the impenetrable scale of human and physical vicissitudes, becanre 
€ubje6l to fate. The continual supply of Britons to replenish the 
Roman legions, enfeebled the country, and made it an easy prey to 
their pretended friends the Saxons. The dreadful struggles between 
the natives and their treacherous visitors, and also the no less dreadful 
havock between ^thc Princes of the Heptarchy, when it was. estab* 
lished, permitted no importunity of displaying the British Flag, 
until the reign of the great Alfred, who was, mfatGtt the founder of 
the Anglo-Saxon Navy, and the first that repdsed and held in check, 
^ pirates and infidels of Denmark.aud Norway. 

Edgar, who was crowned King of all England^ in Wittenagemotey 
at Winchester, A.']>. 8co (one thousand years since), firmly estab-. 
lished Alfred's noble plans, and continually kept up a navy of four 

Inmdred stout ships, with which he asserted the entire and oncoo* 

-  - • 
«" Gall. ML 1%. 4* iol 7^ 1 Tacittti in Vit& Agric«li». 



ftldH^I 09 Tilt BR^^llii Hio. jd9 

trolled tovereigfaty of the British seiu, and vindicated hts Naval do* 
jnlhidbi wi/% iJl'itfipsi aiid mtddng thetii pay obeditnce to his flag. 
*rht vdry style ^hfeh lie tt^ulne^ and Which ia recorded^ is the belt 
md ffibit ebiivinclDig; )>itk)f *• 

The iue whieh Edgar mikde of hfs p6wer wab truly worthy of Urn- 
idf. it is ttcorded fay two df the best udrrators of the hibtdry of thdit 
titoe -fy <* tUak ftmnediately after Ei^eu hte cdmmanded hia ships froih 
every shdre to be bitu^t into t^o collefted bodies. He then sailed 
with th<! eiostem fleet io the Wesbm cbast, Wheire they V^tte dismissed ; 
^d fiom thentib he proceeded with ihe Western fle^t to scour ^he sea 
around the island to the northern dnd eastern plrts ; being exc^ding 
diligent to prevent the incUrsibn of j[)inites ^, courageous in Ae de- 
feacfc of his kingdom againftt foUeigner^, and redetVing the submiiisioii 
^( the diiieft df th^ i^ndk. Legancesteir (West Chester) Sx^s his 
}>rincipal northehi port> where he had a palace, and Where, in one or 
his voyages^ he received the oaths of six petty kings to serve him by- 
tea and by land." Those Kings rowed him in a stately barge, himself 
hdng at the stem steering the vessel, attended by a cloud of boat's 
and subjeAs, vrith minstrels and other music §m His constant maxim 
wa*, that no Prince could boast of being truly a Monarch of England* 
unless, like bitn, he Was Lord of the British Seas ; a maxim Which 
ought to be impretised upon the mind of every dound-heartcd British 
aubje^ and citizen, particularly at the present momentous period. 

Sere we dismiss the Anglo-Saxon dynasty with this short observa- 
tion, that during the reign of Ethelred, a very large fleet was main« 
lasned and supported; but through the sluggishness and personal 
bowardice of that King, «* who distressed rather than governed the 
kingdom thirty-seven years ||," the nation was continually harassed^ 
by sea and land with the incursiofas of the Danes. He saw his error 
too late ; and in the year 1008, he commanded ships to be built in all 
%hc seaports of England^ and the produce of the land to pay for them, 

* ** "Ego Edgarus Anglonun Basileus, omniumqne renim, rasalartnn Oceania 
qoae Britanniam circumjacent, cuDdarumque nationaiQ» qua infra earn ia- 
ciudontur, Imperator ct Dominut/'-^Prederred bj Sir John fioroogfaa, fol. sc. 

f William of Malmabury, and Florence of Woroetter ; but they have increased 
h«a fleet to the number of four thousand itout shipi^ 

\ Piray in the Attic tongoe, ngnifica cttft or art Aftatw arda it was Applied 
to fucb aa were sea-robbers. 

5 At this xra of our history it wa% held impossible to rank with Oevteneft 
Sa per ion was ignorant of music. 

fl WUliamof Maknsbury's charaifter of that King: «« Hia life w«f cruel a^ 

the beginnifigy miserable in the middle, and dishonourable in th« conclusion." 



S¥> 



t»6BTS OF THft BAITlIK f&AC* 



namelyt every hundred and ten hides of land oat ship *• The DaMi 
had at last settled themselves in the greatest and best part of Engiand, 
until Canute was ekded King of all £oglaii4» A* D. 1017^ y/AaA 
formed the third conquest of tl^ country. A most unnense powe^ 
bl fleet was kept up during the whole of this reigiii, with which he 
f roteded and maintained the empire of the Kas in its fulkat extent. 
He governed fay the aatient Anglo-Saxon laws^ which to this day are 
the foundatioa of the commoii law of England; and it mj blrlf 
be said jnf him» what a Roman author doea of one of his Emperors, 
** It would have been well for this kingdom if he had never itigBcd 
at all, or else had continued longer." 

That faithful coUedor of antient historyt Henry of Huntiog4<Mi» 
relates a stoiy, which has generally been considered as a mark of the 
King's vanity and weakness ; but upon a closer review, perhaps, it is 
ft proof to the dired contrary^ and that he meant it as the severest 
reproach which he could cast upon his venal flatterers and parasites. 
It is as &II0W8 ; in the very zenith cif his power> being at Southamp- 
ton, his nobles in attendance declared to him» that being Lord of the 
Sea, he could cwinumd. the *wa^u. This being frequently impressed 
upon his mind, in order to confound and put to shame those base 
court minions^ he caused a royal seat to be ]>laced upon the shore 
whilst the tide was coming in, and being surrounded by the vensl 
nobles, with a majestic air he said, *' That sea belongs to me* and the 
land whereon I sit is mine ; nor hath any one unfmnished resisted my 
commands +. I charge thee, therefore, come no further upon my^ 
hndy neither presume to wet the feet of thy Sovereign Lord/* But 
the laws of nature would be obeyed, and the sea came rolling on and 
da^hed over him* The King rose up and reminded his flatterers of 
their treachery, telling them that the sea would obey none but Htm 
wliose eternal kws created heaven and earth. After this he never 
irore hia crown %. 

We DOW pass over the following reigns, during which time very 
hrge sums were, raised upon the people to support the fleets, until we 
mcnvc at the death of Harold, and the accession of WlUiam of Nor* 
mandy, which form^ a new epoch in our lustory, in which .the doqu* 

* Thus the ihip-nioney origmsted ; a measure a« weak as it was wicked, 
a^id which hat been therefore very jiittly exploded by the whole lation. 

f That part o£ the^tory being Utcrally true, it shews the Immense power of 

naval iosoi^. 



% This was a more usnly a&4 ftoblt^ a^ion than the cocUe4hcIl itory of tha 
Tyi.^ Caligula. 



aiGRTS OF. TI?B B&ITISH Ttk^. pi, 

fnentt and proofs of th« sovereignty of the sea will be ooofinned 
beyond the possibility of contradi^on* 

 "Winiam die First 'became possessed of the Crown by acquisition^ 
and not by conquest • j A. D. io66. There is not a single record 
before Edward the First that gives him that denomination ; nor did 
be ever style himself a conqueror. His power^ when added to that oF 
■Duke of Normandy > was immense. Aiiudst the tumults of his reign. 
he maintained a very powerful navy, which he frequently commanded 
in person^ by means of which he defeated the confederacy of ij^ ^n^, 
four of whom were northemj who, with a navy of 1800 saQ, at- 
tempted to invade him. In ^iw turn he invaded Philip of France +t 
and committed great devastations, until he died at Rouen, in 1087 j:, 

William Rufus had no wars with France, nor can any thing na^ 
terial be adduced from his history* He lived despised, and died by 
the stroke of an arrow, un]amented« 

The reign of Henry the First is also barren as to our immediate 
pursuit ^ suffice it that, during his twenty years reign, no power what* 
ever pretended to dispute the empire of the British seas ; a very suffi- 
cient proof xjfHself, by what we have already seen, that no Monarch 
durst attempt it.* This King sweetened his government by relieving 
die people from all unjust taxes, and punishing the principal ag'ents. 
Being an EnjgH^hman boryi, he aQed as became one, by severely 

* Sir William Temple Justly ohtervea, « who wa< invidiously termed tho 
Conqueror, by the monks of those times." His subniiuoa to the KcQtiGli-« 
men's claims; his Charter of ConfirmatioD of St. Edward's laws; his abolUkin^ 
fitic tat of Danegelt ; his confinxiiog the power of Alderipeo, SharifTs, and 
Juries; aJl tend to prove the fsiA. Sir William jQhurchili, grandfather tatl^ 
great Duke of Marlborough, ia the history, called Divi Brjtannici, says, ** ho 
was an imaginary conqueror." See also Argomentnm Anti Kormanicum; 
Petit's and Atkins's Works, and Tyrrell's History of England^ 

f This was the very origin of all the subsequent wars between England and 
France, which arose from those Norman and oontinental connexions, tliat have 
continually deluged both countries with blood, 

I In hin we behold the sad vicissitudes of human affairs, the conteraplatiOB 
«f which ought to humble proud looks, and lofty eye-brows. This King, with 
ai) his greatness. Was deserted by the world, aUnost as soon as his immortal 
spirit had left it, even by two of his own sons ; it was three days before his son 
Henry could get the body removed, and nine days before he could prevail 
npon any person to convey jt to Caen to be interred^ where it was left in the 
street, the people having all ran away to quendi a fire. When brought to the 
grave, the funeral was fprbad till the ground was paid for. The grave was too 
small, the body bunt, and the people ran away a third time. Onelnindrvd 
years afterwards, some drunken soldiers, in search of treasure* d^ 4]p She re- 
ipains, but finding none, they scattered the ashes and the bones about the buria^ 
fTound! 



31^ lUO^TS Of Tin* HIX^H ritAGt 

Ireatmg evil Mioifiteniif mrtict^adr thir ^iA^<^ of Purhno, who. tAff 

ratsf/from a base conJkion hy bofgr mii^h t^cfm^ chief vfi\tiiXpc to luf 
bother WilUain. Hia cb»rur» i<i whiich Ke i^oUshed all had cu9t<»9Uy 
u a hold proof that hia k>ve tut the. people was nih^o^ *, 

St^pben't reigo wa? takeq i|f> with X9te9tii)|f l^rgits and fX{|itcati| 
wich the Empress Maadaadh«' son. 

Htuxj the Secood* wha Kucoceded to the Crowo, wp9 thp fim ^ 
the ?lant«)^eiietB. His domioipca of Sii^^la^dt ia France* and pf 
Irelaad (which he conqiici:^) were ao (syiaUy divided hx M^^^ tw<| 
seas, that tbc^ flaay be said to hare i^^n a9 ?^ {ptc^t riyg: betwe^th^tn^ 
He |n|0ptfnned a fcry h^^ge IWT* 1T»^1» which he ap^HBcd thov!^ 
teas. 8p powerful waa hit ikf»j% and so well ^j ^ ojatc J i that alt^ugj^ 
he had • great pfurt of the naval force under his own cov)lnapd^pon 
the fint expedition again<it J^g Lpnia of Ffanee f i yet when thi; 
Earls of BoBoiga and Flanders attempted to ^lahe a dfifQect iqkni 
England with 600 sail of stout ship^ there remained i^ufficieut fierce 
under the High Admiral L|icj» whp was macfe Regentj to baffle theif 
attempt and punish their temerity \ nor w^ t^e Frend^ expedition iii 
the lea^t deranged. Thus we behold of what immpise conaequence a 
atrong navy^ brave tars, ^nd fble commanders^ ia .t(^ the honour and 
aafety of our country, yea to its yery existence* 

The unnatural condoft of his two sons^ and his two bnytbenB^ 
Richard and John> proved a sad alloy to all Henry's human gneatotss* 
The beauii&d hut raxsar^Ue &osampn4 was oue of thji} «efct|^i;iw 
KingV auaocroua £»r cQa^ansoa^ by wbftfu h^ ha4 niarteitu bM 
children* 

After the Royal crusader^ Richard the FirstV catom frona th4l 
mad and ruinous expedition, he was re-cirowne((l> and to reveage an in« 
suit offered by Philip of Fr^ce against Norin^ndv in his absep.ce;|(, 
he passed into France with two hundri^d sail of ve^ 9tpH( ahip^y (ul| 
of horsemen and valiant arpher?, which so frij;hten$^d th^ FrcP9^rthat 
the commasder raised the siege of Vemuil ^ a^ awjiy. Hicjiini 
in return committed great depredatioos. After thia he fitted 01^ 
one huadred sail of ships for Norroaadyt tp chastise the rebeUions 
of his brother' John> and the Barons of M6U«M» and w» afaotwith 
an envenomed arrowi of which heiASed, in the tenth yearofiiia iieign» 

* Act. II. *' £t omnct mWi coaiartwdines^ ftifavsAegywai Aaf^iaiapte 
opprimebacur, in de Aufero, qaatmalat conmetadines ni passe faic poiHV*'-*^st« 

Varis p. 55. 

i Upon this occasion, Malcolm, King of Scotland, VEid z ^elch Kin^, with 
the £ar1s of Normandy, Aquitaifa, AnjoH, aad Gascony, accompaiiied him. 

X Here we perceive, that during the tax rcignt, all tRc foreign wars, ana 
many of the domestic broils, sprung from one and the tame caate, namely, the 
fatal aad dcstruAIvc continental conneclioak 



RIGHTS or THl BmrUH FLAG* JIJ' 

We now arriye at the reign of Kin^ J<^» who, notwithstandtDg 
«n the dreadful perturbations of his time, hath carefoUy recorded in 
the Ordinances of Hastings *, the doty of salutation, which anciently 
had been paid by foreign vesseb. Is wdl as natural bom subjeds, to 
the Royal British Flag* The record is preserved in the Tower^ and 
copies of it in Matthew Paris and Seidell's Mare Claascin* Itia 
exaAly of eight hundred years standing* and the foHowing is the 
trandadon : ** Itemt If a Lieutenant' In any vbyaget being ordbined 
by Common Council of the kingdom f , do enooonter upon the acm 
any ships or vesseby hulen or oidaden) Chat vnXL sot strike and Teil 
tlielr cobure (bonnets) at th< commandnient of the Lieutenant of tfit 
King, but will light against thetn of the fleet, that if they can be 
taken they shall be reputed as enemies^ and their sfajp% Tesaebt ^ani 
. goods taken and forfeited as the goods of enemies^ Akough the 
masters or possessors of the same shouki come afterwards and aOege 
that they are the ships, vessels, and goods of those persons who are 
friends to onr Lord the King { and that the common people in the 
tame ships be chastised by imprisonment of their bodies, at dia* 
cretionof the Kingi for their rebellion/' » 

' And here we must observey that if the greatest oaetion had been 
used at the hte unpleasant disagreement with tiie Comrt of Denmarkt 
to confirm Md sustain by a law the hoiiour of our Sovereign and the 
NaiioMd Flag, it.seemsimpossiUe that it covld be more dceeiy or 
efeftmdly applied, than this law of eight kondred years standing (and 
dien only e recognitioii «f still older welUmown dghu nod laws) ia 
to the lace crisis of affiurs, and the immensdy important question 
i^^tated at that ewfol eonjmiAiirer 

• The nnfartmieseifing John was now in- fidl possession of the British 
Seas, confirmed by precedents for a k>ng series of years, which he 
folly maintained. The greater part of this r